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TB/T 3548-2019 (TBT 3548-2019)

TB/T 3548-2019_English: PDF (TBT3548-2019)
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BASIC DATA
Standard ID TB/T 3548-2019 (TB/T3548-2019)
Description (Translated English) Strength design and test accreditation specification for rolling stock-General
Sector / Industry Railway & Train Industry Standard (Recommended)
Classification of Chinese Standard S51
Word Count Estimation 32,333
Date of Issue 2019-04-08
Date of Implementation 2019-11-01
Older Standard (superseded by this standard) TB/T 1335-1996
Regulation (derived from) Natural Resources Department Announcement No. 7 of 2019

TB/T 3548-2019
TB
RAILWAY INDUSTRY STANDARD
OF THE PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF CHINA
ICS 45.060.20
S 51
Partially replacing TB/T 1335-1996
Strength Design and Test Accreditation Specification
for Rolling Stock – General
ISSUED ON: APRIL 08, 2019
IMPLEMENTED ON: NOVEMBER 01, 2019
Issued by: National Railway Administration of the People’s Republic of
China
Table of Contents
Foreword ... 3
1 Scope ... 5
2 Normative References ... 5
3 Terms and Definitions ... 6
4 Coordinate System and Unit System ... 7
5 Classification of Rolling Stock ... 8
6 Structural Strength Requirements ... 9
7 Material Properties ... 24
8 Verification Procedures ... 24
9 Test Apparatus and Test Point Layout ... 26
Appendix A (Normative) Test Method of Structure Dynamic Strength ... 29
Appendix B (Informative) Commonly Used Materials and Mechanical Properties
of Rolling Stock ... 32
Appendix C (Normative) Strength Requirements of Main Structural Equipment
on the Vehicle ... 44
Bibliography ... 49
Strength Design and Test Accreditation Specification
for Rolling Stock – General
1 Scope
This Standard specifies the terms and definitions, coordinate system and unit system,
classification, structural strength requirements, material properties, verification
procedures, and test equipment and measurement point layouts for the strength
design and test of rolling stock.
This Standard is applicable to the strength design and test accreditation of rolling
stocks, EMUs, and passenger cars. Special rolling stocks and urban rail vehicles can
be implemented by reference (except for special test requirements).
2 Normative References
The following documents are essential to the application of this document. For the
dated documents, only the versions with the dates indicated are applicable to this
document; for the undated documents, only the latest version (including all the
amendments) is applicable to this document.
GB/T 228.1 Metallic Materials - Tensile Testing - Part 1: Method of Test at Room
Temperature
GB/T 4549 (all parts) Railway Vehicle Vocabulary
GB/T 32059 Fatigue Load Test Method for Windows, Doors of High Speed
Multiple Unit
TB/T 1451 Foreside Windscreen for Locomotives and Motor Units
TB/T 3094 Vestibule Diaphragm of Locomotive and Rolling Stock
TB/T 3107 Unit Combined Windows for Railway Passenger Car
TB/T 3108 Sliding Plug Door for Railway Passenger Car
TB/T 3263 Passenger Seat for Powered Car Train-set
TB/T 3266 General Technical Specifications for Doors of Locomotive
The integral welded parts that are used to connect the axle box and transmit the force
in the bogie; they are generally located between the primary suspension and the
secondary suspension.
NOTE: Rewrite GB/T 4549.2-2004, definition 3.1.
3.7 Exceptional load
Occasionally, the maximum load that does not affect the integrity of the rolling stock
and the normal operation.
NOTE: For example, the impact load that is generated by rolling stock during shunting, etc.
3.8 In-service load
A load that often occurs and does not affect the integrity and normal operation of the
rolling stock, but shall affect the fatigue performance of the rolling stock.
3.9 Connecting device for car body equipment
Fasteners for equipment installation on the car body and related local load-bearing
structures or installation structures.
NOTE: For example, traction transformer mounts, etc.
3.10 Connecting device for bogie frame equipment
Fasteners for equipment installation on the bogie frame and related local load-bearing
structure or installation structure.
NOTE: For example, the suspension base of the frame suspension traction motor.
3.11 Connecting device for axle-box equipment
Fasteners for equipment installation on the axle box and related local load-bearing
structure or installation structure.
NOTE: For example, speed sensor mounting bolts, etc.
4 Coordinate System and Unit System
4.1 Coordinate system
The coordinate system is shown in Figure 1. The longitudinal direction of the rolling
stock corresponds to the X-axis, the transverse direction corresponds to the Y-axis,
and the vertical direction corresponds to the Z-axis. Using the right-hand rule
control cars in relatively articulated power-concentrated EMUs are classified in this
category. Its structure type is identified as P.
5.5 Freight cars
The non-articulated railway vehicles used for the goods transportation are classified
into this category (excluding special freight cars such as long and large freight cars).
This group defines two structure types, and the corresponding type identifiers are as
follows:
a) Type F-I, for example: vehicles without shunting restrictions;
b) Type F-II, for example: vehicles that the hump shunting and push-off shunting
are not allowed.
6 Structural Strength Requirements
6.1 General requirements
6.1.1 Basic principles
6.1.1.1 When designing rolling stock and its parts, the necessary load-bearing capacity
shall be ensured. At the same time, the self-weight of rolling stock and its parts shall
be reduced as much as possible, and the overall bearing capacity of the structure shall
be fully utilized.
6.1.1.2 The capacity of the load-bearing members of the rolling stock without
permanent deformation and fracture shall be calculated and/or verified in accordance
with the verification procedures in Clause 8. The load-bearing components of rolling
stock shall be evaluated based on the following criteria:
a) It shall be able to withstand the maximum load during all operations, which is
defined as exceptional load in this Standard;
b) The operational load borne during the specified life span does not endanger the
safety of the structure.
6.1.1.3 The design of rolling stock shall ensure that the natural frequency of the car
body is different from the vibration frequency of the bogie suspension system, when it
is in use, to avoid resonance.
6.1.1.4 For newly designed structures of rolling stock, the rods, plates, or shells that
bear the compressive load shall be checked for stability by calculation or test to avoid
structural failure due to loss of stability. The connection nodes of all load-bearing
members shall have sufficient rigidity, and the structure shall not be unstable. For more
strength tests and/or fatigue tests, in accordance with the corresponding strength test
standards.
6.1.2.5 The line dynamic strength test shall be carried out in accordance with the
requirements of Clause 8 after the rolling stock is finished and before being put into
use. See Appendix A for the line dynamic strength test and evaluation method.
6.1.2.6 The weight of rolling stock shall be calculated in accordance with the provisions
of TB/T 3342.
6.1.3 Load conditions
Load conditions generally include exceptional load conditions and operating load
conditions; and each load condition may include one or more independent loads.
Depending on the different structures, all or part of the load conditions can be included
in the calculation and/or test.
During analysis and testing, the load shall be applied at an accurate position
corresponding to the actual situation in the application.
If it can be proved that different design loads or load conditions are more appropriate
than those specified in this Standard, they shall be used in preference. For special
operating conditions or design features, if technical demonstration can be provided,
lower load values are acceptable.
In order to verify the strength requirements, the combination of multiple loads that may
appear at the same time in the actual application of the rolling stock structure shall be
considered, and the most unfavourable load combination shall be selected for
verification.
6.1.4 Acceptance criteria
6.1.4.1 Utilization rate
Under the specified load conditions, calculations and/or tests shall be used to verify
that the entire load-bearing member of the rolling stock or any individual component or
any equipment connection device does not undergo permanent deformation or
damage. The utilization rate of components in Formula (2) shall be no greater than 1.
NOTE: it can be expressed by the following formula:
σcb – buckling critical stress, in MPa;
Lc – calculated or tested load, in N;
Lcb – buckling critical load, in N.
When the value of S3 is not specified in the strength standards of various parts of rolling
stock, it shall be selected according to the following provisions: safety coefficient S3 =
1.5.
Instability assessment standards is not applicable to components that have been
specifically designed to fail in a controlled manner.
6.1.6 Verification of fatigue strength
6.1.6.1 Overview
During its service life, the structure of rolling stock shall bear a large number of dynamic
loads of varying degrees; and the impact of dynamic loads is the most significant in
the dangerous parts of the structure. Examples of dangerous parts are as follows:
a) Direct bearing position (including equipment connection device).
b) Joints between components (such as welds, bolted joints).
c) The place where the geometric shape changes where the stress is concentrated.
The dangerous parts of the structure shall be confirmed, and the local features shall
be inspected in detail.
Take the test and/or calculation methods to verify the fatigue strength of rolling stock
structures. The test methods include the following two ones:
d) Bench test in laboratory.
e) Line dynamic strength test.
6.1.6.2 Simulation calculation of fatigue strength
The finite element simulation analysis method can be used when checking the fatigue
strength of the structural components of the rolling stock through simulation calculation.
The calculated load conditions shall include but not limited to the load conditions
specified by the standard.
6.1.6.3 Laboratory bench test
6.1.6.3.1 Static test to simulate operating load
6.1.6.4 Line dynamic strength test
The line dynamic strength test is carried out on the typical lines used by rolling stock;
and the fatigue strength of the structural parts is checked by measuring the actual
stress of the rolling stock structural parts during operation.
The dynamic strength check can be carried out by one of the following methods:
a) Fatigue limit method;
b) Fatigue cumulative damage method.
See Appendix A for the test method of line dynamic strength.
6.1.7 Stiffness verification
The rigidity requirement ensures that the deformation of the rolling stock structure is
within the specified space range and avoids unacceptable dynamic response.
Any special requirements and stiffness verification methods shall be specified in the
technical specifications.
NOTE: The required stiffness can be determined by the allowable displacement or a minimum
vibration frequency under the specified load. For specific requirements, refer to 6.1.1.3 and
other relevant standards or technical documents approved by both the supplier and the
purchaser.
6. 2 Car body
6.2.1 General requirements
6.2.1.1 The structure of the rolling stock shall meet the requirements of the
corresponding body strength standards.
6.2.1.2 The fatigue design life shall be determined for the rolling stock body structure
or substructure, and the life shall be no less than the design life of the rolling stock or
the scheduled maintenance period of the rolling stock.
6.2.2 Connection device for car body equipment
6.2.2.1 The connection device for car body equipment shall be designed in accordance
with the inertial load value proposed in the relevant clauses of the corresponding car
body standard. If the inertial load value is not provided in the relevant standard or
technical document, the following vibration acceleration corresponding to the inertial
load shall be used for evaluating the connection device for car body equipment and its
structural strength:
fatigue design life is lower than the design life of the rolling stock, consideration should
be given to replacing the expired parts during inspection, maintenance, and overhaul.
6.2.2.5 Impact protection shall prevent projectiles or other objects from entering the
vehicle:
a) The windshield of the rolling stock with people in front of the rolling stock should
have corresponding impact resistance;
b) In normal use, the roof of the free access area for passengers, staff or crew
should be able to withstand the impact energy generated by a cubic concrete
block with a mass of 100kg and a side length of 0.36m falling from a height of
3m from the roof of the car without being broken down. During the verification,
one side of the cube impacted the roof of the car when the concrete block fell.
6.3 Bogies and suspension parts
6.3.1 Bogie frame
The integral bogie frame of rolling stock shall meet the requirements of TB/T 3549.1.
6.3.2 Structural components of freight car bogies
Structural component such as bolsters and side frames of freight car bogies shall meet
the requirements of TB/T 3549.2.
6.3.3 Wheels and axles
The strength requirements of rolling stock wheels and axles meet the standards of
relevant products.
6.3.4 Bogie suspension parts
The strength requirements of bogie suspension components (including steel springs,
air springs, shock absorbers, etc.) shall meet the standards of relevant products.
6.3.5 Connecting device of bogie and car body
6.3.5.1 Exceptional load conditions
The connection device between the bogie and the car body shall individually bear the
following exceptional loads according to the actual force conditions:
a) The mass of the bogie is multiplied by the longitudinal load of ±3.0g (rolling stock,
EMU passenger car)/ ±5.0g (freight car) longitudinal acceleration;
b) The transverse load is the maximum value of the calculated value of (15 + P0/3)
× 2 and the bogie mass multiplied by 1.0g transverse acceleration; P0 is the static
The inertial mass of the traction motor and gearbox is determined according to the
structure type of the drive system.
6.3.6.2 Operating load conditions
6.3.6.2.1 The connection device for bogie frame equipment (except the connection
devices between the traction motor and the gearbox) shall be subjected to fatigue
assessment, and the inertial load shall be calculated according to the following
acceleration:
a) The vertical acceleration of ±6.0g at the centreline of the end wheelset; the
vertical acceleration of ±3.0g at the centreline of the bogie; the vertical
acceleration values at other positions shall be obtained by linear interpolation or
extrapolation.
b) A lateral acceleration of ±5.0g at the centreline of the end wheelset; and a lateral
acceleration of ±2.5g at the centreline of the bogie; the lateral acceleration values
at other positions shall be obtained by linear interpolation or extrapolation.
c) Longitudinal acceleration of ±2.5g.
The acceleration corresponding to the inertial load of the connection device
between the traction motor and the gearbox is selected according to the following
principles:
d) Axle-suspension traction motor and gearbox: the vertical acceleration is ±6.0g;
the lateral acceleration is ±5.0g; and the longitudinal acceleration is ±2.5g.
e) Frame suspension traction motor and gearbox: the vertical acceleration is ±3.0g;
the lateral acceleration is ±1.0g; and the longitudinal acceleration is ±2.0g.
The inertial mass of the traction motor and gearbox is determined according to the
structure of the drive system.
6.3.6.2.2 The fatigue design life of the connection device for bogie frame equipment
shall be determined, which shall be at least equal to the design life of the vehicle, or
the predetermined maintenance period when the equipment reaches the end of its
service life.
6.3.6.3 Vibration acceleration and force generated by the equipment
6.3.6.3.1 The acceleration of the inertial load calculated in 6.3.6.1 and 6.3.6.2 does not
include the local acceleration and force acting on the inside and on the surface of the
equipment. The structure shall be designed to withstand the influence from these local
accelerations or forces; and avoid local resonance.
6.3.6.3.2 The equipment that generates vibration acceleration and force shall at least
components of the on-board equipment and the accessories, fixtures and peripheral
structures installed on the vehicle shall also meet the requirements specified for the
equipment installed on the car body.
6.4.1.2 Except for trolleys that provide services to passengers on seats, other facilities
and equipment shall not be in a loose state.
6.4.1.3 Internal devices such as seat components, sleeper components, tea tables,
luggage racks and coat hooks shall be able to withstand the test loads specified in
Appendix C and meet the following requirements:
a) The components constituting the main load path shall be made of materials with
good ductility. When the load exceeds the verification value specified in Appendix
C, it can ensure that the overall structure has the plasticity and energy absorption
capacity after yielding;
b) All accessories of the main structure shall be kept intact under the load conditions
specified in Appendix C;
c) Under the load conditions specified in Appendix C, the force shall not change
suddenly due to bending, sudden change, instability, or cracking.
6.4.1.4 Seats, sleepers and tables shall meet the requirements of structural fatigue
strength. After the specified exceptional load is applied, permanent deformation within
an acceptable range is allowed and the following conditions are met:
a) The permanent deformation shall not cause injury to passengers.
b) There shall be no local deformation or displacement in the main structural
accessories, hinges or joints of the seat, sleeper, and table components, which
shall affect the integrity of the accessories, connectors, or hinges.
6.4.2 The main structural equipment on the vehicle
The main structural equipment on the vehicle includes external doors, side windows of
car body, seats, sleepers, tea tables, luggage racks and coat hooks, etc. The strength
requirements for the main structural equipment on the vehicle are shown in Appendix
C (except for freight cars).
6.5 Connection device at vehicle end
6.5.1 Coupler and buffer
The design of couplers and buffers shall meet the requirements of relevant standards
or technical conditions.
6.5.2 Windshield