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TB/T 2140.2-2018: PDF in English (TBT 2140.2-2018)
TB/T 2140.2-2018
NATIONAL RAILWAY INDUSTRY STANDARD
OF THE PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF CHINA
ICS 45.040
S 05
Replacing TB/T 2328.1~2328.19-2008
Railway ballast - Part 2: Test methods
ISSUED ON: AUGUST 27, 2018
IMPLEMENTED ON: MARCH 01, 2019
Issued by: National Railway Administration
Table of Contents
Foreword ... 3 
1 Scope ... 5 
2 Terms and definitions ... 5 
3 Test methods ... 7 
Annex A (normative) Inspection sieve mesh ... 61 
Annex B (normative) Calibration method of pycnometer ... 64 
Annex C (normative) Use requirements for glass filter ... 65 
Railway ballast - Part 2: Test methods
1 Scope
This Standard specifies test methods and calculations for Los Angeles abrasion
ratio, standard collect stuff concussion temper, stones wear resistant rigidity
coefficient, standard collect stuff crunch rate, ballast collect stuff crunch rate,
filter coefficient, rock powder test model compressive strength, rock powder
fluid limit, rock powder mold limit, combination of rock powder fluid limit and
mold limit, vitriol natrium liquor marinate loss lead, stones density, stones
specific gravity, ballast grading, acicular index and laminated index, air-slake
grain and other incidental stones, the dust content of the grain below 0.1mm,
surface cleanness of railway ballast.
This Part is applicable to railway ballast test. The tests of Los Angeles abrasion
ratio, rock powder fluid limit, rock powder mold limit, vitriol natrium liquor
marinate loss lead, ballast grading parameter for grading of gravel on the
bottom of ballast and bed surface may refer to corresponding methods in this
Standard.
2 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
2.1 Los Angeles abrasion ratio
The parameter that uses the abrasion index of Los Angeles wear machine to
indicate ballast (bottom ballast, grading gravel) resistance to impact, abrasion
and edge shearing and other joint action capacity.
2.2 standard collect stuff concussion temper
The parameter that uses the impact index of standard collect stuff concussion
testing machine to indicate the ability of ballast material to resist instantaneous
crash or impact.
2.3 stones wear resistant rigidity coefficient
The parameter that uses the loss of stone after abrasion on the disc abrasion
rigidity testing machine for 1000r to indicate the resistance of the stone to
abrasion.
2.4 standard collect stuff crunch rate
The parameter that uses the mass percentage lost to reflect the crushing
resistance of the stone after using specified test model and load to crush the
gravels of standard particle size.
2.5 ballast collect stuff crunch rate
The parameter of grading change of ballast aggregate specimen according to
the specified test model and load after crushing.
2.6 filter coefficient
The unit flow under unit hydraulic gradient in isotropic media to indicate the
ease of fluid passing through the pore skeleton.
NOTE: Filter coefficient is also called hydraulic conductivity coefficient.
2.7 rock powder test model compressive strength
Use rock powder to prepare the specified test piece. Its uniaxial compressive
strength after drying is called rock powder test model compressive strength.
2.8 rock powder fluid limit
The limit water content of water rock powder from flowing state to molding state
(or from molding state to flowing state).
2.9 rock powder mold limit
The limit water content of water rock powder transited from molding state to
semi-solid state.
2.10 vitriol natrium liquor marinate loss lead
The parameter that uses sodium sulphate crystal expansion in micro-cracking
and open pores of ballast to measure the resistance of ballast to weathering
and frost cracking.
2.11 stones density
The mass per unit volume of stones (excluding the volume of open and closed
pores).
2.12 stones specific gravity
The mass per unit volume of the stones in the dry state including the open and
closed pores.
2.13 ballast grading
The percentage of the mass of ballast particles of various sizes in the total mass.
The standard ballast grading specifies that the mass of ballast particles of
various sizes accounts for a certain percentage of the total mass.
2.14 acicular index
The mass percentage of particles with a length (maximum size) greater than
1.8 times the average particle size.
2.15 laminated index
The mass percentage of particles with a thickness (minimum size) less than 0.6
times the average particle size.
2.16 airslake grain
The particle that some or all of the minerals on the crushed surface of the ballast
are tarnished and the color is changed.
2.17 other incidental stones
The crushed stones that are inconsistent with the rock material of the specimen
submitted for inspection.
2.18 the dust content of the grain below 0.1mm
The percentage of the mass of rock powder in the ballast with a particle size
below 0.1mm.
2.19 surface cleanness of railway ballast
The mass percentage of dust, mud and other debris on the surface of the
particles of the railway ballast product.
3 Test methods
3.1 Test of Los Angeles abrasion ratio
3.1.1 Equipment and machinery
3.1.1.1 The inner diameter of Los Angeles abrasion machine cylinder is 710mm,
the inner length is 510mm, the manufacturing error is ±1mm. The cylinder shall
not be deformed. The structure type and design dimensions are shown in Figure
1. The cylinder rotating speed is 31r/min ~ 33r/min.
3.4.2.2 Sieving
From the naturally wind dried or baked dried specimens, sieve 3 standard
specimens of which the particle size is 10mm~16mm. Each specimen mass Gc1
is 3000g ± 5g. The percentage of acicular, laminated particles of specimen shall
not exceed 5% respectively.
3.4.3 Procedures
3.4.3.1 Filling specimen into test model
The filling of specimen in test model is conducted on a 10cm thick cast iron
(steel plate) countertop. The steps are as follows:
a) Insert a round bard with a diameter of 15mm into the round groove at the
bottom of the test model to make the chassis 10mm above the countertop;
b) Fill the specimen twice in layers. After each layer of filling, shake 30 times
left and right with the round bar as the center;
c) After the second layer shaking, level the specimen surface;
d) Install the indenter.
3.4.3.2 Loading test
At a loading rate of 0.6kN/s ~ 0.8kN/s, load the specimen at a constant speed
to 200kN. Maintain 2min. Unload, Remove the indenter. Pout the specimen out.
3.4.3.3 Sieving
Use a sieve of which the hole side length is 2.5mm to sieve specimens. Weigh
the sieved mass Gc2. Take the integer part.
According to the same procedures, take another two specimens for the test.
3.4.4 Calculation
3.4.4.1 Calculate the standard collect stuff crunch rate of each ballast according
to formula (8).
where,
CA - Standard collect stuff crunch rate of ballast, in percentage (%);
size grade.
3.6 Test methods for filter coefficient
3.6.1 Equipment and machinery
3.6.1.1 South 55 type variable head permeameter.
3.6.1.2 Constant water head glass.
3.6.1.3 Water supply bottle and catheter.
3.6.1.4 Balance: the maximum weighing is not less than 1000g, the division
value / resolution is 0.01g.
3.6.1.5 Blast drying oven: the maximum control temperature of the equipment
is not less than 200°C, with a temperature adjustment device.
3.6.1.6 Cement mortar mixer.
3.6.1.7 Milling machine of which the output particle size is 120 mesh ~ 200
mesh (0.124mm ~ 0.074mm) and standard vibrating sieving machine.
3.6.1.8 Square hole sieve: the hole side length is 0.1mm.
3.6.1.9 Small mouth bottle, open iron ring, stopwatch, small spatula,
thermometer, water stopper.
3.6.1.10 Hydrochloric acid (concentration is 36.0%~38.0%), petrolatum and
filter paper, pure water.
3.6.1.11 Platform scale: the maximum weighing is not less than 10kg, the
accuracy is 5g.
3.6.2 Preparation of diluted hydrochloric acid solution
Add water into 20mLof hydrochloric acid with a concentration of 36.0%~38.0%
to dilute to 1000mL for spare use.
3.6.3 Specimen
3.6.3.1 Clean 2kg of stone material of which the particle size is 20mm~10mm.
Dry at 105°C~110°C for 4h. Cool to room temperature.
3.6.3.2 Use the milling machine to crush 300g each time. The crushing time is
about 10s until 2kg of stone material is completely crushed and prepared into
powders.
3.6.3.3 Use the sieve of which the hole side length is 0.1mm and the standard
3.9 Test methods for rock powder mold limit
3.9.1 Equipment and machinery
3.9.1.1 One piece of frosted glass plate.
3.9.1.2 An iron wire with a diameter of 3mm, a length of about 5cm or a caliper.
3.9.1.3 Balance: the weighing is not less than 200g, the division value /
resolution is 0.01g.
3.9.1.4 Blast drying oven: the maximum control temperature of the equipment
is not less than 200°C, with a temperature adjustment device.
3.9.1.5 Square hole sieve: the hole side length is 0.5mm.
3.9.1.6 Hair dryer, dryer, weighing box, earth knife, blender, scraper, petrolatum,
pure water.
3.9.2 Specimen
From the rock powder after the Los Angeles abrasion ratio test, sieve 100g of
rock powder of which the particle size is less than 0.5mm, Place into the blender.
Add pure water to mix and make uniform thick paste. Cover to seal. Place a
day and night for use. It can also take 30g from the liquid limit test specimen for
use.
3.9.3 Procedures
3.9.3.1 Knead the prepared specimen in the hand until it is not sticky. Pinch flat.
When there are cracks, it means that the water content is close to the mold limit.
If the water content is large, it can use the hair dryer to dry it slightly. If the water
content is small, it can add pure water to regulate.
3.2.9.2 Take 8g~10g of specimen close to the mold limit. First, use hands to
make it an oval. Then use one hand to gently roll it on the frosted glass plate.
While rolling, use the palm to apply the pressure uniformly. It shall not roll
without pressure. The length of rock powder vermicelli shall not exceed the
width of the palm. There shall be no hollow phenomenon.
3.9.3.3 If the rock powder vermicelli is rolled into a diameter of 3mm (refer to
the iron wire with a diameter of 3mm or use the caliper to measure), the
specimen shall have cracks and start to break and it means that the water
content of this specimen has reached the mold limit. If the specimen does not
3.10.1.5 Dryer, weighing box, earth knife, blender, vaseline, pure water, double
logarithmic coordinate paper.
3.10.2 Specimen
3.10.2.1 From the rock powder after the Los Angeles abrasion ratio test, sieve
about 200g of rock powder of which the particle size is less than 0.5mm. Divide
into 3 portions. Place in the blender.
3.10.2.2 Respectively according to the sinking depths of 3mm~5mm,
9mm~11mm and 16mm~18mm (or respectively according to closeness to liquid
limit, mold limit and the middle state of both), add different amount of pure water
to mix three portions of rock powder paste with different consistency. Then use
glass or wet towel to cover or put into a sealed humidifier. Place still for 24h.
3.10.3 Procedures
3.10.3.1 Use the earth knife to completed stir and mix the prepared rock powder
paste. Fill into the specimen cup densely. Try to make the air in the rock powder
escape. Use the earth knife to level the rock powder higher than the specimen
cup. Place the specimen cup on the lift of the instrument.
3.10.3.2 Apply a thin layer of vaseline on the cone of the cone instrument. Turn
on power to make the electromagnet absorb the cone instrument (for the
Vernier type or dial indicator type, lift the taper rod and use knob to fix).
3.10.3.3 Adjust screen alignment. Zero the initial reading (zero the reading of
the Vernier or dial indicator). Adjust the lift to make the cone tip of the cone
instrument just touches the soil surface. When the indicator lights up, the cone
instrument shall sink into the specimen due to its weight effect (for the Vernier
type or dial indicator type, use a hand to twist the knob and let go of taper rod).
About 5s later, immediately measure and read the sinking depth of the cone.
Take out the specimen cup. Dig out the part with petroleum jelly. Take 2
specimens more than 10g into the weighing box. Respectively measure the
mass G111, G112.
3.10.3.4 Dry the specimen that contains water in the blast drying oven at
105°C~110°C for not less than 4h. Respectively weigh the dried specimen mass
G’111, G’112.
3.10.3.5 Calculate the water content of specimen according to formula (16) and
formula (17).
3 G131 G’131 G132 G’132
3.11 Test methods for vitriol natrium liquor marinate loss lead
3.11.1 Equipment and machinery
3.11.1.1 Container: glass jar or enamel bucket.
3.11.1.2 Metal mesh basket: stainless-steel wire.
3.11.1.3 Stainless-steel clip, density meter, enamel plate.
3.11.1.4 Temperature adjustment equipment and thermometer.
3.11.1.5 Blast drying oven: the maximum control temperature of the equipment
is not less than 200°C, with temperature adjustment device.
3.11.1.6 Square hole sieve: the sieve hole side lengths are respectively 16mm,
20mm, 25mm and 40mm.
3.11.1.7 Platform scale or balance: the maximum weighing is not less than 2kg,
the division value is 1g. Electronic balance: the maximum weighing is not less
than 2kg, the resolution is 1g.
3.11.1.8 Anhydrous sodium sulfate or 10 water sodium sulfate, pure water.
3.11.1.9 Acicular, laminated gauges.
3.11.1.10 Incubator.
3.11.2 Specimen
3.11.2.1 Use the specimens that are sieved by 20mm, 25mm and 40mm sieves.
Eliminate the acicular and crack particles. Clean and prepare 500g of specimen
of which the particle size is 20mm~25mm and 1000g of specimen of which the
particle size is 25mm~40mm. Dry at 105°C~110°C for not less than 4h. Cool to
room temperature for spare use.
3.11.2.2 Uniformly mix the specimens of two groups of particle sizes. Weigh the
mass Ga0. Record the total number of specimen particles.
3.11.2.3 Prepare sodium sulfate solution. In the 30°C~50°C pure water,
according to the ratio of 300g~500g per liter of pure water anhydrous sodium
sulfate (Na2SO4) or 700g~1000g of 10 sodium sulfate (Na2SO4 • 10H2O), pour
solid sodium sulfate. Use a glass rod to stir to make them fully dissolved and
saturated, and excess crystalline sodium sulfate is precipitated. The volume of
the solution shall not be less than 5 times the volume of the specimen. The
is not less than 200°C, with temperature adjustment device.
3.13.1.3 Dryer, electric furnace, wax cup, measuring cup, paraffin.
3.13.2 Specimen
Select 3 blasts of which the particle size is about 6cm. Clean them. Dry at
105°C~110°C for 7h. Cool in the dryer and cool to room temperature for spare
use.
3.13.3 Procedures
3.13.3.1 Respectively weigh the mass of each ballast, Ge.
3.13.3.2 Use fine nylon yarns to respectively bind each test piece. Immerse it
in molten paraffin for a while. Immediately lift up to apply a layer of paraffin film
to the surface of test piece. If the wax film has bubbles, it can use a needle to
burst the bubbles and squeeze out the air. Immerse the wax again until the final
wax film is impervious.
3.13.3.3 Respectively weigh the mass of the wax-coated ballast particle, Ge1.
3.13.3.4 Respectively weigh the mass of the wax-coated test piece in water,
Ge2. Measure and record the water temperature t°C. The test methods are as
follows:
Hang the wax-coated test piece on the balance hook. The test piece is fully
immersed in water. Note that the test piece does not touch the edge of the
container, nor sink to the bottom.
3.13.4 Calculation
3.13.4.1 Calculate the stones specific gravity according to formula (20).
where,
Re - Stones specific gravity, in grams per cubic centimeter (g/cm3);
Ge - Mass of specimen when drying, in grams (g);
Ge1 - Mass of wax-coated test piece in air, in grams (g);
Ge2 - Mass of wax-coated test piece in water, in grams (g);
shall be selected by the ballast user. Every 25m from the ballast shoulder to the
bottom of the slope, select a sub-specimen uniformly (5 in total). Each sub-
specimen is about 70kg.
3.16.2.2 Evenly mix the sub-specimens. Use the method of quartering to take
one of them, about 100kg, for spare use.
3.16.3 Procedures
3.16.3.1 Rinse the specimen clean. Dry and weigh its mass Gf1. The mass unit
is kilogram (kg), to the nearest of 0.05kg.
3.16.3.2 Choose a clean concrete floor. Spread the specimens. Compare with
the specimen submitted for inspection (testing report). Pick the airslake grain
and other incidental stones in specimens one by one. Weigh the mass Gf2. The
mass unit is kilogram (kg), to the nearest of 0.05kg.
3.16.4 Calculation
Calculate the contents of airslake grain and other incidental stones in ballast
according to formula (58).
where,
Fp - Contents of airslake grain and other incidental stones, in percentage (%),
to the nearest of 0.1%;
Gf1 - Total mass of specimen, in grams (g);
Gf2 - Mass of airslake grain and other incidental stones in specimen, in grams
(g).
3.17 Test methods for dust content of the grain below 0.1mm
3.17.1 Equipment and machinery
3.17.1.1 Platform scale: the weighing is not less than 100kg, the division value
is 50g. Balance: the weighing is not less than 6kg, the division value / resolution
is 2g.
3.17.1.2 Square hole sieve: the hole side lengths are respectively 0.1mm,
2.5mm, 5mm and 10mm, for each.
3.17.1.3 Drying: use blast drying oven indoor, the maximum control temperature
of the equipment is not less than 200°C, with temperature adjustment device; it
can use fast drying method outdoor, such as high-purity alcohol.
3.17.1.4 Container, wooden or iron stick, shovel.
3.17.2 Specimen
3.17.2.1 Sampling shall be conducted in the quarry crushing and sieving line or
stockyard.
When sampling at the discharge port of the ballast yard or the finished product
conveyor belt, take four sub-specimens at intervals. Each sub-specimen is
about 25kg. When sampling in quarry stockpiles, remove the surface ballast
first. Use the shovel to get the ballast inside. Sampling shall not lose powder.
According to the east, west, south and north directions of the pile, respectively
take 25kg.
3.17.2.2 The specimen container shall be leak-proof and wear-resistant. The
sample shall not be inverted repeatedly to avoid losing rock powders.
3.17.3 Procedures
3.17.3.1 Dry the specimen indoor at 105°C~110°C for not less than 4h. Cool to
room temperature. Weigh its mass Gm1. Use high-purity alcohol to conduct fast
drying on site. After cooling, weigh its mass Gm2. The mass unit is kg, to the
nearest of 0.05kg.
3.17.3.2 Immerse, clean the specimens in four lots (the mass of each lot is
about 25kg). Use the 0.1mm sieve to filter the sewage. Dry, weigh the
specimens with coarse particles over 0.1mm. The mass unit is kilogram (kg), to
the nearest of 0.05kg. The steps are as follows:
a) Pour the specimen into the container. Add sufficient clean water to make
it immersed. Place still for at least 0.5h;
b) Stir the ballast specimen to make the rock powder below 0.1mm away
from the ballast;
c) Pick out the clean ballast particles;
d) Stack the 10mm, 5mm, 2.5mm and 0.1mm inspection sieves into a sieving
stack according to the order of decreasing aperture from top to bottom;
e) Pour the sewage containing small debris and rock powder into the sieving
stack and filter;
f) Rinse the container repeatedly until there is no residual rock powder in the
container. Pour the rinsing water into the sieving stack and filter;
leakage of powder.
3.18.3 Procedures
3.18.3.1 Specimen drying
When the microwave oven dries the specimen, the temperature control switch
is adjusted to medium heat. It must go through 2 cycles (1 cycle: drying 5min -
cooling 30min - drying 5min - cooling 30min) to complete the drying work. When
drying the specimen in the drying oven, the temperature is adjusted to
105°C~110°C. The continuous drying shall not be less than 4h.
Weigh the mass of dried specimen Mqc (g), to the nearest of 0.01g.
3.18.3.2 Filter drying
When the microwave oven dries the glass filter, the temperature control switch
is adjusted to medium heat. After drying for 5min, cooling for 30min, drying for
5min, and cooling for 30min, weigh the mass of dried filter, Gqc1, to the nearest
of 0.01g.
When the drying oven dries the glass filter, dry at 105°C~110°C for 60min.
Weigh the mass of dried filter, Gqc1, to the nearest of 0.01g.
3.18.3.3 Specimen soaking and rinsing
A ballast specimen is poured gently (note that the powder cannot be lost) into
the stainless-steel (or plexiglass) container with a spout. Inject 6L of pure water.
Soak quietly for 1h.
Then, use the brush to wash the surface of each ballast particle in water and
pick it out, until all specimens are cleaned.
3.18.3.4 Precipitation and filtration of specimen washing water
The procedures for precipitation and filtration of specimen washing water are
as follows:
a) Place the specimen washing water quietly to precipitate for 3h;
b) Gently pour about 400mL of purified water in the upper part into the 500mL
P30 (the pore size of filter plate is 16µm~30µm) glass filter. The remaining
specimen washing water in the stainless-steel container shall continue
being placing to precipitate;
c) Repeat the above filtering process until about 300mL of the remaining
precipitation concentrate in the stainless-steel container;
d) Stir the concentrate and pour into the glass filter to filter;
......

BASIC DATA
Standard ID TB/T 2140.2-2018 (TB/T2140.2-2018)
Description (Translated English) Railway ballast - Part 2: Test methods
Sector / Industry Railway & Train Industry Standard (Recommended)
Classification of Chinese Standard S05
Word Count Estimation 43,434