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TB 10003-2016

Chinese Standard: 'TB 10003-2016'
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Standard ID TB 10003-2016 (TB10003-2016)
Description (Translated English) Code for design of railway tunnel
Sector / Industry Railway & Train Industry Standard
Word Count Estimation 332,333
Date of Issue 2016-10-24
Date of Implementation 2017-01-25
Older Standard (superseded by this standard) TB 10003-2005
Regulation (derived from) State-Railway-Technology-Regulation (2016) No.43

TB 10003-2016
Code for Design of Railway Tunnel
Issued on August 10,2017
Issued by National Railway Administration of the People’s Republic of China
1 General Provisions
1.0.1 This Code is developed to implement related laws and regulations of the nation and the technical
policies of the railway, to unify the technical standard for the design of railway tunnels, and to make
the design of railway tunnels meets the requirements safety, reliability, advanced technology, on
maturity, cost effectiveness, applicability, and environment protection.
1.0.2 This Code is applicable to the design of tunnels on standard-gauge railway projects.
1.0.3 The design of tunnels shall be based on the landform and geological features and the surrounding
environment factors, comprehensively considering the technical standard and the construction and
new operation conditions. The scheme of the tunnel shall be determined after risk assessment and technical
and economic comparison and analysis. The design of tunnels shall embody the design concept of being
people-oriented, serving for the transportation, energy conservation and environment protection, being
technically advanced, cost-effective, durable, and convenient for maintenance and repair.
1.0.4 The tunnel structure may be designed by plastic stage method and allowable stress method.
When it is designed by ultimate state method, the provisions in relevant standards shall be complied with.
1 .0.5 According to the length, the tunnels may be classified into short tunnels (with the length
being shorter than or equal to 500 m), medium-long tunnels (with the length ranging from 500 m to
3 000 m), long tunnels (with the length ranging from 3 000 m to 10 000 m) and extra-long tunnels
(with the length being more than 10 000 m).
Note. Tunnel length is the distance between tunnel portals, with the starting point and ending
point being the intersection of the railway centreline and the intersecting line between the portal face
and rail top surface. For double-track railway tunnels, the tunnel length shall be the length of the left
track: for tunnels in a railway station, the tunnel length shall be the length of the main line;for tunnels
with buffer structures, the tunnel length shall be calculated from the starting point of the buffer
1.0.6 According to the excavation span, the tunnels may be classified into small-span tunnels (with
the span ranging from 5 m to 8.5 m), medium-span tunnels (with the span ranging from 8.5 m to 12 m),
large-span tunnels (with the span ranging from 12 m to 14 m) and extra-large-span tunnels (with the
span being more than 14 m).
Note. The excavation span of the tunnel cross-section of the tunnel.
1.0.7 In tunnel prospecting, importance shall be attached to the influence of the tunnel works on the
ecological environment and the water resources. During tunnel construction, attention shall be paid to
land saving, energy conservation and protection of farmland and water conservancy facilities. Noise
control works at tunnel portals, muck disposal works, and drainage works etc. shall be designed
permanent works.
1 .0.8 Tunnels shall be in stable ground. The selection of the tunnel portal locations shall
follow the principle of “early entrance and late exit”.
3 Overall Design
3.1 General Requirements
3.1.1 In the survey and design of tunnels, the technical standard of the railway line, environment
and other factors shall be disaster prevention and protection, operation and
considered, and the location, structural type, construction method, construction period and project
investment etc. of the tunnel shall be determined rationally, to ensure the safety, reliability and
maintenance, rescue durability of the tunnel.
3.1.2 Tunnels should not run through zones with overly complex engineering geological conditions and
hydrogeological conditions and seriously unfavourable geological with karst, such as zones
underground rivers and goaf.
3.1.3 For extra-long double-track tunnels and double-track tunnels with complex geological
conditions, technical and economic comparison, and contrast shall be made between the scheme of single
double-track tube and the scheme of twin single-track tubes in accordance with the construction
methods, construction organization, and the arrangement of the works for operation, disaster
prevention, evacuation, and rescue etc.
3.1.4 In the design of tunnels located in urban areas, the influence of the construction and operation
of the tunnel on the environment, as well as the influence of the city planning and the surrounding
environment on the tunnel structure, shall be considered.
3.1.5 In the design of the lining cross-section of tunnels, rational structural shapes, and dimensions
shall be determined in accordance with the geological conditions, construction methods, environment
conditions and other factors.
3.1.6 In the construction plan of tunnels, rational progress rate and construction period shall be
planned in accordance with the construction methods, construction ventilation, construction drainage,
the mechanical equipment provided and the construction adits new construction risk control, as well as
3.1.7 In the design of the waterproofing and drainage of tunnels, enough attention shall be paid to
the treatment of the surface water and groundwater. The drainage system of the tunnel shall be smooth
and unblocked and shall meet the maintenance requirements.
3.1.8 The site conditions of the muck disposal area shall be investigated. The design of the muck
shall comply with the water conservation and environment protection requirements. The disposal
arrangement of the muck disposal sites shall not impact the safety of the nearby buildings (structures).
3.2 Selection of Tunnel Location
3.2.1 The plane locations of extra-long tunnels and tunnels with complex geological conditions shall
of technical and economic comparison and contrast on the basis of large scope of be selected by
geological investigations, considering the construction schemes, construction periods, related works and means operation conditions etc.
3.2.2 For railway line sections passing along rivers and by mountains, when the line passes the
sections by means of tunnels, the route selection shall comply with the following requirements.
1 The line should be moved to the mountain side so to avoid the adverse effect of the too thin
rock mass on the outside of the tunnel, river scouring and unfavourable geological conditions on the
stability of the tunnel.
2 Comparison and contrast shall be made between the short tunnel group scheme and the long
tunnel scheme.
3.2.3 For tunnels adjacent to attention shall be paid to the impact of the
collapse of the reservoir banks and the scouring of the rivers etc. on the stability of the tunnels.
3.2.4 The selection of the tunnel route in karst region shall comply with the following provisions.
1 The result of the geological interpretations of the remote sensing images shall be fully utilized,
the development of karst in the region shall be analysed and studied, and the tunnel shall be located
preferably in where the karst and karst water have relatively little developed.
2 The tunnel shall be located at the high position as far as possible. The tunnel should not pass
through seasonally alternating belts, horizontal runoff belts and deep slow flowing belts where karst
water develops.
3 Tunnels passing by mountains should be located along the side where karst develops little, and
the tunnels shall be located at positions higher than the karst water discharging belts.
4 Tunnels shall not pass through tectonic zones with seriously-developed karsts, negative relief,
with developed underground rivers, areas with huge caves, karst group, as well and karst water discharge areas.
5 The tunnel shall pass, with large angle, the contact
6 The tunnel shall be close to arid above the existing underground works or other underground
to intercept and discharge the groundwater under the effect of the depression cone formed by other underground works.
7 The longitudinal slope of the route shall preferably be double-spur shape, and the gradient of
the longitudinal slope in the tunnel should be increased appropriately.
8 When the route crosses the underground river, the tunnel shall be located above the roof of the
the underground river with large angle, and adequate safety thickness as underground river and
shall be ensured below the tunnel floor.
3.2.5 The selection of the tunnel route in regions with high ground temperature shall comply with
the following:
1 The tunnel shall be in ground with relative low ground temperature.
2 When the route passes through regions with high ground temperature, the plane and longitudinal profile of the
route shall be optimized so that the railway line can pass the region with high route location and short distance.
3 In valley region, the route should be located on the side close to the mountain and along the
river, so as to reduce the length of the construction adits.
3.2.6 In very cold and code regions, the tunnel shall be located as far as possible in areas with low
groundwater level, with relative low water content of surrounding rock and with relative small
freezing-thawing effect on the surrounding rock. The tunnel portals should be located at places with
little wind, but with good sunshine.
3.2.7 The tunnel shall not pass through the landslide zones, when it has to pass through the
landslide zones, the tunnel body shall be located in the stable ground at certain depth below the slide surface, and reliable engineering measures shall be taken.
3.5.7 Risk management reports shall be submitted in each design stage. For work sites with very
high risk grades and complex technologies, dedicated risk assessment reports shall be prepared.
3.6 Works for Disaster Prevention, Evacuation and Rescue
3.6.1 Works for disaster prevention, evacuation and rescue shall be designed for tunnels used for
passenger trains.
3.6.2 The design of the works for disaster prevention, evacuation and rescue shall follow the
principle of “people oriented, self-rescue as the main measure, safe for evacuation and convenient for rescue.
3.6.3 Emergency exits, refuge adits, emergency
facilities shall be arranged in accordance with the lengths, structural types and construction adit
conditions etc. of the tunnels (tunnel groups), and matching facilities such ventilation, emergency lighting, power supply, emergency communication and firefighting shall be
arranged in accordance with the necessity.
3.6.4 The design of the works for disaster prevention, evacuation and
following contents.
1 The overall design scheme. Determining the arrangement mode, scale, and number of the works
for disaster prevention, evacuation and rescue.
2 Determining the technical parameters of the civil works. the dimensions of the evacuation
passages; the intervals and cross-section dimensions of the connection passages; relevant technical
parameters of emergency rescue stations, emergency exits, refuge adits and protection doors etc.
3 The design of the equipment systems matching with the evacuation and
the ventilation system, emergency lighting system, power supply system, emergency communication
rescue as system, equipment monitoring system and fire-fighting system.
4 The interface design of the facilities and equipment for evacuation and rescue.
5 Emergency counterplan.
3.7 Interface Design
3.7.1 In the design of tunnels, the arrangement requirements of the equipment and facilities of other related disciplines in the tunnel shall be considered. The arrangement of the facilities in the tunnel shall to reduce the number of the equipment chambers. The interfaceable considered comprehensively between the tunnel and related disciplines shall have good transition and connection.
3.7.2 The arrangement of the interface among tunnels and subgrade, bridges and tracks shall comply so as with the following
1 Coordinated design shall be made for the protection of the side slopes
and the side slopes of the subgrade.
2 For railway line sections with the design speed being 160 km/h or above, transition sections
3 The drainage ditches in tunnels shall be smoothly connected with the drainage ditches of the
that the groundwater in the tunnels flow out smoothly. Subgrade.
4 The turning radius of the transition sections of the cable troughs between tunnels and
subgrade/bridges shall comply with the cable laying requirements of different disciplines.
5 When a tunnel is connected with a bridge, the top surface of the cover slabs of the side ditches.
Related standard:   TB 10090-2018  TB/T 1407.1-2018
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