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GB/T 39424.1-2020: PDF in English (GBT 39424.1-2020)
GB/T 39424.1-2020
GB
NATIONAL STANDARD OF THE
PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF CHINA
ICS 43.020
T 04
Road vehicles - Traffic accident analysis -
Part 1: Vocabulary
(ISO 12353-1:2020, MOD)
ISSUED ON: NOVEMBER 19, 2020
IMPLEMENTED ON: JUNE 01, 2021
Issued by: State Administration for Market Regulation;
Standardization Administration of the PRC.
Table of Contents
Foreword ... 3
1 Scope ... 5
2 Classification ... 5
3 Accident-descriptive elements and data collection ... 8
4 Crash analysis and reconstruction ... 25
5 Data analysis and interpretation ... 34
Index ... 36
Foreword
GB/T 39424 "Road vehicles - Traffic accident analysis" is divided into 3 parts:
- Part 1: Vocabulary;
- Part 2: Guidelines for the use of impact severity measures;
- Part 3: Guidelines for the interpretation of recorded crash pulse data to
determine impact severity.
This Part is Part 1 of GB/T 39424.
This Part is drafted in accordance with the rules given in GB/T 1.1-2009.
This Part uses the redraft law to modify and adopt ISO 12353-1:2020 "Road
vehicles - Traffic accident analysis - Part 1: Vocabulary".
Compared with ISO 12353-1:2020, this Part has structural adjustments. The
specific adjustments are as follows:
- ISO 12353-1:2020 Clause 2, Annex A and Bibliography are not adopted in
this Part;
- ISO 12353-1:2020 Clauses 3, 4, 5, and 6 have been adjusted to Clauses
2, 3, 4, and 5 of this Part, respectively;
- ADD the Chinese pinyin index.
The technical differences between this Part and ISO 12353-1:2020 and their
reasons are as follows:
- ADD terms and definitions such as 2.2 "accident participant", 2.22 "impact
severity", 3.1.6 "retrospective investigation", 3.2.9 "center line of road", to
adapt to the actual application in China;
- Delete the terms and definitions in ISO 12353-1:2020 such as 3.7 "towaway
accident", 3.12.1 "non-fatal vehicle", 3.15 "towaway vehicle", 3.16 "non-
towaway vehicle", 4.2.3 "roadside", 4.3 "road vehicle" and 4.4.8 "treatment".
These terms and definitions do not conform to China's road traffic system;
- Delete Figure 1, Figure 2, Annex A and Bibliography of ISO 12353-1:2020.
These contents do not meet the practical application of road traffic
accidents in China.
This Part was proposed by Ministry of Industry and Information Technology of
Road vehicles - Traffic accident analysis -
Part 1: Vocabulary
1 Scope
This Part of GB/T 39424 defines the terms and definitions relevant to the
classification of road vehicle traffic accident analysis, accident-descriptive
elements and data collection, crash analysis and reconstruction, data analysis
and interpretation.
This Part is applicable to road vehicle traffic accident investigation, analysis and
data application.
2 Classification
2.1
Road vehicle accident
Unintended event that involves at least one road vehicle in motion and leads to
personal injury or property damage, or both.
2.2
Accident participant
A single road user or unit involved in a road vehicle accident.
Note: A single vehicle, its occupants, and a single pedestrian are all counted as an accident
participant. Road environmental infrastructure or falling objects, animals, etc. are not
counted as accident participants.
2.3
First harmful event
Event producing the first occurrence of personal injury or vehicle damage in a
road vehicle accident.
2.4
Most harmful event
Event producing the most serious occurrence of personal injury or vehicle
damage in a road vehicle accident.
Note: The most harmful event is evaluated for each accident-involved vehicle. If two or
more events produce equivalent injury or crush, then select the event that caused
the most serious damage for the first time as the most harmful event.
2.5
Accident classification
Classification of road vehicle accidents according to the following
characteristics (including but not limited to):
- Classification by vehicle type,
- Classification by personal injury severity,
- Classification by vehicle damage severity,
- Classification by number of vehicles involved,
- Classification by first harmful event,
- Classification by location of the accident,
- Classification by the way the vehicles collide.
2.6
On-road accident
Road vehicle accident in which the first harmful event occurs on the road.
2.7
Off-road accident
Road vehicle accident in which the first harmful event occurs off the road.
2.8
Injury accident
Road vehicle accident in which at least one person is physically traumatized
but no one dies.
2.9
Fatal accident
Road vehicle accident in which at least one person sustains a fatal injury.
2.10
Property damage accident
Road vehicle accident in which the only outcome is damage to vehicles, or other
property, with no injury or death.
2.11
Damaged vehicle
Vehicle involved in an accident sustaining damage.
2.12
Undamaged vehicle
Vehicle involved in an accident not sustaining damage.
2.13
Single-vehicle accident
Road vehicle accident in which only one vehicle is involved.
2.14
Multivehicle accident
Road vehicle accident in which at least two vehicles are involved.
2.15
Accident-involved vehicle
Vehicle involved in a road vehicle accident.
2.16
Non-injury vehicle
Accident-involved vehicle in (or on) which no vehicle occupant sustains an injury.
2.17
Injury vehicle
Accident-involved vehicle in (or on) which at least one vehicle occupant
sustains an injury but no one dies.
2.18
Fatal vehicle
Accident-involved vehicle in (or on) which at least one vehicle occupant
sustains a fatal injury.
2.19
Sampling criteria
Principle of sampling for an accident investigation referring to different aspects.
Note: An aspect of an accident investigation could be a road user, vehicle, injury or fatality,
traffic environment or property damage, etc.
2.20
Sampling unit
Data collection based on sampling criteria.
Example: Injured drivers.
2.21
Data source
Origin of data in terms of time and type of investigation, investigation institution
or organization, and type of record, etc.
2.22
Impact severity
Changes in physical parameters caused by a vehicle being hit.
3 Accident-descriptive elements and data collection
3.1
Accident investigation
Acquisition and documentation of information regarding a road vehicle accident.
Note: It includes on-scene investigation and retrospective investigation.
3.1.1
First-level investigation
Accident investigation of a general survey of the factors involved in a traffic
accident.
3.1.2
In-depth investigation
Comprehensive and in-depth accident investigation of a traffic accident from
the aspects of people, vehicles, roads, and the environment.
3.1.3
Multidisciplinary investigation
In-depth investigation conducted by a team of investigators with specialized
knowledge encompassing several professional disciplines.
3.1.4
Self-reported investigation
Accident investigation based on information and data provided by persons
involved in a road vehicle accident.
3.1.5
On-scene investigation
Accident investigation conducted at the accident scene before evidence has
been removed.
3.1.6
Retrospective investigation
Accident investigation that fails to be conducted at the accident scene.
3.2
Accident scene
3.2.4
Traffic island
Island-like facility set between lanes and above the road surface to control the
direction of the vehicle and ensure the safety of pedestrians.
Note: It includes diversion island, center island, safety island, etc.
3.2.5
Bicycle way
Roads mainly for bicycles, which can form their own systems in cities.
3.2.6
Sidewalk
Part of the road that is separated by curbs or guardrails and other similar
facilities for pedestrians.
3.2.7
Curb
Boundary stone located at the edge of the road.
3.2.8
Crosswalk
Walking range, marked on the carriageway using marking lines such as a zebra
crossing or other methods, which allows pedestrians to cross the carriageway.
3.2.9
Center line of road
Center line of road breadth.
Note: The center line of planned road section is called the planning center line. The center
line between the red lines on both sides of the road is called the red-line center line.
3.2.10
Road alignment
Three-dimensional shape of the center line of road.
Traffic control
Systematic or concentrative control of the traffic flow by traffic signals, traffic-
control signs (including markings on the road), other traffic-control facilities
(traffic-information warning device), etc.
3.2.18
Speed limit
Highest or lowest vehicle speed allowed on the road.
3.2.19
Roadside object
Facilities, appendages, natural or man-made objects, etc. that exist on the edge
of the road.
Note: A roadside object can be fixed or non-fixed, deformable or non-deformable.
3.2.20
Rest position
Position where an accident participant comes to a final stop after the collision
of the road vehicle accident.
3.2.21
Trace mark
Mark that characterizes the relative contact of vehicles at the scene of a road
vehicle accident.
Example: Scrape mark, scratch mark, gouge mark.
3.2.21.1
Transfer mark
Trace mark caused by relative contact between vehicle components and other
surfaces.
3.2.21.2
Critical speed mark
Trace mark caused by the non-parallel trajectory of the driven wheel and the
vehicle, which can be divided into A-pillar, B-pillar and C-pillar, etc. from the
windscreen to the rear of the vehicle.
3.2.23
Rock panel
Side beams connecting the front and rear pillars at the lower part of both sides
of the vehicle body.
3.2.24
Roof side rail
Longitudinal reinforcement members on both sides of the vehicle roof.
3.2.25
Upper beam
Transverse reinforcement members between the two sides of the roof of the
vehicle.
3.2.26
Original equipment
Equipment equipped by the automobile manufacturer.
3.2.27
Post-mounted equipment
Equipment equipped after the vehicle leaves the factory.
3.2.28
Aftermarket equipment
Post-mounted equipment not designated by the manufacturer.
3.2.29
Active safety
Vehicle system or function used to avoid collisions in the pre-collision phase of
road vehicles.
Example: Electronic stability system, automatic emergency braking system.
Classification of the contact deformation of passenger cars caused by road
vehicle accident.
Note: CDC is a 7-bit character composed of letters and numbers.
3.2.34
Truck deformation classification; TDC
Classification of the contact deformation of trucks caused by road vehicle
accident.
Note: TDC is a 7-bit character composed of letters and numbers.
3.2.35
Wrap around distance; WAD
Geometric track formed by one end of a flexible tape measure on the outer
surface of the front structure of vehicle, by laterally moving the flexible tape
measure along the front structure of the vehicle in the longitudinal vertical plane
of the vehicle.
3.2.36
Crush
State of the vehicle deviating from its original dimensions.
3.2.36.1
Residual crush
Crush remaining when all parts of a vehicle have ceased moving, and after any
restitution, following impact.
3.2.36.2
Elastic crush
Portion of dynamic crush recovered after the collision force is removed.
3.2.36.3
Dynamic crush
Maximum degree of crush reached by a vehicle in a collision, which is the sum
of residual crush and elastic crush.
Note: This includes damage resulting from rescue, towing, and salvage operations.
3.2.41
Mass at impact
Total mass of the vehicle at the time of a collision.
Note: It includes the mass of occupants, luggage, cargo, etc.
3.2.42
Effective mass at impact
Mass at impact minus the mass not contributing to the residual crush.
Note: The mass not contributing includes the mass of unrestrained vehicle occupants and
luggage.
3.2.43
Interior damage description
Description of the damage inside the vehicle through text.
Example: Deformation, displacement, separation, intrusion, penetration, etc.
3.2.44
Occupant compartment intrusion
Reduction of space of the occupant compartment caused by external influences.
Note: Include dynamic or residual.
3.2.45
Interior component displacement
Relative displacement between the internal components of the vehicle due to a
road vehicle accident.
3.3
Road user
Any person on the road.
3.3.1
......

BASIC DATA
Standard ID GB/T 39424.1-2020 (GB/T39424.1-2020)
Description (Translated English) Road vehicles. Traffic accident analysis -- Part 1: Vocabulary
Sector / Industry National Standard (Recommended)
Classification of Chinese Standard T04
Classification of International Standard 43.020
Word Count Estimation 27,230
Date of Issue 2020-11-19
Date of Implementation 2021-06-01
Adopted Standard ISO 12353-1-2020, MOD
Drafting Organization Beijing CMC Vehicle Judicial Appraisal Center, China Automotive Technology and Research Center Co., Ltd., Commercial Vehicle Technology Center of SAIC Motor Corporation, Chongqing Changan Automobile Co., Ltd., Zhejiang Geely Automobile Research Institute Co., Ltd., SAIC Motor Corporation Technology Center , Pan Asia Automotive Technology Center Co., Ltd., SAIC-GM-Wuling Automobile Co., Ltd., FAW Car Co., Ltd., Chery Automobile Co., Ltd., Xiangyang Daan Automobile Inspection Center Co., Ltd., FAW-Volkswagen Co., Ltd., Tsinghua University, Chongqing Automobile Testing and Research Institute Co., Ltd., China Quality Certification Center, Shanghai Motor Vehicle Testing and Certification Technology Research Center Co., Ltd., Shenlong Automobile Co., Ltd., Autoliv (Shanghai) Automotive Safety System Research and Development Co., Ltd., Yanfeng Best (Shanghai)
Administrative Organization National Automotive Standardization Technical Committee (SAC/TC 114)
Regulation (derived from) National Standard Announcement No. 26 of 2020
Proposing organization Ministry of Industry and Information Technology of the People's Republic of China
Issuing agency(ies) State Administration for Market Regulation, National Standardization Administration
Summary This standard specifies the classification of road vehicle traffic accident analysis, accident description elements and data collection, collision analysis and reconstruction, data analysis and interpretation related terms and definitions. This standard applies to road vehicle traffic accident investigation, analysis and data application.