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TB 10093-2017

Chinese Standard: 'TB 10093-2017'
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BASIC DATA
Standard ID TB 10093-2017 (TB10093-2017)
Description (Translated English) (Code for foundation and foundation design of railway bridges and culverts)
Sector / Industry Railway & Train Industry Standard
Word Count Estimation 299,223
Date of Issue 2017-01-02
Date of Implementation 2017-05-01
Older Standard (superseded by this standard) TB 10002.5-2005
Regulation (derived from) State-Railway-Technology-Regulation (2017) No.3

TB 10093-2017
Code for Design of Subsoil and Foundation for
Railway Bridge and Culvert
铁路桥涵地基和基础设计规范
Issued on October 18,2018
Issued by National Railway Administration of the People’s Republic of China
6 Pile Foundation
6.1 General Requirements
6.1.1 The type of pile foundation shall be determined in accordance with the following principles
the basis of the geological and hydrological conditions.
1 The driven pile may be applied to the slightly-loose and moderately-dense sandy soil, silt, flow
plastic and soft-plastic cohesive soil;the vibro-sinking pile may be applied to the sandy soil, silt,
cohesive soil and gravelly soil; the explosively-expanded base pile may be applied to the hard-plastic
cohesive soil, moderately-dense and dense sandy soil and silt.
2 The cast in-situ bored pile may be applied to all kinds of soil layers and rock strata.
3 The cast in-situ dug pile may be applied to the soil layers without groundwater or with a small
amount of groundwater.
4 The colonnade foundation may be applied to such bridge sites as in deep water, with without overburden, with rock surface fluctuation etc., and it may be supported in moderately dense soil layers or fresh rock strata.
6.1.2 The pile foundation may be designed as single-pile or multi-pile form.
6.1.3 The bottom elevation of the pile cap of pile foundation shall be determined with overall
consideration of the stress, geological conditions, water flow and construction conditions etc., and
shall comply with the following requirements.
1 In the frost-heaving soil zone the bottom elevation of the pile cap shall be at least 0.25 m below the frost line when the bottom of pile cap is located in the soil. When the bottom of pile cap is located in the non-frost-heaving soil layer, the burial depth of the pile cap is not subject to the freezing depth.
2 For rivers with drift ice, the bottom elevation of the pile cap shall be at least 0.25 m below the
bottom of the lowest ice layer (frost line).
3 In the navigation and rafting rivers, the bottom elevation of the pile cap shall be determined
with overall consideration of flood control, navigation, structural stress and construction conditions.
6.1.4 For the pile foundation, the friction pile and point bearing pile shall not be used at the
time. Friction piles with different diameter or materials or with a great difference in the pile tip
elevation shall not be used for the same pile foundation as well.
6.1.5 For important bridges with complex geological conditions, the allowable bearing capacity of
friction piles shall be determined through test piles.
6.2 Calculation
6.2.1 The allowable axial bearing capacity of single pile shall be calculated according to the material
strength of pile shaft and the rock and soil resistance respectively, and the smaller value shall be
taken. When the allowable bearing capacity of the pile is determined according to the rock and soil
resistance, it may be calculated according to Article 6.2.2.
6.2.2 The allowable bearing capacity of single pile may be determined according to the rock and soil
pile shaft embedded in the soil shall not be greater than the allowable compressive bearing capacity of single pile that is calculated according to the soil resistance in Article 6.2.2.
2 For the point bearing pile, the sum of axial compressive force borne by the pile top and dead
weight of the pile shaft shall not be greater than the allowable compressive bearing capacity of single pile that is calculated according to the uniaxial compressive strength of rock in Article 6.2.2.
3 For the tension pile, the difference calculated by subtracting the dead weight of pile shaft from
the tensile force borne by the pile top shall not be greater than the allowable tensile bearing capacity of single pile that is calculated according to the soil resistance in Article 6.2.2.The pile shall not be subjected to axial tension under the effect of the main force only.
4 Under the effect of the main force and additional force, the allowable axial compressive bearing capacity of the pile calculated according to Article 6.2.2 may be increased by 20%;under the effect of the main force and special load (except for the seismic force), the allowable axial compressive bearing capacity of the point bearing pile may be increased by 40% and that of the friction pile may be increased by 20%〜40%.
5 The pile foundation shall also be checked as a solid foundation according to Appendix E. When there is soft or weak soil layer below the pile foundation, the compressive stress of this soil layer shall also be checked according to Article 5.2.1.
6.2.7 For the pile foundation in the collapsible loess ground and soft ground, the effect of the negative frictional resistance of soil along the pile shaft shall be considered when collapse, consolidation and settlement may occur to the soil.
6.3 Structure
6.3.1 The pile diameter shall be determined according to the force magnitude, pile foundation form and construction conditions. The design diameter of the cast in-situ bored pile should not be less than 0.8 m and the diameter or side width of the cast in-situ dug pile should not be less than 1.25m.
6.3.2 Piles may be arranged in a row-column form or quincunx form and shall comply with the following requirements.
1 The distance between centers of tip of the driven pile shall not be less than 3 times the design
pile diameter and that of the vibro-sinking pile in the sandy soil shall not be less than 4 times the
design pile diameter. The distance between centers of tip of explosively-expanded base pile shall be
determined according to the construction method. For all kinds of piles mentioned above, the distance between centers of piles at the bottom of pile cap shall not be less than 1.5 times the design pile diameter.
2 The distance between centers of the cast in-situ bored (dug) friction pile shall not be less than
2.5 times the design pile diameter and that of the cast in-situ bored (dug) point bearing pile shall not
be less than twice the design pile diameter.
3 The distance between centers of the frictional bearing colonnade may be 2.5〜3 times the
outer diameter of the colonnade and that of the end bearing colonnade may be twice the borehole
diameter.
4 For all kinds of piles, the clear distance from the pile cap edge to the outermost piles shall not
be less than 0.5d and not smaller than 0.25 m when the pile diameter is not greater than 1 m, and
shall not be less than 0.3d and not smaller than 0.50 m when the pile diameter is greater than 1 m. For the cast in-situ bored pile, d is the design pile diameter;for the rectangular cross-sectional pile, d is the short side width of the pile.
6.3.3 The reinforcement and concrete of pile shaft shall comply with the following requirements.
1 The strength and reinforcement of the prefabricated reinforced concrete pile shall meet the bearing requirements for the pile as the foundation structure and for transportation and sinking of the pile.
2 The segment reinforcement may be adopted for the cast in-situ bored (dug) pile according to
the requirements for the internal force of pile shaft. When bundled reinforcement is adopted, no more than two steel bars should be used in each bundle. The main reinforcement diameter should not be less than 14 mm and the clear distance should not be less than 120 mm and shall not be less than 80 mm. The diameter of the stirrup may be 8 increased to 400 mm at the lower part of the friction pile. A skeleton stirrup with a diameter of 16 mm〜22 mm shall be provided every 2.0 m〜2.5 m along the length of the reinforcement cage. The thickness of reinforcement shall be determined according to the current Code for Durability Design Concrete Structure of Railway (TB 10005).
3 For the piles without the necessity of reinforcement for the concrete of pile shaft according to calculation, the structural connecting reinforcement shall be provided within the range of 4 m〜6 m at and the pile top and shall be extended into the pile cap. The reinforcement diameter may be 14 mm and the spacing may be 250mm.
4 The strength grade of the concrete for pile shaft shall not be lower than C30.
6.3.4 The segment length of the prefabricated pile may be determined according to the construction
conditions, but the number of joints shall be reduced. The strength of joints shall not be lower than
that of the pile shaft.
6.3.5 The thickness and reinforcement of the pile cap shall be determined according to the stress
conditions and shall comply with the following requirements.
1 The thickness of the pile cap should not be less than 1.5 m and the concrete strength grade
shall not be lower than C30.
2 When the pile foundation with the pile cap is arranged at a rigid angle, a layer of reinforcement
mesh shall be arranged at the bottom of the pile cap.
3 When the main reinforcements at pile top reinforcement mesh at the pile top shall not be cut off.
4 When the pile top is directly embedded in the pile cap and the compressive stress applied to the
pile cap from the pile top exceeds the local compressive stress (without considering the cohesive force between the pile shaft and the pile cap concrete in the calculation of the local compressive stress) of the pile cap concrete, 1 to 2 layers of reinforcement meshes with the diameter of not less than 12 shall be arranged above the top surface of each pile. The side length of these reinforcement meshes shall not be less than 2.5 times the pile diameter and the size of mesh aperture shall be 100 mmX100 mm to 150 mmX150 mm.
6.3.6 The extending of the main reinforcement at pile top into the pile cap for jointing shall comply
with the following requirements.
1 The extending length of the pile shaft into the pile cap should be 100 mm.
2 The extending length of the colonnade in the pile cap should be 150 mm〜200 mm.
3 For the extending length of the main reinforcement from the pile top into the pile cap
(calculated to the tangent point of the hook), the appropriate anchorage length of reinforcement shall be selected according to the reinforcement type and concrete grade of the pile foundation. The diameter of the stirrup shall not be less than 8 mm and the spacing may be 150.
Related standard:   TB 10301-2020  TB 10302-2020
   
 
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