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GB/T 18386.2-2022: PDF in English (GBT 18386.2-2022)
GB/T 18386.2-2022
GB
NATIONAL STANDARD OF THE
PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF CHINA
ICS 43.020
CCS T 47
Replacing GB/T 18386-2017
Test Methods for Energy Consumption and Range of
Electric Vehicles – Part 2: Heavy-Duty Commercial Vehicles
ISSUED ON: OCTOBER 12, 2022
IMPLEMENTED ON: MAY 01, 2023
Issued by: State Administration for Market Regulation;
Standardization Administration of the People’s Republic of China.
Table of Contents
Foreword ... 3
Introduction ... 5
1 Scope ... 7
2 Normative References ... 7
3 Terms and Definitions ... 8
4 Test Conditions ... 8
4.1 Environmental conditions ... 8
4.2 Measurement parameters, units and accuracy ... 8
4.3 Test vehicle ... 8
4.4 Test cycle ... 10
5 Test Procedure ... 10
5.1 General requirements ... 10
5.2 Tolerance ... 11
5.3 Conditions for terminating the test ... 11
5.4 Initial charging of REESS ... 12
5.5 Test on range ... 13
5.6 Measurement of REESS charging and energy ... 15
6 Calculation Method of Energy Consumption and Range ... 16
6.1 General ... 16
6.2 Energy consumption ... 17
6.3 Range ... 18
7 Driving Modes ... 20
7.1 General requirements ... 20
7.2 Selection of driving mode ... 21
Appendix A (Normative) Determination of REESS Current and Voltage ... 23
Test Methods for Energy Consumption and Range of
Electric Vehicles – Part 2: Heavy-Duty Commercial Vehicles
1 Scope
This Document specifies the test methods for the energy consumption and driving range of pure
electric vehicles.
This Document is applicable to pure electric vehicles with a maximum design total mass of
more than 3500kg, including trucks, semi-trailer towing vehicles, passenger cars, dump trucks
and city buses. Concrete mixer trucks can refer to the relevant measurement methods of dump
trucks; and other special transport vehicles can refer to the relevant measurement methods of
trucks.
This Document does not apply to special operation vehicles, including van type special
operation vehicles, tank type special operation vehicles, special dump operation vehicles, grate
type special operation vehicles, lifting special operation vehicles and special-structured special
operation vehicles, etc.
2 Normative References
The provisions in following documents become the essential provisions of this Document
through reference in this Document. For the dated documents, only the versions with the dates
indicated are applicable to this Document; for the undated documents, only the latest version
(including all the amendments) is applicable to this Document.
GB 7258 Safe Specification for Motor Vehicles Operating on Roads
GB/T 12534 Motor Vehicles - General Rules of Road Test Method
GB 18352.6-2016 Limits and Measurement Methods for Emissions from Light-Duty
Vehicles (CHINA 6)
GB/T 19596 Terminology of Electric Vehicles
GB/T 27840 Fuel Consumption Test Methods for Heavy-Duty Commercial Vehicles
GB/T 38146.2-2019 China Automotive Test Cycle - Part 2: Heavy-Duty Commercial
Vehicles
sliding test specified in GB/T 27840. According to the suggestion of the vehicle manufacture
and confirmed by the verification agency, the setting of road load can also be carried out based
on the interpolation calculation of the recommended scheme of the driving resistance
coefficient specified in GB/T 27840. Or the test shall be carried out under the state of the
maximum design total mass; and the setting of the road load shall be carried out in accordance
with the sliding test, or the recommended scheme of the driving resistance coefficient specified
in GB/T 27840. For other heavy-duty commercial vehicles, the test shall be carried out under
the maximum design total mass state; and the setting of the road load shall be carried out in
accordance with the sliding test or driving resistance coefficient recommendation scheme
specified in GB/T 27840.
4.3.1.2 The mass of occupants and the loading distribution must meet the requirements of GB/T
12534.
NOTE: For semi-trailer towing vehicles, the maximum design total mass in this Document refers to the
maximum mass of the car train.
4.3.2 Vehicle conditions
4.3.2.1 The test vehicle shall be loaded according to the technical requirements of each test.
4.3.2.2 The tires shall be of the type required by the manufacturer as an original accessory; and
inflated according to the tire inflation pressure corresponding to the maximum test load and
maximum test speed recommended by the manufacturer. The viscosity of lubricating oil for
mechanical moving parts shall comply with the provisions of the manufacturer.
4.3.2.3 The lighting, signaling devices and auxiliary equipment on the vehicle shall be turned
off, unless there are requirements for these devices during the test and daytime operation of the
vehicle.
4.3.2.4 Except for driving purposes, all energy storage systems shall be charged to the
maximum value specified by the manufacturer (electrical energy, hydraulic pressure, air
pressure, etc.).
4.3.2.5 The test driver shall make the rechargeable energy storage system (REESS) work at the
normal operating temperature according to the operating procedures recommended by the
vehicle manufacturer.
4.3.2.6 Before the test, the test vehicle shall drive at least 300km with the REESS installed on
the test vehicle.
4.3.2.7 If the vehicle has the function of braking energy recovery, the same control strategy as
the real vehicle shall be adopted when the vehicle is tested on the chassis dynamometer. If a
vehicle is equipped with an anti-lock braking system (ABS), traction control system (TCS) or
electronic braking system (EBS) and is tested on a single-axle drive chassis dynamometer; these
systems may falsely consider a non-rotating wheel not mounted on a drum to be a faulty system
and shall be shielded to obtain normal system operation.
4.3.3 Setting of road load
The measurement of running resistance and the simulation on the chassis dynamometer shall
be in accordance with the provisions in GB/T 27840. When carrying out the sliding test on the
road and chassis dynamometer, the function of the braking energy recovery system shall be
shielded. During the sliding test on the road and chassis dynamometer, other parts of the car
should be in the same state (such as air conditioning off, etc.).
4.4 Test cycle
4.4.1 The test vehicle shall measure the energy consumption and range of the vehicle in
accordance with the China Heavy-Duty Commercial Vehicle Test Cycle (CHTC) stipulated in
Appendix A of GB/T 38146.2-2019. Among them, city buses adopt CHTC-B driving conditions;
passenger cars (excluding city buses) adopt CHTC-C driving conditions; trucks (excluding
dump trucks) adopt CHTC-LT (GVW≤5500kg) or CHTC-HT (GVW >5500kg) driving
conditions; dump trucks adopt CHTC-D driving conditions; semi-trailer towing vehicles adopt
CHTC-TT driving conditions.
4.4.2 If the maximum vehicle speed of the vehicle is less than the maximum vehicle speed of
CHTC, when the target vehicle speed is greater than the maximum vehicle speed, the test cycle
shall be corrected according to the provisions of CA.5 in GB 18352.6-2016.
5 Test Procedure
5.1 General requirements
The same test procedure shall be used to determine the energy consumption and range, and the
test procedure includes the following three steps:
a) Charge the REESS initially (see 5.4);
b) Conduct test on energy consumption and range (see 5.5);
c) Recharge the REESS after the test; and measure the charge from the external power source
(see 5.6).
When the charging position of the vehicle and the chassis dynamometer are not together, if the
vehicle’s own power is used to move between the two, the vehicle is required to move between
the two at a constant speed as far as possible at a speed no greater than 30km/h (minimize power
consumption); the distance that the vehicle moves between the two shall not exceed 3km each
time. The test shall start within 12h after the end of charging.
specified in 5.5.2, if the maximum speed of the vehicle is lower than the maximum speed
of CHTC and the tolerance requirements specified in 5.2.2 cannot be met, stop the test;
c) When the test is carried out according to the shortening method specified in 5.5.3, the
vehicle must meet the tolerance requirements specified in 5.2.1 or 5.2.2 in the test cycle
sections DS1 and DS2. When the vehicle fails to meet the lower limit of the speed
tolerance specified in 5.2.1 for 4 consecutive seconds in the constant speed section CSSE,
stop the test.
5.3.2 When the condition for ending the test is reached, keep the gear position unchanged, let
the vehicle slide to 5km/h, and then depress the braking pedal to stop.
5.4 Initial charging of REESS
5.4.1 General
Unless the automobile manufacturer or REESS manufacturer has other provisions, the initial
charging of REESS can be carried out in accordance with the provisions in 5.4.2 and 5.4.3.
The initial charging of the REESS refers to the first-time charging of the REESS after receiving
the vehicle. If the specified several tests or measurements are carried out consecutively, the
first-time charging may be considered as the initial charging.
5.4.2 Discharging of REESS
According to the suggestion of the automobile manufacturer, the REESS can be discharged
before charging the REESS. The discharging procedure shall be carried out according to the
suggestion of the automobile manufacturer. The automobile manufacturer shall ensure that the
remaining energy of the REESS after the discharging shall not exceed the 20% state of charge
(SOC) or the SOC failure alarm value set by the automobile manufacturer.
5.4.3 Charging of REESS
5.4.3.1 Conventional charging
Conductive charging shall be used to charge REESS. If the vehicle has both DC and AC
charging methods, it shall be selected according to the suggestion of the automobile
manufacturer. REESS recommends charging in one of the following ways at the ambient
temperature specified in 4.1:
a) On-board charger (if installed);
b) Use the normal mode for the external charger suggested by the automobile manufacturer.
The charging procedures described above do not include any special charging procedures
initiated automatically or manually, such as equalizing charging mode or maintenance mode.
The automobile manufacturer shall declare that no special charging procedure is carried out
during the test. The charging strategy that does not require additional operations for the actual
sales vehicles is not considered a special charging procedure, and the automobile manufacturer
shall provide relevant supporting documents.
5.4.3.2 Criteria for end of charging
When the on-board or external instrument shows that the REESS is fully charged, it is
determined that the charging is complete. If the on-board or external instrument sends out an
obvious signal indicating that the REESS is not fully charged, in this case, the maximum
charging time is: 3×REESS energy (kW • h)/service power (kW) specified by the automobile
manufacturer.
5.5 Test on range
5.5.1 Test options
The moment is recorded at the end of the REESS charging. Within 12 hours thereafter, start the
test according to the prescribed test procedure. During this period, ensure that the vehicle is
placed at the ambient temperature specified in 4.1.
The test procedure follows one of the following two options:
a) Carry out the test according to the routine working condition method specified in 5.5.2;
b) Carry out the test according to the shortening method specified in 5.5.3.
The current and voltage of REESS shall be measured in accordance with the requirements of
5.5.4 during vehicle movement and test.
5.5.2 Conventional working condition method
On the chassis dynamometer, use the CHTC cycle specified in GB/T 38146.2-2019 to conduct
the test continuously; stop the test until the requirements specified in 5.3 are met. During the
moving and testing process, the voltage and current value of the battery terminal shall be
measured and recorded in real time.
Unless otherwise specified, the vehicle is allowed to be soaked once every 4 test cycles, and
the time shall not exceed 10 min. During the vehicle soaking, the start switch of the vehicle
shall be in the "OFF" state; close the hood; turn off the test bench fan; release the braking pedal;
and cannot be charged with an external power source.
5.5.3 Shortening method
5.5.3.1 Speed segments
The speed segment of the shortening method is composed of 2 test cycle segments and 2
constant speed segments, as shown in Figure 2 for a schematic diagram. Among them, DS1 and
5.6.2 A power measurement device shall be installed between the vehicle REESS and the power
supply equipment to measure the power (EAC) charged from the external power source and the
charging time. If the vehicle is equipped with an on-board charger, the power measurement
device shall be installed between the on-board charger and the power supply equipment. When
the requirements of 5.4.3.2 are met, stop the power measurement.
6 Calculation Method of Energy Consumption and Range
6.1 General
6.1.1 Relevant formulas for calculating energy consumption and range
In order to calculate the energy consumption and range of the vehicle, Formulas (2) to (4) are
essential.
Where:
ECDC,j - the energy consumption of the jth speed interval based on the REESS electric energy
variation, in W • h/km;
j – sequential number of speed interval;
dj – range of vehicle in the jth speed interval, in km;
ΔEREESS,j - the electric energy variation of all REESS in the jth speed interval, in W • h, which
shall be calculated as per Formula (3):
Where:
ΔEREESS,g,j - within the time range of the jth speed interval, the REESS electric energy variation
numbered g, in W • h;
g – number of REESS;
m – total number of REESS;
and
EREESS,CCP(STP) - before and after the test determined according to Formulas (7) or (11), including
the process of vehicle movement before the test, electric energy variation of REESS, in W • h;
ΔEREESS,af - the electric energy variation of all REESS during the vehicle movement after the
test, in W • h;
EAC - electricity from an external power source measured in accordance with 5.6, in W • h;
BER – range calculated according to the provisions of 6.3.1 or 6.3.2, in km.
6.3 Range
6.3.1 Range based on conventional working conditions
The range based on the conventional working condition method specified in 5.5.2 is calculated
according to Formula (6).
Where:
BER – range, in km;
EREESS,CCP - before and after the conventional working condition method test, including the
process of vehicle movement before the test, the electric energy variation of REESS, in W • h;
ECDC – energy consumption based on the electric energy variation of REESS, in W • h/km.
Where, EREESS,CCP and ECDC shall be calculated according to Formulas (7) and (8):
Where:
ΔEREESS,be – electric energy variation of all REESS during the vehicle movement process before
the test, in W • h;
k - after the end of the conventional working condition method test, the number of speed
intervals that the vehicle travels, including the speed intervals that have not been completed
when the test end standard specified in 5.3 is reached;
ΔEREESS,j – electric energy variation of all REESS in the jth speed interval calculated according
to the provisions of 6.1.1, in W • h.
Where:
ΔEREESS,be – electric energy variation of all REESS during the vehicle movement process before
the test, in W • h;
ΔEREESS,DS1 – electric energy variation of all REESS in the test cycle segment DS1 calculated
according to the provisions of 6.1.1, in W • h;
ΔEREESS,CSSM – electric energy variation of all REESS in the constant speed segment CSSM
calculated according to the provisions of 6.1.1, in W • h;
ΔEREESS,DS2 – electric energy variation of all REESS in the test cycle segment DS2 calculated
according to the provisions of 6.1.1, in W • h;
ΔEREESS,CSSE – electric energy variation of all REESS in the constant speed segment CSSE
calculated according to the provisions of 6.1.1, in W • h.
Where:
c – sequential number of test cycle;
ECDC,c - the energy consumption of the cth test cycle based on the electric energy variation of
REESS, in W • h/km;
Kc - the weight coefficient of the test cycle segment DSc is calculated according to the Formula
(13):
7 Driving Modes
7.1 General requirements
7.1.1 The automobile manufacturer shall select the test driving mode according to 7.2. This
mode shall enable the vehicle to follow the test cycle specified in 4.4 within the speed tolerance
range specified in 5.2.
7.1.2 Automobile manufacturers shall provide proof of the following circumstances to the
competent authority:
a) applicable conditions of the main mode;
b) the maximum speed;
c) highest power consumption mode.
7.1.3 Dedicated driving modes, such as "mountain mode" and "maintenance mode" and other
non-daily operating modes, are not considered if they are only used for some special purposes.
7.2 Selection of driving mode
7.2.1 If there is a main mode, and this mode can make the vehicle follow the test cycle specified
in 4.4.1 during the test, then select this mode.
7.2.2 If there is no main mode, or if there is a main mode, but this mode cannot make the vehicle
follow the test cycle specified in 4.4.1 during the test, the operating mode shall be selected
according to the following provisions:
a) If there is only one optional mode that can make the vehicle follow the test cycle specified
in 4.4.1 during the test, select this mode;
b) If there are multiple modes that can make the vehicle follow the test cycle specified in
4.4.1 during the test, it shall be selected according to the suggestion of the automobile
manufacturer.
7.2.3 If there is no mode that can make the vehicle follow the test cycle specified in 4.4.1 during
the test, the test cycle shall be corrected according to the provisions of 4.4.2:
a) If there is a main mode, and this mode can make the vehicle follow the test cycle specified
in 4.4.2 during the test, select this mode;
b) If there is no main mode, or if there is a main mode, but this mode cannot make the
vehicle follow the test cycle specified in 4.4.2 during the test, it shall be selected
according to the suggestion of the automobile manufacturer in other modes that can make
the vehicle follow the test cycle specified in 4.4.2 during the test.
7.2.4 During the test and before and after vehicle soaking, the driving mode shall be consistent.
The selection of driving mode is shown in Figure 3.
Appendix A
(Normative)
Determination of REESS Current and Voltage
A.1 General
A.1.1 This appendix specifies the test methods and equipment for REESS current and voltage.
A.1.2 The measurement of REESS current and voltage shall be carried out before or at the
beginning of the test, and ended immediately after the vehicle completes the test.
A.1.3 The REESS current and voltage at each stage shall be measured. Define the current
consumed by REESS as a negative value.
A.2 REESS current
A.2.1 Measurement of external REESS current
A.2.1.1 The REESS current shall be measured with clamp-on or closed-type current sensors
during the test. The accuracy of the current measurement system shall meet the requirements
specified in Table 1.
A.2.1.2 The current sensor shall measure the REESS current through the cable connected to the
REESS. The measured current shall be the total current of REESS.
In the case of shielded wires, appropriate handling shall be carried out according to the
requirements of the automobile manufacturer and determined by the verification agency.
In order to make it easier for external measuring equipment to measure REESS current,
automobile manufacturers shall provide suitable, safe and convenient connection points on the
vehicle. If there is no such connection point, the automobile manufacturer is obliged to support
the competent authority to connect the current sensor to a cable directly connected to the REESS
that can meet the above requirements.
A.2.1.3 The sampling of minimum frequency of the current sensor shall be 20Hz.
A.2.2 On-board REESS current data
Automobile manufacturers can use on-board current data instead of A.2.1; and shall prove the
accuracy of this data to the competent authority.
A.3 REESS voltage
......

BASIC DATA
Standard ID GB/T 18386.2-2022 (GB/T18386.2-2022)
Description (Translated English) Test methods for energy consumption and range of electric vehicles -- Part 2: Heavy-duty commercial vehicles
Sector / Industry National Standard (Recommended)
Classification of Chinese Standard T47
Classification of International Standard 43.020
Word Count Estimation 14,198
Date of Issue 2022-10-14
Date of Implementation 2023-05-01
Older Standard (superseded by this standard) GB/T 18386-2017, GB/T 18386-2017
Drafting Organization China Automotive Technology and Research Center Co., Ltd., China Merchants Inspection Vehicle Technology Research Institute Co., Ltd., Xiamen Jinlong United Automobile Industry Co., Ltd., Yutong Bus Co., Ltd., BYD Automobile Industry Co., Ltd., Beiqi Foton Motor Co., Ltd., FAW Jiefang Automobile Co., Ltd. , Dongfeng Liuzhou Automobile Co., Ltd., Xiamen Jinlong Wagon Co., Ltd., Anhui Jianghuai Automobile Group Co., Ltd., Zhejiang Geely New Energy Commercial Vehicle Group Co., Ltd., China National Heavy Duty Truck Group Co., Ltd., SAIC Maxus Automobile Co., Ltd., Shanghai Motor Vehicle Testing and Certification Technology Research Center Co., Ltd., Changchun Automobile Testing Center Co., Ltd.
Administrative Organization National Automotive Standardization Technical Committee (SAC/TC 114)
Proposing organization Ministry of Industry and Information Technology of the People's Republic of China
Issuing agency(ies) State Administration for Market Regulation, National Standardization Management Committee