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GB 50959-2013: PDF in English
GB 50959-2013
NATIONAL STANDARD OF THE
PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF CHINA
UDC
P GB 50959-2013
Load code of nonferrous metals engineering structures
ISSUED ON. DECEMBER 19, 2013
IMPLEMENTED ON. JULY 01, 2014
Issued by. Ministry of Housing and Urban-rural Development of PRC;
General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and
Quarantine of PRC.
Table of Contents
Foreword... 6 
1 General provisions... 8 
2 Terms and symbols... 8 
2.1 Terms... 8 
2.2 Symbols... 12 
3 Classification of loads and representative values of loads... 13 
3.1 Classification of loads... 13 
3.2 Representative values of loads... 13 
4 Combination of loads... 14 
4.1 General requirement... 14 
4.2 Combination values of load effect... 15 
4.3 Load coefficients... 19 
4.4 Reduction of variable loads... 20 
5 Permanent load... 21 
6 Variable load... 22 
6.1 Variable load on floor and ground... 22 
6.2 Dynamic machine load... 23 
6.3 Crane load... 24 
6.4 Foundation load of industrial furnace... 26 
6.5 Load of pipeline and equipment... 27 
6.6 Load of storage material... 27 
6.7 Other loads... 28 
7 Indirect action... 29 
7.1 Thermal action... 29 
7.2 Other actions... 30 
8 Accidental loads... 31 
8.1 General requirement... 31 
8.2 Explosion load... 31 
8.3 Other loads... 32 
9 Loading condition... 33 
9.1 General requirement... 33 
9.2 Content of load condition... 33 
9.3 Assessment of load condition... 38 
9.4 Other regulations... 38 
Appendix A Variable load on floor and ground f mine engineering... 40 
Appendix B Variable load on floor and ground of metallurgical engineering... 43 
Appendix C Variable load on floor and ground of metal processing engineering... 57 
Appendix D Physical parameters of materials commonly used for engineering... 63 
Appendix E Dynamic effect coefficient of machines commonly used for engineering
... 65 
Appendix F Simplified calculation of natural vibration frequency of reinforced concrete
ribbed floor... 67 
Explanation of wording in this Code... 71 
References... 72 
Load code of nonferrous metals engineering structures
1 General provisions
1.0.1 This Code is formulated, in order to meet the needs of non-ferrous metal
engineering construction, AND meet the requirements of industrial buildings and
structures, that are safe, applicable, economically reasonable.
1.0.2 This Code is applicable to the structural design of the main works and auxiliary
facilities, for new construction and expansion of non-ferrous metal mining, smelting,
processing projects.
1.0.3 The actions, which are involved in the design of non-ferrous metal engineering
structures, shall include direct actions (i.e., loads) and indirect actions (including
temperature, deformation, etc.). This Code mainly stipulates the direct effect; the
relevant provisions also apply to the indirect effect.
1.0.4 All kinds of loads and actions, which are used in non-ferrous metal engineering
structures, shall not only comply with this Code, but also comply with the current
relevant national standards.
2 Terms and symbols
2.1 Terms
2.1.1 Action
It is divided into direct action and indirect action. The concentrated or distributed force,
which is exerted on the structure, is a direct action, that is, a load; the cause of the
external deformation or restrained deformation of the structure is an indirect action.
2.1.2 Permanent load
A load, whose value does not change with time, OR whose change is negligible as
compared to the average value, OR whose change is monotonic and can approach the
limit value, during the service life of the structure.
2.1.3 Variable load
A load, whose value varies with time AND whose variation is not negligible, as
compared to the mean, during the service life of the structure.
2.1.4 Accidental load
A load, which does not necessarily occur, during the service life of the structure;
however, once it occurs, its value is large AND has a short duration.
2.1.5 Equivalent uniform live load
A load, whose actual load that is discontinuously distributed is replaced by a uniform
load, so that the load effect obtained on the structure can be consistent with the actual
load effect.
2.1.6 Working load
Under normal production conditions, the load on the floors and grounds, which is
comprehensively generated by operators and their routine tools and appliances, the
quantitative materials, semi-finished products, finished products, small mobile
conveying devices necessary for production, as temporally stored in the production
process.
2.1.7 Overhauling load
Under abnormal production conditions, the load on the floor and ground, which is
generated comprehensively by the maintenance, overhaul, testing of production devices
such as machines and equipment, the large stacking of spare parts, materials, operating
equipment in a short period of time, as well as the large mobile transportation equipment
in the process of maintenance and testing.
2.1.8 Crane load
The load, in the vertical direction, horizontal lateral direction, horizontal longitudinal
direction, etc., on the plant structure, which is generated by the crane, when it lifts and
transports heavy objects.
2.1.9 Load of amassed ashes
The load, which is caused by the accumulation of ash and the ash-cleaning facilities, in
the area of roofs, skylights and their wind-shielding facilities, of the workshops and
warehouses where a large amount of soot and dust are generated, as well as their
adjacent buildings, under certain ash cleaning systems and facilities conditions.
2.1.10 Installation load
The temporary additional load, which acts on the structure and components, under the
construction and installation state of the engineering structure.
2.1.11 Autocars and locomotives load
For variable loads, the load value, that makes the exceeding probability of the combined
load effect, in the design reference period, tend to be consistent to the corresponding
probability of the load, which appears alone; OR the load, that makes the combined
structure have a uniformly specified reliability index.
2.1.22 Quasi-permanent value
For variable loads, the load the total time beyond which is about half the design
reference period, in the design reference period.
2.1.23 Frequent value
For variable loads, in the design reference period, the load the total time beyond which
is the specified smaller ratio OR the exceeding frequency is the load value of the
specified frequency.
2.1.24 Load effect
The reactions of structures or structural members, which are caused by loads, including
internal forces, deformations, cracks, etc.
2.1.25 Load combination
When designing according to the limit state, the provision on various design loads,
which occur at the same time, in order to ensure the reliability of the structure.
2.1.26 Fundamental combination
When calculating the limit state of bearing capacity, the combination of permanent load
and variable load.
2.1.27 Accidental combination
A combination of permanent loads, variable loads, and an accidental load, for the
calculation of the ultimate limit state. The combination of permanent load and variable
load, when the damaged structure is subject to overall stability check, after accidental
event occurs.
2.1.28 Nominal combination
In the calculation of the limit state of normal service, it adopts the nominal value or the
combination value, as the combination of the representative value of the load.
2.1.29 Quasi-permanent combination
In the calculation of the limit state of normal service, for the variable load, it adopts the
quasi-permanent value as the combination of the representative value of the load.
2.1.30 Dynamic effect coefficient
For structures and components, which bear small dynamic loads, when designed
approximately based on static force according to engineering experience, the weight of
the machine (equipment) is multiplied by the increase factor of the dynamic effect.
2.2 Symbols
Gk - The nominal value of permanent load;
Qk - The nominal value of variable load;
SGk - The nominal value of permanent load effect;
SQk - The nominal value of variable load effect;
SAd - The design value of accidental load effect;
Sd - The design value of the load combination effect, in the limit state of the bearing
capacity;
Sds - The design value of the load combination effect, in the limit state of normal use;
Rd - The design value of the resistance of the structural member;
C - The specified limits required for normal use, which are reached by the structure or
member;
γG - The partial coefficient of permanent load;
γQ - The partial coefficient of variable load;
γ0 - The structural importance coefficient;
φc - The combined value coefficient of variable load;
φq - The quasi-permanent value coefficient of variable load;
φf - The frequent value coefficient of variable load;
γL - Adjustment coefficient for the design working life of the variable load;
qce - The nominal value of the explosion equivalent uniform static load, which acts on
the structural member;
Kds - The dynamic coefficient for explosion load calculation;
Pc - The maximum pressure value of the uniformly distributed dynamic load, which
the characteristics of the structure used.
3.2.2 When determining the representative value of variable load, it shall use a
design reference period of 50 years.
3.2.3 The nominal value of load shall be selected, in accordance with the relevant
provisions of Chapters 5 ~ 8 and Appendix A ~ Appendix C of this Code, as well as the
current national standard "Load code for the design of building structures" GB 50009.
3.2.4 The design value of the load shall be the product -- of the representative value of
the load, such as the nominal value and the combined value, multiplied by the partial
coefficient of the load. The selection of partial coefficient of load shall comply with the
relevant provisions of Article 4.3 of this Code.
3.2.5 When designing the limit state of the bearing capacity of the structure, the variable
load shall be combined, according to the provisions; the value of the combined load
shall be used, as the representative value of the load. The combined value of the variable
load shall be the product -- of the nominal value of the variable load multiplied by the
combined value coefficient. The selection of the combined value coefficient shall
comply with the relevant provisions of Article 4.3 of this Code.
3.2.6 When carrying out the design of the normal service limit state of the structure, the
nominal combination, quasi-permanent combination or frequent combination of the
load shall be adopted, according to different requirements. The nominal value, frequent
value or quasi-permanent value of the variable load shall be used, as the representative
value of the load. The quasi-permanent value of the variable load shall be the product -
- of the nominal value of the variable load multiplied by the coefficient of the quasi-
permanent value. The frequent value of the variable load shall be the product -- of the
nominal value of the variable load multiplied by the coefficient of the frequent value.
The selection of quasi-permanent value coefficient and frequent value coefficient shall
comply with the relevant provisions of Article 4.3 of this Code.
3.2.7 When the dynamic calculation of the engineering structure is carried out, the
representative value of the variable load on the floor shall be determined, according to
the engineering experience and the actual requirements of the design. It shall comply
with the relevant provisions of the relevant standards for the vibration calculation of the
building structure.
4 Combination of loads
4.1 General requirement
4.1.1 The structural design of non-ferrous metal engineering shall distinguish the
design conditions, according to different production conditions and environmental
calculating the primary beam, secondary beam, slab; when calculating the walls,
columns, foundations of multi-floor and high-rise factory buildings, it can be reduced,
according to the number of floors, OR according to the engineering experience and
actual situation.
4.4.2 The overhauling load of the factory floor shall only be used for the check
calculation of the directly bearing floor slab, secondary beam, primary beam,
supporting column and other structural components; the reduction of the load value
shall meet the following requirements.
1 Check the directly bearing slab and its secondary beam. The actual overhauling
load shall be taken and should not be reduced;
2 Check and calculate the primary beams and columns of the bearing floor. When
the subordinate area is greater than or equal to 25 m2, the load can be reduced,
meanwhile the reduction coefficient should be selected, according to the following
provisions.
1) When the overhauling load is greater than 4.0 kN/m2 AND less than or equal
to 10.0 kN/m2, it should be taken as 0.90;
2) When the overhauling load is greater than 10.0 kN/m2, it should be taken as
0.80.
4.4.3 For the variable load on the ground of the factory building, it can be reduced when
it is used for checking and calculating the underground structural components. When
the variable load is greater than 5.0 kN/m2 AND the subordinate area is greater than or
equal to 50 m2, the reduction coefficient of the load can be taken as 0.80.For the factory
floor of non-ferrous metal processing engineering, the reduction of variable load shall
comply with the relevant provisions of Appendix C of this Code.
4.4.4 When carrying out the design check calculation of engineering technical
transformation, structural emergency reinforcement, seismic reinforcement, it should
select corresponding correction coefficient, according to the reinforcement design
working life or subsequent service life of the project, to adjust the nominal value of the
variable load. It shall comply with the relevant provisions of the current national
standard "Design code for strengthening concrete structure" GB 50367 and "Technical
specification for seismic strengthening of buildings" JGJ 116.
5 Permanent load
5.0.1 The permanent load shall include various structural components, enclosure and
partition components, building accessories, thermal insulation and protective surface
layers of the project, etc. The nominal value of the load shall be its own weight, OR be
determined, through calculation, using such parameters as the volume of the component
unit and the gravity density of the material.
5.0.2 The permanent load shall also take into account of the weight of the equipment,
kilns, tanks, facilities and other production process devices that are fixedly supported
on the plant structure or foundation, the weight of the long-term stored materials, the
weight of their associated pipes, platforms, filling, protection, etc. The nominal value
of the load shall be calculated, according to the actual project.
5.0.3 The standard load value and relevant calculation parameters, such as the pressure,
hydraulic pressure, prestress, etc., of the long-term action of soil and bulk material, shall
comply with Appendix D of this Code and the relevant provisions of the current national
standard "Code for design of reinforced concrete silos" GB 50077.
5.0.4 When the production process conditions fluctuate or the gravity density of the
production medium (material) varies, the nominal value of the permanent load shall
adopt its upper limit or lower limit, respectively, based on the unfavorable or favorable
state of the engineering structure and components.
6 Variable load
6.1 Variable load on floor and ground
6.1.1 The variable load of the floor can be divided into working load and overhauling
load, which should meet the following requirements.
1 The variable load of the floor of the production workshop shall be valued,
according to the actual load of the production process operation, etc., meanwhile it
shall be expressed as a uniformly distributed equivalent load. The production
operation and overhauling load values of the mining, smelting, processing and
other engineering floors should be selected from Appendix A ~ Appendix C of this
Code.
2 The working load of the main floor, in the operation area of the production
workshop, should not be less than 4.0 kN/m2;
3 For platforms without production devices such as machines and equipment, and
without process operation requirements, as well as steel platforms and steel
walkway slabs, which are only used for staff patrolling and inspection, the working
load value should not be less than 2.0 kN/m2.For the visiting corridor set up in the
workshop, the working load can be 3.5 kN/m2.
6.1.2 The working loads on the floors of the following areas, in the workshop building,
shall be determined, according to the relevant professional load conditions. It should
not be less than the following limits.
values, such as disturbance force and disturbance moment, which are generated by
rotating and reciprocating machines during normal operation, as well as the relevant
parameter values such as impact mass and impact speed during operation of impact
operating machines. The dynamic machine load shall comply with the relevant
provisions of the current national standard "Code for design of dynamic machine
foundation" GB 50040.
6.2.3 During the operation of the dynamic machine, when the operating environment
and parameters change and abnormality occurs, it shall obtain the extreme value of the
load and its corresponding technical requirements.
6.2.4 When the working speed of the machine is low, the power is small, the difference
between the natural frequency of the structure and the frequency of the disturbance
force is large, THEN, it may use the dynamic effect coefficient, etc., to replace the
dynamic action of the structure. For the dynamic machine, which is installed on the
concrete beam slab, it may be checked and calculated, according to the relevant
provisions of Appendix E and Appendix F of this Code.
6.3 Crane load
6.3.1 The vertical load of the crane shall be the maximum wheel pressure value and the
minimum wheel pressure value, that occur during the operation of the crane. The
standard load value shall be determined, according to the selection and configuration of
the crane.
6.3.2 The horizontal load of the crane can be divided into horizontal longitudinal load
and horizontal lateral load. The nominal value of its load shall comply with the relevant
provisions of the current national standard "Load code for the design of building
structures" GB 50009.
6.3.3 The working level (A1 ~ A8) of the crane shall be divided and determined,
according to the relevant provisions of the current national standard "Design rules for
cranes" GB/T 3811, combined with the actual situation of the production process.
6.3.4 When calculating the strength, stability, connection strength of crane beams, crane
trusses and their braking structures of grade A6 and above, according to the current
national standard "Design rules for cranes" GB/T 3811, it shall also calculate the lateral
horizontal force (that is, the rail clamping force), due to the swinging of crane. It shall
also comply with the relevant provisions of the current national standard "Code for
design of steel structures" GB 50017.
6.3.5 For the calculation of plant frame and bent frame structure, as well as the selection
of the number of cranes involved in the combination, where the production process has
specific requirements, it shall be selected according to the actual situation; where there
are no specific requirements, it should comply with the following requirements.
1 When calculating each frame and bent frame of a single-story crane workshop, the
number of participating cranes should meet the following requirements.
1) For the vertical load of single-span workshop cranes, the number of cranes
participating in the combination should not be less than 2;
2) For the vertical load of multi-span workshop cranes, the number of cranes
participating in the combination should not be more than 4;
3) For the horizontal load of a single-span or multi-span workshop, the number
of cranes participating in the combination should not be more than 2.
2 When calculating each frame and bent frame of a double-floored crane workshop,
the number of participating cranes should meet the following requirements.
1) For the vertical load of double-deck cranes in a single-span workshop, the
number of cranes on the upper and lower floors, which participate in the
combination, should not be more than 2, respectively; meanwhile when the
lower cranes are fully loaded, the upper cranes shall be calculated as no-load.
2) For the vertical load of the double-deck cranes in the multi-span workshop, the
number of cranes on the upper and lower floors, which participate in the
combination, should not be more than 4, respectively; meanwhile when the
lower cranes are fully loaded, the upper cranes shall be calculated as no-load;
when the upper crane is fully loaded, the lower crane should not be taken into
account.
3) For the horizontal load of a single-span or multi-span workshop, the number
of cranes participating in the combination should not be more than 2.
6.3.6 For the combination value coefficient, frequent value coefficient, quasi-
permanent value coefficient of crane load, AND when calculating the combination of
multiple cranes, the reduction coefficient of vertical load and horizontal load shall be
selected, in accordance with the relevant provisions of current national standard "Load
code for the design of building structures" GB 50009.
6.3.7 For a workshop which is equipped with only one crane, AND is only used for the
overhaul of the production process, where there is no possibility of adding more cranes,
the design of the workshop frame, bent frame and components may be calculated as 1
crane.
6.3.8 When checking the displacement and deformation of the plant structure and
components, the value of the crane load shall meet the following requirements.
1 When checking the deflection and fatigue of steel structure crane beams, crane
trusses and their braking beams and braking trusses, it shall adopt a maximum of 1
crane.
......

BASIC DATA
Standard ID GB 50959-2013 (GB50959-2013)
Description (Translated English) Load code of nonferrous metals engineering structures
Sector / Industry National Standard
Classification of Chinese Standard P73
Classification of International Standard 77.010
Word Count Estimation 126,171
Quoted Standard GB 50007; GB 50009; GB 50010; GB 50011; GB 50016; GB 50017; GB 50038; GB 50040; GB 50069; GB 50077; GB 50367; GB 50385; GB/T 50476; GB 50544; GB 50661; GB 50753; GB/T 3811; JGJ 116
Drafting Organization China ENFI Engineering Co., Ltd.
Administrative Organization Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development
Regulation (derived from) Announcement of the Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development, No. 258
Summary This standard applies to non-ferrous metal mining, smelting and processing all kinds of new projects, expansion of the structural design of the main project and ancillary facilities.