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GB/T 20042.1-2017 (GB/T20042.1-2017, GBT 20042.1-2017, GBT20042.1-2017) & related versions
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GB/T 20042.1-2017: PDF in English (GBT 20042.1-2017)
GB/T 20042.1-2017
ICS 27.070
K 82
Replacing GB/T 20042.1-2005
Proton exchange membrane fuel cell –
Part 1. Terminology
ISSUED ON. MAY 12, 2017
Issued by. General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and
Standardization Administration of the People's Republic of
Table of Contents
Foreword . 3 
1 Scope .. 5 
2 Physical and abstract . 5 
3 Physical quantities and parameters . 17 
4 Reaction process and phenomena, nature . 29 
5 Experiment methods and status . 34 
Indexing .. 41 
GB/T 20042 “Proton exchange membrane fuel cell” is divided into the following
7 parts.
- Part 1. Terminology;
- Part 2. General technical specification of fuel cell stacks;
- Part 3. Test method for proton exchange membrane;
- Part 4. Test method of electrocatalyst;
- Part 5. Test method of membrane electrode;
- Part 6. Test method of bipolar plate properties;
- Part 7. Test method of carbon paper properties.
This part is part 1 of GB/T 20042.
This part was drafted in accordance with the rules given in GB/T 1.1-2009.
This part replaces GB/T 20042.1-2005 “Proton exchange membrane fuel cell -
Terminology”. As compared with GB/T 20042.1-2005, the main technical
changes are as follows.
- ADJUST the classification of terminology, from the original seven categories
to five major categories and eleven subcategories;
- INCREASE the terms and definitions from the original 93 to 219.
This part was proposed by the China Electrical Appliance Industry Association.
This part shall be under the jurisdiction of the National Fuel Cell and Liquid Flow
Standardization Technical Committee (SAC/TC 342).
Responsible drafting organizations of this part. Chinese Academy of Sciences
Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Wuhan Zhongyu Power System
Technology Co., Ltd., Wuhan University of Technology, Xinyuan Power Co., Ltd.,
Machinery Industry Beijing Electrotechnical Economic Research Institute,
Shanghai Shenli Technology Co., Ltd., Shenzhen Municipal Standard
Technology Research Institute, Nanjing University Kunshan Innovation
Research Institute, Aerospace New Long March Electric Vehicle Technology
Co., Ltd., Ningbo Beit Measurement & Control Technology Co., Ltd.
The main drafters of this part. Liang Dong, Qi Zhigang, Hou Ming, Li Shang,
Chen Chen, Zhang Ruogu, Yi Baolian, Pan Mu, Du Chao, Huang Manxue, Liu
Proton exchange membrane fuel cell –
Part 1. Terminology
1 Scope
This part defines the terms and definitions used for proton exchange membrane
fuel cell technology and its application field.
This part applies to various types of proton exchange membrane fuel cells.
2 Physical and abstract
2.1 Materials
Hydrogen storage material
Materials that can absorb, store, and release hydrogen when needed under
certain conditions.
A substance that speeds up the electrode reaction process but is not
consumed by itself.
Non-precious metal catalyst
Catalyst that does not contain any precious metal component.
Note. Precious metal elements include. Osmium (Os), Iridium (Ir),
Ruthenium (Ru), Rhodium (Rh), Platinum (Pt), Palladium (Pd), Gold (Au),
Silver (Ag).
Alloy catalyst
A catalyst consisting of an alloy of two or more metals.
A proton exchange membrane in which all hydrogen atoms in the polymer
chain are replaced by fluorine atoms.
Composite membrane
A membrane which consists of two or more materials.
Carbon cloth
A porous cloth woven from carbon fiber.
Carbon paper
A porous paper-like profile formed by bonding uniformly dispersed carbon
fibers together (by the use a carbonizable binder).
The substance which can be oxidized at the anode to produce free electrons.
Raw fuel
The unreformed fuel which is supplied from an external source to the fuel
cell power generation system.
The hydrogen-rich gas converted from the raw fuel through the fuel
reforming system.
The substance which can get electrons at cathode to be reduced.
Stack wiring lead
The output terminal of the fuel cell stack that supplies power to the outside,
which is also referred to as the cell stack terminal.
A pipe that supplies fluids to the fuel cell or fuel cell stack or otherwise
collects from the fuel cell or fuel cell stack and drain it.
Note 1. The design of the external manifold is for single cells that are stacked
together. The gas mixture is sent from a central source to the inlet of large
fuel and oxidant. The inlet covers the immediate end of the stack and is
sealed with a properly designed gasket. Similar systems collect exhaust gas
at the opposite end.
Note 2. The internal manifold is an internal channel formed by the assembly
of bipolar plates, MEAs, and gaskets, which is used for the delivery and/or
removal of reactants and/or reaction products for each cell. The stack of
some structures also includes internal manifolds that deliver and remove
2.3 Battery/system
Single cell unit cell
The basic unit of a fuel cell which consists of a group of membrane electrode
assemblies and corresponding unipolar or bipolar plates.
Note. In general, a single cell in a stack is called unit cell, and a single cell
with an independent structure is called single cell.
Fuel cell
An electrochemical device that directly converts the chemical energy of an
externally supplied fuel and oxidant into electrical energy (direct current) and
generates heat and reaction products.
Regenerative fuel cell
Fuel supply system/module
A system or module that provides fuel storage, supply, and regulation
functions for a fuel cell system.
Thermal management system/module
The system and module which is to provide cooling, heat dissipation and/or
heating, and may also provide for excess heat reusing to ensure that the
temperature of various internal modules is within normal range when the fuel
cell system is in operation.
Water management system/module
A system or module that manages to maintain the water required for the
relevant modules inside the fuel cell system to meet its normal operating
requirements and may also be used to achieve the reuse of water.
Water treatment system/module
A system or module used to perform the necessary treatment of recycled or
make-up water used in fuel cell systems.
Exhaust treatment system/module
The system or module for treating the exhaust gas discharged from the stack
to achieve the relevant discharge standard, which is mainly to remove or
dilute the non-reactive fuel in the anode exhaust gas.
Oxidant treatment system/module
The system or module that meters, regulates, and processes the input
oxidant to facilitate the use by the fuel cell power system.
Balance of plant; BOP
The general term for all components of a fuel cell system other than the fuel
(Membrane) swelling rate
The ratio of dimensional change in the transverse, longitudinal and thickness
directions with respect to the dry membrane at a given temperature and
humidity, expressed in %.
Proton conductivity
The proton conductivity of the membrane which is characterized by the
current density that the membrane can conduct at a unit electric field
strength, in units of S/cm.
Gas permeability
The amount of gas which passes through unit area and unit thickness of
article under the unit pressure per unit time.
The ratio of the volume of all holes in an article to the geometric volume of
the article.
Note. In proton exchange membrane fuel cells, porosity is one of the
characteristic parameters of the catalyst layer, microporous diffusion layer,
and gas diffusion layer.
Internal resistance (fuel cell internal resistance)
The ohmic resistance inside the fuel cell caused by electronic and ion
Note. Ohmic means that the relationship between voltage drop and current
obeys Ohm's law.
Lower flammable limit
The lowest concentration (volume fraction) of a combustible gas or steam
that can be ignited in a homogeneous mixture with the combustion
supporting gas and can transmit the flame.
The DC power output from the fuel cell stack.
Net power
The power generated by a fuel cell power system which can be used
Minimum power
The minimum net electric power that the fuel cell power system can output
under continuous stable operation.
Peak power
The maximum power not less than the rated power generated by the fuel
cell stack or power generation system within a predetermined short time
Auxiliary electrical power
The external electrical power consumed by the fuel cell system.
Auxiliary thermal power
The external thermal power consumed by the fuel cell system.
(Electrode) area power density
The power generated by the active area of the unit electrode.
Volumetric power
The ratio of the rated power of a stack or fuel cell power system to its volume.
Note. Volumetric power is often referred to as power density.
The percentage of the actual amount of fuel or oxidant required to output
current (calculated in accordance with Faraday's law) to the total amount of
fuel or oxidant entering the fuel cell.
Note. The reactant utilization rate is reciprocal to the reactant measurement
Fuel consumption
The amount of fuel consumed by the power generation system within a
specified period of time under certain conditions.

Standard ID GB/T 20042.1-2017 (GB/T20042.1-2017)
Description (Translated English) Proton exchange membrane fuel cell -- Part 1: Terminology
Sector / Industry National Standard (Recommended)
Classification of Chinese Standard K82
Classification of International Standard 27.070
Word Count Estimation 33,368
Date of Issue 2017-05-12
Date of Implementation 2017-12-01
Older Standard (superseded by this standard) GB/T 20042.1-2005
Drafting Organization Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan Zhongyu Power System Technology Co., Ltd., Wuhan University of Technology, Xinyuan Power Co., Ltd., Machinery Industry Beijing Institute of Technology and Economy, Shanghai Shenli Technology Co., Ltd., Shenzhen Standard Technology Research Institute, Kunshan Innovation Institute of Nanjing University, Aerospace New Long March Electric Vehicle Technology Co., Ltd., Ningbo Beit Measurement and Control Technology Co., Ltd.
Administrative Organization National Standard Committee on Fuel Cell and Flow (SAC/TC 342)
Proposing organization China Electrical Appliances Industry Association
Issuing agency(ies) General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine of the People's Republic of China, China National Standardization Administration Committee
Summary This standard specifies the terms and definitions used in the field of proton exchange membrane fuel cell technology and its applications. This standard applies to all types of proton exchange membrane fuel cells.