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GB/T 38770-2020 (GB/T38770-2020, GBT 38770-2020, GBT38770-2020) & related versions
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GB/T 38770-2020: PDF in English (GBT 38770-2020)
GB/T 38770-2020
NATIONAL STANDARD OF THE
PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF CHINA
ICS 25.200
J 36
Spheroidite examination and grading for low and
medium carbon steels
ISSUED ON: APRIL 28, 2020
IMPLEMENTED ON: NOVEMBER 01, 2020
Issued by: State Administration for Market Regulation;
Standardization Administration of the People's Republic of
China.
Table of Contents
Foreword ... 3 
1 Scope ... 4 
2 Normative references ... 4 
3 Terms and definitions ... 4 
4 Specimen ... 5 
5 Calculation of pearlite spheroidizing rate ... 5 
6 Grading and grading methods for spherical structure ... 6 
7 Dispute arbitration ... 16 
8 Inspection report ... 16 
9 Safety and environmental protection ... 16 
Spheroidite examination and grading for low and
medium carbon steels
1 Scope
This Standard specifies structural examination and grading after spheroidizing
annealing for low carbon steel, low carbon alloy steel, medium carbon steel,
medium carbon alloy steel.
This Standard is applicable to structural examination and grading before cold
forming such as cold heading and cold extrusion and after spheroidizing
annealing for low and medium carbon steels.
2 Normative references
The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of
this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated
references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any
amendments) applies.
GB/T 7232, Terminology of metal heat treatment
GB/T 15749, Measuring method in quantitative metallography
GB/T 30067, Standard Terminology Relating to Metallography
GB/T 34895, General rules for metallographic examination of heat treatment
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions defined in GB/T
7232, GB/T 30067 as well as the followings apply.
3.1 spheroidized carbide
Carbide particles with a ratio of length to width less than 5.
3.2 pearlite spheroidizing rate
Percentage of the total area converted into spherical carbides in the matrix
structure of the steel material to the total area of carbides in the matrix.
3.3 fine spheroidite
Point-like fine spherical carbides at 500 times magnification.
4 Specimen
4.1 The specimens for the examination and grading of the spheroidizing
structure are generally intercepted directly on the workpiece, or according to
the requirements specified in the relevant technical documents.
4.2 The intercepted specimens are prepared step by step according to the
requirements of GB/T 34895. Use 3%~5% nitric acid ethanol solution to etch.
The effective test area of the specimen shall meet the requirements of 5.2.
4.3 The preparation of specimens and the storage of nitroethanol reagents shall
meet the relevant requirements of GB/T 34895.
4.4 For examination and evaluation of spheroidizing process, the specimen
shall be selected at a representative location in the heat treatment furnace.
Generally, take 3~5 specimens according to the size of the effective heating
area of the heating furnace.
5 Calculation of pearlite spheroidizing rate
5.1 Calculation of spheroidizing rate
The pearlite spheroidizing rate, Rps, is calculated according to formula (1):
Where,
Rps - Pearlite spheroidizing rate;
A1 - Spherical carbide area, in square millimeter (mm2);
A2 - Independent carbide area with a ratio of length to width greater than or
equal to 5, in square millimeter (mm2);
A3 - Area of flake pearlite mass, in square millimeter (mm2).
5.2 Pearlite and carbide area measurement statistics
When the magnification is 500 times, in the field of view with a diameter of
Φ75mm or a field of view not less than this area, calculate the area of pearlite
and carbide according to GB/T 15749. For flake pearlite cluster cut to the
boundary of the field of view, it shall be calculated according to the actual area
within the boundary. Spherical carbides fully covered by the boundary of the
field of view are not counted. Spherical carbides not fully covered are included
in the total. Distinguish between spherical carbide and non-spherical carbide
according to the definition of 3.1.
5.3 Method for measuring area of pearlite and carbide
Measure the area of pearlite and carbide according to the microscope
micrometer eyepiece measurement method or image analyzer measurement
method in GB/T 15749. For fine spheroidite, it can increase magnification to
more than 500 times to count carbide area then convert to the area of 500 times.
6 Grading and grading methods for spherical structure
6.1 Grading of spheroidizing structure
This Standard divides the spheroidizing structure into 6 levels according to the
spheroidizing rate. Develop three sets of standard maps, corresponding to
different steel types:
a) The standard atlas of spheroidizing structure for low carbon steel and low
carbon alloy steel is shown in Figure 1. See Table 1 for grading description
of spheroidizing structure;
b) The standard atlas of spheroidizing structure for medium carbon steel is
shown in Figure 2. See Table 2 for grading description of spheroidizing
structure;
c) The standard atlas of spheroidizing structure for medium carbon alloy steel
is shown in Figure 3. See Table 3 for grading description of spheroidizing
structure.
......

BASIC DATA
Standard ID GB/T 38770-2020 (GB/T38770-2020)
Description (Translated English) Spheroidite examination and grading for low and medium carbon steels
Sector / Industry National Standard (Recommended)
Classification of Chinese Standard J36
Classification of International Standard 25.200
Word Count Estimation 15,134
Date of Issue 2020-04-28
Date of Implementation 2020-11-01
Drafting Organization Shanghai Rail Transit Inspection Technology Co., Ltd., Beijing Electromechanical Research Institute Co., Ltd., Jiangsu Fengdong Heat Treatment and Surface Modification Engineering Technology Research Co., Ltd., Changzhou New District Hehai Heat Treatment Engineering Co., Ltd., Jiangsu Pacific Precision Forging Technology Co., Ltd., Guizhou Hangyu Science and Technology Development Co., Ltd., Xi'an Flat Heat Treatment Co., Ltd., Shandong Tianrui Heavy Industry Co., Ltd.
Administrative Organization National Heat Treatment Standardization Technical Committee (SAC/TC 75)
Proposing organization National Heat Treatment Standardization Technical Committee (SAC/TC 75)
Issuing agency(ies) State Administration for Market Regulation, National Standardization Administration