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GB/T 12541-2023 (GB/T12541-2023, GBT 12541-2023, GBT12541-2023) & related versions
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GB/T 12541-2023: PDF in English (GBT 12541-2023)
GB/T 12541-2023
GB
NATIONAL STANDARD OF THE
PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF CHINA
ICS 43.020
CCS T 04
Replacing GB/T 12541-1990
Motor Vehicles Passing Capacity Test Method
ISSUED ON: MAY 23, 2023
IMPLEMENTED ON: DECEMBER 1, 2023
Issued by: State Administration for Market Regulation;
Standardization Administration of the People’s Republic of China.
Table of Contents
Foreword ... 3
1 Scope ... 5
2 Normative References ... 5
3 Terms and Definitions ... 5
4 Test Conditions ... 6
5 Test Methods ... 7
6 Test Data Record ... 20
7 Test Report ... 20
Appendix A (informative) Corresponding Test Items of Vehicle Models ... 21
Appendix B (informative) Test Result Record Tables ... 22
Appendix C (normative) Table of Terrain Passing Capability Facility Characteristics
... 27
Appendix D (normative) Basic Principle of Soft Ground Selection for Soft Ground
Passing Capability Test ... 29
Motor Vehicles Passing Capacity Test Method
1 Scope
This document describes the test conditions and test methods for the passing capability
parameter, terrain passing capability and soft ground passing capability of automobiles.
This document is applicable to Category-M, Category-N and Category-G vehicles. Other
vehicle models may take this as a reference.
2 Normative References
The contents of the following documents constitute indispensable clauses of this document
through the normative references in the text. In terms of references with a specified date, only
versions with a specified date are applicable to this document. In terms of references without a
specified date, the latest version (including all the modifications) is applicable to this document.
GB/T 3730.3 Motor Vehicles and Towed Vehicles - Dimensions of Vehicles - Terms and
Definitions
GB/T 12534 Motor Vehicles - General Rules of Road Test Method
GB/T 12673 Motor Vehicle Main Dimensions Measurement Method
GB/T 15089 Classification of Power-driven Vehicle and Trailers
GB 18384 Electric Vehicles Safety Requirements
GB 38032 Electric Buses Safety Requirements
3 Terms and Definitions
What is defined in GB/T 3730.3, GB/T 12673 and GB/T 15089, and the following terms and
definitions are applicable to this document.
3.1 passing capability parameter
Passing capability parameter is an objective parameter index of vehicle passing capability.
Example: approach angle, departure angle, minimum ground clearance, ramp breakover angle and
transverse passing radius.
3.2 terrain passing capability
Terrain passing capability refers to a vehicle’s capability of passing certain terrains (such as:
vertical obstacles, convex ridges, horizontal ditches, road ditches, craters, twisted roads, wading
pools, side slopes and ramps, etc.).
3.3 soft ground passing capability
Soft ground passing capability refers to a vehicle’s capability of passing certain soft grounds
(such as: sandy lands, plowed lands, muddy lands, swampy lands, rice fields and snowfields,
etc.).
3.4 lateral passing radius
Lateral passing radius refers to the maximum arc radius formed by the projection on the X
datum plane between the inside ground contact point of the left and right wheels of the same
axle and a certain low point of the chassis under the static condition of the vehicle.
4 Test Conditions
4.1 General Rule
4.1.1 Vehicle preparation and test meteorological conditions shall comply with the stipulations
of GB/T 12534.
4.1.2 The amount of wear on the tread pattern of the test vehicle shall not exceed 1/5 of the
original thread height.
4.1.3 When the same model has different tyre models, the vehicle equipped with tyres with the
smallest diameter shall be selected for the test.
4.1.4 Adjust the tyre pressure of the test vehicle to the pressure value required by design, when
equipped with adjustable pressure tyres, in accordance with the manufacturer’s design
requirements, adjust to the appropriate pressure.
4.1.5 For vehicles equipped with adjustable suspension, adjust the test vehicle to the suspension
state required by the manufacturer.
4.1.6 The test vehicle shall be loaded in accordance with the maximum design total mass, axle
load and wheel load specified by the manufacturer.
4.2 Measurement Parameters and Accuracy
The measurement parameters and accuracy are shown in Table 1.
5.2.1.3 If there is no special requirement from the manufacturer, adjust the vehicle to the
maximum design total mass state.
5.2.2 Vertical obstacles
5.2.2.1 The vehicle can drive up / down the vertical obstacles in forward gear and up / down
the vertical obstacles in reverse gear.
5.2.2.2 Place the manual transmission in the lowest forward gear / reverse gear. If there is an
auxiliary transmission gear, place it also in the lowest forward gear. Place the automatic
transmission in the forward gear / reverse gear (or in accordance with the manufacturer’s design
requirements) and adjust the all-wheel drive vehicle to the all-wheel drive state.
5.2.2.3 When driving on a vertical obstacle, drive the vehicle at a speed not greater than 5 km/h,
until the wheels approach the vertical obstacle, then, brake and stop, keep the gear unchanged,
release the brake pedal, select an appropriate throttle opening, and drive forward / reverse on
the vertical obstacle.
5.2.2.4 When driving down a vertical obstacle, drive the vehicle at a speed not greater than 5
km/h, until the wheels approach the vertical obstacle, then, brake and stop, keep the gear
unchanged, appropriately adjust the brake pedal force, and slowly drive forward / reverse down
the vertical obstacle.
5.2.2.5 Observe the movement of the vehicle and whether its components are in contact or
collide with terrain facilities, or interfere with each other during the process of passing the
vertical obstacle.
5.2.2.6 During the process of the vehicle passing the vertical obstacle, if the vehicle, except the
wheels, does not contact or collide with the vertical obstacle, or there is no inter-component
interference, and in the parking inspection after passing, there is no collision damage of
components, damage or looseness of connectors, and abnormal operation of the assembly, etc.,
then, vertical obstacles with other parameters can be chosen; repeat 5.2.2.2 ~ 5.2.2.5, until
reaching or approaching the maximum value that can be passed; record the passing conditions
in the corresponding record table (see Table B.3).
5.2.2.7 During the process of the vehicle passing the vertical obstacle, if the vehicle, except the
wheels, does contact or collide with the vertical obstacle, or there is inter-component
interference, or if there is a failure in passing, or in the parking inspection after passing, there
is collision damage of components, damage or looseness of connects, and abnormal operation
of the assembly, etc., after analyzing the causes and recovering the vehicle to the normal state,
in accordance with Appendix C, re-select the height of the vertical obstacle and in accordance
with 5.2.2.2 ~ 5.2.2.6, re-conduct the test.
5.2.3 Convex ridges, horizontal ditches, road ditches, craters and twisted roads
5.2.3.1 Place the manual transmission in the lowest gear, and if there is an auxiliary transmission
gear, place it also in the lowest gear. Place the automatic transmission in the forward gear (or
in accordance with the manufacturer’s design requirements), and adjust the all-wheel drive
vehicle to the all-wheel drive state.
5.2.3.2 Drive the vehicle at a speed not greater than 5 km/h, until the front wheels approach the
corresponding terrain, then, brake and stop, keep the gear unchanged, release the brake pedal,
select an appropriate throttle opening, pass the corresponding terrain facilities, and observe the
movement of the vehicle and whether its components are in contact with or collide with the
terrain facilities, or whether there is inter-component interference during the process of passing
the corresponding terrain.
5.2.3.3 During the process of the vehicle passing the terrain, if the vehicle, except the wheels,
does not contact or collide with the terrain facilities, or there is no inter-component interference,
and in the parking inspection after passing, there is no collision damage of components, damage
or looseness of connectors, and abnormal operation of the assembly, etc., then, terrain facilities
with other parameters can be chosen; repeat 5.2.3.1 ~ 5.2.3.2 until reaching or approaching the
maximum value that can be passed; record each test condition in the corresponding record tables
(see Table B.4 ~ Table B.8).
5.2.3.4 During the process of the vehicle passing the terrain, if the vehicle, except the wheels,
does contact or collide with the terrain facilities, or there is inter-component interference, or if
there is a failure in passing, or in the parking inspection after passing, there is collision damage
of components, damage or looseness of connects, and abnormal operation of the assembly, etc.,
after analyzing the causes and recovering the vehicle to the normal state, in accordance with
Appendix C, re-select the parameters of the terrain and in accordance with 5.2.3.1 ~ 5.2.3.3, re-
conduct the test.
5.2.3.5 In accordance with the manufacturer’s requirements, during the twisted road test, the
vehicle can be stopped and start again when the diagonal wheels are at the highest point of the
twisted road, and record the vehicle starting.
5.2.4 Wading pools
5.2.4.1 Place the manual transmission in the lowest forward gear, and if there is an auxiliary
transmission gear, it shall be selected in accordance with the manufacturer’s requirements.
Place the automatic transmission in the forward gear (or in accordance with the manufacturer’s
design requirements), and adjust the all-wheel drive vehicle to the all-wheel drive state.
5.2.4.2 In accordance with the technical requirements for wading specified by the vehicle
manufacturer, check and adjust the technical condition of the vehicle. Electric passenger cars
shall satisfy the wading requirements specified in GB 38032, and other electric vehicles shall
satisfy the wading requirements specified in GB 18384.
5.2.4.3 Steadily drive at an initial speed of no more than 10 km/h into a wading pool with a
selected depth, and drive for at least 500 m. If the pool distance is less than 500 m, the test shall
be repeated, so that the cumulative wading distance is not less than 500 m, and the total test
time, including the vehicle outside the pool, shall be less than 20 min.
5.2.4.4 After the vehicle passes the wading pool, if there is no water ingress in the cab, luggage
compartment, air filter element, carbon tank and various oil fluids, the starter, clutch, brake
system, bottom guard, electrical accessories and instruments are normally working, and the
insulation resistance of the electric vehicle is normal, the depth of the wading pool can be
adjusted, repeat 5.2.4.1 ~ 5.2.4.3, until reaching or approaching the maximum value that can be
passed. Record the wading depth, passing time, passing distance and passing conditions in the
corresponding record table (see Table B.9).
5.2.4.5 During the wading process, if the engine flames out, or water enters the cab, luggage
compartment, air filter element, carbon tank and various oil fluids after the vehicle passes the
wading pool, the starter, clutch, brake system, bottom guard, electrical accessories and
instruments are abnormally working, and the insulation resistance of the electric vehicle is
abnormal, after analyzing the causes and recovering the vehicle to the normal state, in
accordance with Appendix C, re-select the depth of the wading pool and in accordance with
5.2.4.1 ~ 5.2.4.4, re-conduct the test. During the wading process, if the engine flames out, it is
not suitable to start again, and it can be dragged out of the wading pool. If the manufacturer has
a demand for re-start verification, it can also be implemented in accordance with the actual
requirements.
5.2.5 Side slopes
5.2.5.1 Place the manual transmission in the lowest gear, and if there is an auxiliary transmission
gear, it shall be selected in accordance with the manufacturer’s requirements. Place the
automatic transmission in the forward gear (or in accordance with the manufacturer’s design
requirements), and adjust the all-wheel drive vehicle to the all-wheel drive state.
5.2.5.2 Park the vehicle on the junction near the side slope.
5.2.5.3 After starting, pass the side slope at a constant speed of not greater than 10 km/h. The
heading direction of the vehicle shall be parallel to the direction of the side slope road surface,
and respectively drive forward and backward once.
5.2.5.4 If the vehicle does not appear to slide down the side slope or roll over, or the instrument
does not issue a failure warning during the driving, side slopes with other parameters can be
chosen. Repeat 5.2.5.1 ~ 5.2.5.3, until reaching or approaching the maximum gradient that can
be passed. Record the side slope gradient, side slope length, passing time and passing conditions
in the corresponding record table (see Table B.10).
5.2.5.5 If the vehicle has a tendency to slide down the side slope or roll over, or the instrument
issues a failure warning during the driving, after analyzing the causes and recovering the vehicle
to the normal state, in accordance with Appendix C, re-select the side slope, and in accordance
with 5.2.5.1 ~ 5.2.5.4, re-conduct the test.
5.2.6 Ramps
5.2.6.1 The vehicle can drive up / down the ramps in forward gear and up / down the ramps in
reverse gear.
Tanαm  100%---the maximum gradeability;
α1---the actual angle of gradient during the test, expressed in ();
Ga---the maximum design total mass of the vehicle, expressed in (kg);
i1---the lowest gear overall speed ratio;
i2---the actual overall speed ratio;
Ga1---the actual total mass of the vehicle, expressed in (kg);
f---the rolling resistance coefficient, generally take 0.01.
5.3 Soft Ground Passing Capability
5.3.1 Test preparation
5.3.1.1 In accordance with the manufacturer’s design requirements, and Appendix D, select the
soft ground test site; before the test, the vehicle shall be thoroughly warmed up.
5.3.1.2 In the selected test site, divide the predicted road section and the measurement road
section, with each section not less than 20 m, and mark them.
5.3.1.3 The test vehicle shall be equipped with instruments and equipment, such as: wheel
tachometer, speedometer and engine tachometer, etc.
5.3.1.4 Place the manual transmission gear in the lowest forward gear (except for rolling
resistance coefficient and rut depth measurement). If there is an auxiliary transmission gear,
place it also in the lowest forward gear. Place the automatic transmission in the forward gear
(or in accordance with the manufacturer’s design requirements) and adjust the all-wheel drive
vehicle to the all-wheel drive state.
5.3.1.5 Adjust the vehicle to the maximum design total mass state.
5.3.2 Rolling resistance coefficient and rut depth
5.3.2.1 Park the test vehicle on the predicted road section and place the transmission in neutral.
5.3.2.2 The tractor is connected to the test vehicle through a drawbar and a tension gauge. Keep
the height of the drawbars at both ends of the test vehicle and the tractor consistent, and coincide
with the vertical plane of the longitudinal centerline of the test vehicle.
5.3.2.3 The tractor tows the test vehicle at a speed not greater than 5 km/h to pass the
measurement road section at a constant speed. Collect the vehicle speed and towing force (F).
5.3.2.4 Record the speed and towing force of the test vehicle. After passing, measure the height
difference between the lowest point of the rut contact surface and the plane of the measurement
road section, and record it as the rut depth.
......

BASIC DATA
Standard ID GB/T 12541-2023 (GB/T12541-2023)
Description (Translated English) Motor vehicles passing capacity test method
Sector / Industry National Standard (Recommended)
Classification of Chinese Standard T04
Classification of International Standard 43.020
Word Count Estimation 24,222
Date of Issue 2023-05-23
Date of Implementation 2023-12-01
Older Standard (superseded by this standard) GB/T 12541-1990
Drafting Organization Unit 63969 of the Chinese People's Liberation Army, China Automotive Technology and Research Center Co., Ltd., Beijing Automotive Group Off-Road Vehicle Co., Ltd., Xiangyang Da'an Automobile Testing Center Co., Ltd., Anhui Jianghuai Automobile Group Co., Ltd., SAIC-GM-Wuling Automobile Co., Ltd., Chery Automobile Co., Ltd. limited company
Administrative Organization National Automotive Standardization Technical Committee (SAC/TC 114)
Proposing organization Ministry of Industry and Information Technology of the People's Republic of China
Issuing agency(ies) State Administration for Market Regulation, National Standardization Management Committee