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Technical Guidelines for Risk Assessment of Contaminated Sites
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Detail Information of HJ 25.32014; HJ25.32014 Description (Translated English): Environmental Protection Sector / Industry: Environmental Protection Industry Standard Word Count Estimation: 56,585 Date of Issue: 2/19/2014 Date of Implementation: 7/1/2014 Older Standard (superseded by this standard): HJ/T 251999 Regulation (derived from): Ministry of Environmental Protection Notice No. 14 of 2014
HJ 25.32014
Technical Guidelines for Risk Assessment of Contaminated Sites
People's Republic of China national environmental protection standards
Replacing HJ/T 251999
Technical Guidelines for Risk Assessment of Contaminated Sites
Posted on.20140219
20140701 implementation
Ministry of Environmental Protection released
Directory
1 scope of application .1
2 Normative references .1
3 Terms and definitions .1
4 working procedures and content .2
5 Hazard Identification Technical Requirements .2
6 Exposure Assessment Technical Requirements .3
7 toxicity assessment technical requirements .6
8 Risk Characterization Technical Requirements .6
9 Calculation of risk control value of the technical requirements 7
Appendix A (Normative) Exposure Assessment Recommendation Model 9
Appendix B (Normative) Pollutant nature parameters recommended value and extrapolation model 19
Appendix C (Normative) Calculations of carcinogenic risk and risk of the recommended model 33
Appendix D (Informative) Uncertainty Analysis Recommendation Model
Appendix E (Normative) Recommended model for calculating soil and groundwater risk control values
Appendix F (Normative) Pollutant diffusion and migration recommended model .46
Appendix G (informative) risk assessment model parameter recommended value .53
Foreword
In order to carry out "Environmental Protection Law of the People's Republic of China", protect the ecological environment, safeguard human health and strengthen the pollution of the site ring
Environmental protection supervision and management, standardize the risk assessment of human health in contaminated sites and formulate this standard.
This standard and the following standards belong to the same series of environmental protection sites contaminated sites.
Technical Guidelines for Site Environmental Investigation (HJ 25.12014)
Site Technical Guidelines for Environmental Monitoring (HJ 25.22014)
Guidelines for Remediation of Contaminated Sites Soil (HJ 25.42014)
Since the implementation of the above standards, the "Industrial Enterprise Soil Environmental Quality Risk Assessment Benchmark" (HJ/T 251999) abolished.
This standard specifies the principles, contents, procedures, methods and technical requirements for risk assessment of contaminated sites.
This standard is formulated by the Ministry of Environmental Protection Science and Technology Standards Division.
This standard is mainly drafted by. Nanjing Environmental Science Research Institute of MEP, Environmental Standards Institute of Environmental Protection,
Light Industry Environmental Protection Institute, Shanghai Institute of Environmental Sciences, Shenyang Institute of Environmental Sciences.
This standard was approved by the MEP on February 19,.2014.
This standard since July 1,.2014 implementation.
This standard is interpreted by the MEP.
Technical Guidelines for Risk Assessment of Contaminated Sites
1 scope of application
This standard specifies the principles, contents, procedures, methods and technical requirements for conducting human health risk assessment of contaminated sites.
This standard applies to the contaminated site human health risk assessment and contaminated sites soil and groundwater risk control value to determine.
This standard does not apply to lead, radioactive substances, pathogenic biological contamination and soil contamination risk assessment of agricultural land.
2 Normative references
This standard references the following documents in the terms. For undated references, the effective version applies to this standard
quasi.
GB 50137 Urban Land Classification and Planning and Construction Land Standards
GB/T 14848 groundwater quality standards
HJ 25.1 Site Environmental Investigation Technical Guidelines
HJ 25.2 Technical Guidelines for Site Environmental Monitoring
HJ 25.4 Guidelines for Soil Remediation in Contaminated Sites
3 Terms and definitions
The following terms and definitions apply to this standard.
3.1 site site
Soil, groundwater, surface water and the sum of all structures, facilities and living things within a parcel within the parcel.
Potential contaminated site potential contaminated site
Because of the production, operation, handling, storage of toxic and hazardous substances, piling up or handling of potentially hazardous waste, and from
Mining activities and other activities cause pollution, and pose a potential risk to human health or the ecological environment of the venue.
3.3 contaminated sites contaminated site
After investigation and risk assessment of potential contaminated sites, it is acceptable to confirm that the pollution hazard exceeds human health or ecological environment
Risk level of the site, also known as contaminated land.
3.4 soil soil
Loose layer of Earth's land surface composed of minerals, organic matter, water, air and biological organisms.
3.5 Focus on pollutants contaminant of concern
According to the pollution characteristics of the site and the stakeholders' opinions, identify the pollutants that need to be investigated and risk assessment.
3.6 exposure pathway exposure pathway
Contaminants reach sources of exposure through various routes from sources of contamination.
3.7 exposure route exposure route
Site soil and shallow groundwater pollutants migration and exposure to the human body and the way, such as oral intake, skin contact,
Breathing and so on.
3.8 contaminated sites health risk assessment health risk assessment for contaminated site
Based on the investigation of the site environment, the main ways of exposure to pollutants in soil and groundwater in contaminated sites are analyzed.
Assess the carcinogenic risk or level of harm to human health from contaminants.
3.9 Carcinogenic risk carcinogenic risk
The probability of a population being exposed to a carcinogenic effect of a contaminant that induces a carcinogenic disease or injury.
3.10 hazard hazard quotient
The ratio of the daily intake of contaminants to the reference dose is used to characterize the human exposure to noncarcinogenic contaminants via a single route
The level of harm.
3.11 Hazard index hazard index
The population is exposed to the sum of the hazard of a single contaminant in a variety of ways to characterize the human exposure to noncarcinogenic contaminants
To the level of harm.
3.12 acceptable risk level acceptable risk level
Risk levels that do not cause adverse or harmful health effects on exposed populations, including acceptable carcinogenic risks of carcinogens
Acceptable hazard to noncarcinogens. The standard singlepollutant acceptable carcinogenic risk level of 106, a single pollution
The acceptable hazard for the substance is 1.
3.13 Control values for soil and groundwater risk
According to the standards of land use, exposure scenarios and acceptable level of risk, using the standard risk assessment
Methods and site survey to obtain relevant data, calculate the content of soil pollutant limits and groundwater contaminant concentration
Degree limits.
4 working procedures and content
The risk assessment of contaminated sites includes hazard identification, exposure assessment, toxicity assessment, risk characterization, and soil
And groundwater risk control value calculation. The procedure for assessing the health risks of contaminated sites is shown in Figure 4.1.
4.1 hazard identification
Collect relevant information and data obtained during the environmental investigation stage of the site, and grasp the pollutionrelated pollutants in the soil and groundwater of the site
Concentration distribution, a clear plan of land use patterns, analysis of possible sensitive receptors, such as children, adults, groundwater bodies.
4.2 Exposure Assessment
On the basis of hazard identification, the possibility of focusing attention on pollutant migration and hazardous receptors in the site is analyzed to determine the site
Soil and groundwater pollutants, the main exposure routes and exposure assessment model to determine the value of the evaluation model parameters, the calculation of sensitive people
Population exposure to contaminants in soil and groundwater.
4.3 Toxicity assessment
On the basis of hazard identification, the analysis concerned about the harmful effects of pollutants on human health, including carcinogenic effects and noncarcinogenic effects
Effect, to determine the parameters associated with the pollutant of interest, including the reference dose, reference concentration, carcinogenic slope factor, and respiratory inhalation
Unit of carcinogenic factors.
4.4 Risk Characterization
Based on the exposure assessment and the toxicity assessment, the risk assessment model is used to calculate the single pollutant in soil and groundwater.
A single pathway of carcinogenic risk and hazard quotient, calculate the total carcinogenic risk and hazard index of a single pollutant, carry on the uncertainty score
Analysis.
4.5 Soil and groundwater risk control value calculation
Based on the risk characterization, determine whether the calculated risk value exceeds the acceptable risk level. Such as contaminated site wind
Risk assessment results do not exceed the acceptable level of risk, the end of the risk assessment work; such as contaminated site risk assessment results may exceed
Accept the risk level, then calculate the risk control value of pollutants of interest in soil and groundwater; if the survey results show that in the soil
Concerned that contaminants can migrate into the groundwater, the control value of the soil risk for groundwater protection is calculated. According to the calculation results,
Pay attention to contaminant soil and groundwater risk control values.
5 Hazard Identification Technical Requirements
5.1 Collection of relevant information
According to HJ 25.1 and HJ 25.2 on the site for environmental investigations and pollution identification, access to the following information.
1) more detailed site related information and historical information;
2) concentration data of contaminants in the soil and groundwater samples of the site;
3) physical and chemical properties of the site soil analysis data;
4) site (location) climate, hydrology, geology information and data;
5) Information on land use patterns, sensitive people and buildings in the site and surrounding plots.
Start risk assessment
Noncarcinogenic effects
Calculate the total carcinogenic risk and hazard index for single contaminants in soil and groundwater
Way of exposure
Is the risk acceptable?
Proposed soil and groundwater risk control values
Calculate the protection of groundwater
Soil risk control value
Calculate the site soil
Risk control value
Calculate site groundwater
Risk control value
Contamination related information Land use patterns
Concerned about the pollution of the spatial distribution of pollutants exposed crowd
Site environment survey information
Determine the exposure scenarios to analyze health effects
Exposure Model Model Parameter Carcinogenicity
Calculate exposure to determine contaminant parameters
Uncertainty analysis
End
Calculate the single carcinogen risk and hazard quotient of single pollutant in soil
Calculate the carcinogenic risk and risk of single pollutants in groundwater through a single route
Figure 4.1 Procedure and content of risk assessment of contaminated sites
5.2 determine the attention to pollutants
According to the site environment survey and monitoring results, potential risk to sensitive receptors such as population needs to be assessed
Contaminants, identified as pollutants of concern.
6 Exposure Assessment Technical Requirements
6.1 Analysis of exposure scenarios
6.1.1 Exposure scenario refers to the site under the specific land use patterns, site pollutants through different exposure path migration and reach the recipient population
Case. According to different modes of land use patterns of activities of the crowd, this standard provides two types of typical land under the storm
Lu scene, that is, residential land as the representative of the sensitive land (referred to as "sensitive land") and industrial land as the representative of nonsensitive
Sense of land use (referred to as "nonsensitive land") exposure scenarios.
6.1.2 Under sensitive land use, both children and adults may experience longterm exposure to site pollution and health hazards. For cause
Cancer effects, taking into account the lifetime exposure risk of the population, the lifetime of the pollutants is generally assessed on the basis of exposure during childhood and adulthood
Cancer risk; for noncarcinogenic effects, children are lighter and have higher exposure, and contaminants are generally assessed on the basis of childhood exposure
The noncarcinogenic effects of harm.
The sensitive land use methods include residential land (R), cultural facilities (A2), urban land for construction in accordance with GB 50137,
Primary and secondary school sites (A33) and social welfare facilities (A6).
6.1.3 Under nonsensitive land use, adults have long exposure periods and high frequency of exposure, and are generally assessed for exposure to adulthood
Carcinogenic risk and noncarcinogenic effects.
Nonsensitive sites include industrial land (M) in urban construction land stipulated by GB 50137, land for logistics and warehousing (W
), Commercial service facilities (B), public facilities (U) and so on.
6.1.4 In addition to the standard 6.1.2 and 6.1.3 GB 50137 provisions of urban construction sites, should be analyzed specific site crowd violence
The possibility of exposure, the frequency of exposure and the period of exposure, etc., with reference to sensitive or nonsensitive land use scenarios
Risk assessment appropriate to sitespecific exposure scenarios.
6.2 to determine the route of exposure
6.2.1 For sensitive and nonsensitive areas, this standard specifies the 9 main exposure routes and exposure assessment model, including the
Mouth into the soil, skin contact with soil, inhalation of soil particulate matter, inhalation of outdoor air from the surface soil of gaseous pollutants,
Inhalation of gaseous pollutants from the underlying soil in the outdoor air, inhalation of gaseous pollutants in the indoor air from the underlying soil
Six soil pollutant exposure routes and inhalation of gaseous pollutants from groundwater in outdoor air, inhalation of indoor air from
Sewage gas pollutants, drinking groundwater total of three kinds of groundwater pollutants exposure.
6.2.2 The main ways of exposure under the specific land use mode should be determined according to the actual situation and the parameters of the exposure assessment model should be as far as possible
According to the field survey. When contaminated groundwater in and around the site should be considered in the risk assessment of groundwater related violence
Lu way.
6.3 Calculate the sensitive soil and groundwater exposure
6.3.1 oral intake of soil approach
Under sensitive land use, the population may be exposed to contaminated soil due to oral intake of soil. For a single pollutant carcinogenic and
Noncarcinogenic effects, the calculation of the corresponding soil exposure to this model recommended Appendix A formula (A.1) and formula (A.2).
6.3.2 skin contact with soil pathways
Under sensitive land use patterns, people may be exposed to contaminated soil due to skin contact with the soil. For a single pollutant carcinogenic and
Noncarcinogenic effects, the calculation of the corresponding soil exposure to this model recommended Appendix A formula (A.3), formula (A.4), the public
(A.5) and formula (A.6).
6.3.3 inhalation of soil particles pathways
Under sensitive land use patterns, people may be exposed to contaminated soil as they inhale particulate matter from the soil in the air. For a single
The carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic effects of pollutants, the calculation of the corresponding soil exposure to this model recommended Appendix A formula (A.7) and
Formula (A.8).
6.3.4 Inhalation of gaseous pollutants from surface soil in outdoor air
In sensitive land use, the population may be exposed to contaminated soil due to inhalation of gaseous contaminants from surface soil in outdoor air
Soil. For a single pollutant oncogenic and noncarcinogenic effects, calculate the route corresponding to soil exposure recommended model see Appendix A
Formula (A.9) and Formula (A.10).
6.3.5 Inhalation of gaseous pollutants from outdoor soil in the lower atmosphere
In sensitive land use, the population may be exposed to contaminated soil due to inhalation of gaseous contaminants from the underlying soil in outdoor air
Soil. For a single pollutant oncogenic and noncarcinogenic effects, calculate the route corresponding to soil exposure recommended model see Appendix A
Formula (A.11) and Formula (A.12).
6.3.6 Inhalation of gaseous pollutants from the groundwater in outdoor air
Under sensitive land use patterns, people may be exposed to contaminated ground due to inhalation of gaseous pollutants from groundwater in outdoor air
Launched. For a single pollutant oncogenic and noncarcinogenic effects, calculate the route corresponding to groundwater exposure recommended model see attached
Record A formula (A.13) and formula (A.14).
6.3.7 Inhalation of gaseous pollutant pathways from the underlying soil in indoor air
In sensitive land use, the population may be exposed to contaminated soil as a result of inhaling gaseous pollutants from the underlying soil in the indoor air
Soil. For the oncogenic and nononcogenic effects of pollutants, the recommended model for calculating the soil exposure to this pathway is given in Appendix A
(A.15) and formula (A.16).
6.3.8 Inhalation of gaseous pollutants in indoor air from groundwater
Under sensitive land use, people inhale gaseous pollutants from groundwater in indoor air and are exposed to contaminated groundwater.
For the oncogenic and nononcogenic effects of pollutants, the recommended model for calculating the groundwater exposure for this approach is given in Appendix A
(A.17) and formula (A.18).
6.3.9 Drinking groundwater access
Under sensitive land use, people may be exposed to groundwater contaminants due to groundwater drinking. For single pollutants
Carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic effects, calculate the route corresponding groundwater exposure calculation model recommended in Appendix A formula (A.19) and public
Formula (A.20).
6.4 Calculate soil and groundwater exposure for nonsensitive areas
6.4.1 oral intake of soil approach
Under nonsensitive land use, the population may be exposed to contaminated soil due to oral ingestion into the soil. For carcinogenic and nontoxic pollutants
Carcinogenic effects, the calculation of the corresponding soil exposure to this approach recommended model see Appendix A formula (A.21) and formula (A.22).
6.4.2 Skin contact with soil pathways
Under nonsensitive land use, the population may be exposed to contaminated soil due to direct skin contact. For carcinogenic and nontoxic pollutants
Carcinogenic effects, the calculation of this approach corresponds to soil exposure recommended model see Appendix A formula (A.23) and formula (A.24).
6.4.3 inhalation of soil particulate matter
In nonsensitive land use, the population may be exposed to contaminated soil as a result of inhaling particulate matter from the soil in the air. For dirty
Carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic effects of pollutants, the calculation of this approach corresponds to the recommended soil exposure model in Appendix A formula (A.25) and public
Formula (A.26).
6.4.4 Inhalation of gaseous pollutants from surface soil in outdoor air
In nonsensitive land use, the population may be exposed to pollution due to inhalation of gaseous contaminants from surface soils in outdoor air
soil. For the oncogenic and nononcogenic effects of pollutants, the recommended model for calculating the soil exposure to this pathway is given in Appendix A
(A.27) and formula (A.28).
6.4.5 Inhalation of gaseous pollutants from outdoor soils in the lower atmosphere
Under nonsensitive land use, the population may be exposed to pollution due to inhalation of gaseous pollutants from the underlying soil in outdoor air
soil. For the oncogenic and nononcogenic effects of pollutants, the recommended model for calculating the soil exposure to this pathway is given in Appendix A
(A.29) and formula (A.30).
6.4.6 Inhalation of gaseous pollutants from the groundwater in outdoor air
In nonsensitive land use, the population may be exposed to contaminated ground due to inhalation of gaseous pollutants from groundwater in outdoor air
Launched. For the carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic effects of pollutants, the recommended model for calculating the exposure to groundwater in this approach is shown in Appendix A
Formula (A.31) and Formula (A.32).
6.4.7 Inhalation of gaseous pollutant pathways from the underlying soil in indoor air
Under nonsensitive land use, the population may be exposed to pollution due to inhalation of gaseous pollutants from the underlying soil in indoor air
soil. For the oncogenic and nononcogenic effects of pollutants, the recommended model for calculating the soil exposure to this pathway is given in Appendix A
(A.33) and formula (A.34).
6.4.8 Inhalation of gaseous contaminants from indoor groundwater in indoor air
Under nonsensitive land use, the population may be exposed to contaminated ground due to the inhalation of gaseous pollutants from groundwater in the indoor air
Launched. For the carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic effects of pollutants, the recommended model for calculating the exposure to groundwater in this approach is shown in Appendix A
Formula (A.35) and Formula (A.36).
6.4.9 Drinking groundwater access
Under nonsensitive land use, people can be exposed to groundwater contaminants by drinking groundwater. For a single pollutant caused
Cancer and noncarcinogenic effects, calculate the route corresponding to groundwater exposure recommended model see Appendix A formula (A.37) and formula
(A.38).
7 toxicity assessment technical requirements
7.1 Analysis of toxic effects of pollutants
Analyze the harmful effects of pollutants on human health through different ways, including carcinogenic effects, noncarcinogenic effects, pollutants
The harm mechanism of human health and doseeffect relationship.
7.2 determine the relevant parameters of pollutants
7.2.1 Carcinogenic effects Toxicity parameters
Carcinogenicity Toxicity parameters include respiratory inhalation unit carcinogen (IUR), respiratory suction carcinogenic slope factor (SFi),
Oral intake of carcinogenic slope factor (SFo) and skin contact carcinogenic slope factor (SFd). Part of the carcinogenic effect of pollutants poisoning
The recommended values for sexual parameters are given in Table B.1 in Appendix B.
Respiratory Inhalation Carcinogenic Slippage Factor (SFi) Extrapolation of respiratory inhalation unit carcinogens (IUR) according to Table B.1 of Appendix B
Derived skin contact carcinogenicity slope factor (SFd) According to Table B.1 in Appendix B carcinogenic slope coefficient of oral intake (SFo) outside
Push to get. The recommended models for extrapolating SFi and SFd are given in Appendix B, Equation (B.1), and Equation (B.3), respectively.
7.2.2 Noncarcinogenic effects Toxicity parameters
Noncarcinogenic toxicological parameters include respiratory inhalation reference concentration (RfC), respiratory inhalation reference dose (RfDi), oral
Reference dose (RfDo) and skin contact reference dose (RfDd) were taken. Part of the noncarcinogenic toxicant toxicity parameters push
Recommended values in Appendix B Table B.1.
The respiratory inhalation reference dose (RfDi) is based on the extrapolation of the respiratory inhalation reference concentration (RfC) in Table B.1. Skin access
The Tactile Reference Dosage (RfDd) is extrapolated from the RfDo in Table B.1. Used to extrapolate RfDi and RfDd
The recommended models are shown in Appendix B Formula (B.2) and Formula (B.4) respectively.
7.2.3 Physical and chemical properties of pollutants parameters
The parameters of the physical and chemical properties of pollutants needed for risk assessment include the dimensionless Henry's constant (H'), the air diffusion coefficient (Da)
Water diffusion coefficient (Dw), soilorganic carbon partition coefficient (Koc), water solubility (S). Part of the physical and chemical pollutants
The recommended values of the nature parameters are shown in Appendix B, Table B.2.
7.2.4 Other relevant parameters of pollutants
Other relevant parameters include ABSgi, skin absorption factor (ABSd) and oral absorption
Factor (ABSo). Part of the pollutants gastrointestinal absorption factor (ABSgi), skin absorption factor (ABSd) of the recommended parameters
Values in Appendix B Table B.1, Recommended Absorption Factor (ABSo) Recommended Values See Appendix G Table G.1.
8 Risk characterization Technical requirements
8.1 General technical requirements
8.1.1 Based on the detection data of pollutants of interest in each sampling point sample, by calculating the carcinogenic risk and hazard of pollutants
Conduct risk characterization. If a plot concerned about the pollutant detection data was normal distribution, according to the average test data,
Average Confidence Intervals The upper limit or maximum is used to calculate the carcinogenic risk and the hazard provider.
8.1.2 Risk Characterization The resulting carcinogen risks and hazards of site contaminants can be used as an important basis for determining the scope of site contamination
according to. Calculated singlepollutant carcinogenic risk value of more than 106 or hazardous business more than 1 sampling points, the representative of the field area
The area should be designated as an unacceptable contamination area.
8.2 Calculate the risk of soil and groundwater contamination at the site
8.2.1 Single pollutant in the soil carcinogenic risk
For a single pollutant, calculate the amount of orally taken soil, skin contact with soil, inhalation of soil particles, inhalation of outdoor air
In the surface soil from the gaseous pollutants, inhalation of outdoor air from the underlying soil of gaseous pollutants, inhalation of indoor air
(C.1), (C.2), and (C.2), respectively, of the recommended models for the risk of cancercausing exposure to gaseous pollutants from subsoil,
(C.3), (C.4), (C.5) and (C.6). Calculate the risk of a single contaminant in the soil by the above six exposure routes
The recommended model, see Appendix C formula (C.7).
8.2.2 Single pollutant hazards in the soil
For a single pollutant, calculate the amount of orally taken soil, skin contact with soil, inhalation of soil particles, inhalation of outdoor air
In the surface soil from the gaseous pollutants, inhalation of outdoor air from the underlying soil of gaseous pollutants, inhalation of indoor air
(C.8), (C.9), and (C.6) in Appendix C, respectively, for the recommended models of hazards from exposure to gaseous pollutants from the underlying soil
(C.10), (C.11), (C.12) and (C.13). Calculation of soil single pollutant by the above six ways hazard index
Recommended model, see Appendix C formula (C.14) calculation.
8.2.3 Groundwater single pollutant carcinogenic risk
For single pollutants, calculate the gaseous pollutants from the groundwater inhaled in outdoor air and inhale the indoor air from
Groundwater gaseous pollutants, drinking water exposure pathways recommended carcinogenic risk model, respectively, see Appendix C formula (C.15),
(C.16), (C.17). The recommended model for calculating the carcinogenic risk of a single pollutant in groundwater by the above three routes of exposure is attached
Record C formula (C.18).
8.2.4 Single pollutant hazard in groundwater
For single pollutants, calculate the gaseous pollutants from the groundwater inhaled in outdoor air and inhale the indoor air from
Groundwater gaseous pollutants, drinking water hazards exposure recommended pathways, respectively, see Appendix C formula (C.19),
(C.20) and (C.21). The recommended model for calculating the hazard index of single pollutants in groundwater by the above three routes of exposure is attached
Record C formula (C.22).
8.3 Uncertainty Analysis
8.3.1 The main sources of uncertainty resulting from the risk assessment of contaminated sites should be analyzed, including exposure scenario assumptions, assessment models
The applicability of the model parameters and many other aspects.
8.3.2 Analysis of contribution rate of exposure risk
Single pollutants through different routes of exposure of carcinogenic risk and risk contribution rate analysis recommended model, respectively, in Appendix D formula
(D.1) and formula (D.2).
The larger the percentage calculated based on the above formula, the higher the contribution of the specific route of exposure to the total risk.
8.3.3 Model Parameter Sensitivity Analysis
8.3.3.1 Principle of determining sensitive parameters
The parameters (P) selected for sensitivity analysis should generally be those that have a significant effect on the risk calculation, such as population
Relevant parameters (weight, duration of exposure, frequency of exposure, etc.), parameters related to route of exposure (daily intake of soil, skin
Surface soil adhesion coefficient, daily intake air volume, indoor space volume and steam infiltration area ratio, etc.).
Sensitivity analysis of the population and parameters related to this pathway should be performed when the risk contribution rate of a single exposure route exceeds 20%.
8.3.3.2 Sensitivity analysis methods
The sensitivity of the model parameters can be expressed as a sensitivity ratio, that is, the change of the model parameter value (from P1 to P2)
The ratio of risk of cancer or hazard (change from X1 to X2). The recommended model for calculating the sensitivity ratio is shown in Appendix D.
Formula (D.3).
The greater the sensitivity ratio, the greater the impact of this parameter on risk. Sensitivity analysis of model parameters should be comprehensive
Consider the actual range of parameters to determine the range of parameter values.
9 Calculate the technical requirements of risk control value
9.1 Acceptable carcinogenic risks and hazards
This standard calculates the control of soil and groundwater risk based on carcinogenic effects, the use of a single pollutant can be accepted carcinogenic
With a risk of 106; the single pollutant used is acceptable for the purposes of calculating control values for soil and groundwater risk based on noncarcinogenic effects
Dealers as 1.
9.2 Calculate soil and groundwater risk control values at site
9.2.1 Soil risk control values based on carcinogenic effects
For single contaminants, the calculation is based on orally ingested soil, skin contact with soil, inhalation of soil particles, inhalation outdoors
Gaseous pollutants in the air from surface soils, inhaling gaseous pollutants from the underlying soil in outdoor air, and inhaling indoors
The recommended model of soilrisk control values for the carcinogenic effects of gaseous pollutant exposure pathways from the underlying soils in the air, see
Appendix E Formulas (E.1), (E.2), (E.3), (E.4), (E.5) and (E.6). Calculate the single pollutant based on
The recommended model for soil risk control values for the above six soil exposure pathogenic effects is given in Appendix E, Eq. (E.7).
9.2.2 Soil risk control values based on noncarcinogenic effects
For single contaminants, the calculation is based on orally ingested soil, skin contact with soil, inhalation of soil particles, inhalation outdoors
Gaseous pollutants in the air from surface soils, inhaling gaseous pollutants from the underlying soil in outdoor air, and inhaling indoors
The recommended model for control of soil risk from noncarcinogenic effects of gaseous pollutants from subsoil in the air is
See appendix E, formulas (E.8), (E.9), (E.10), (E.11), (E.12) and (E.13). Calculate single pollution
The recommended model based on the soil risk control values for the six noncarcinogenic soilexposure pathways described in Appendix E is given in E.14.
9.2.3 Soil Risk Control Value for Protection of Groundwater
Contaminated site groundwater as a source of drinking water, should be calculated to protect the groundwater control of soil risk. For single pollution
, A recommended model for calculating control values of groundwater to protect soil from groundwater according to the Groundwater Quality Standard (GB/T 14848)
See Appendix E Equation (E.15).
9.2.4 Based on the carcinogenic effect of groundwater risk control value
For single pollutants, calculations are based on the inhalation of gaseous pollutants from groundwater in outdoor air, inhalation of indoor air
The recommended model of groundwater risk control values for gaseous pollutants from groundwater, carcinogenic effects of drinking groundwater exposure routes,
See Appendix E, Equations (E.16), (E.17) and (E.18) respectively. The calculation of single pollutants is based on the three exposures to groundwater
The recommended model for groundwater risk control values for carcinogenic effects is given in Annex E, Equation (E.19).
9.2.5 Groundwater risk control values based on noncarcinogenic effects
For single pollutants, calculations are based on the inhalation of gaseous pollutants from groundwater in outdoor air, inhalation of indoor air
Recommended Models for Controlling Groundwater Risk from NonCarcinogenic Effects of Gaseous Pollutants from Groundwater, Drinking Groundwater Exposure Pathways,
See Appendix E, Eqs. (E.20), (E.21) and (E.22) respectively. The calculation of single pollutants is based on the three exposures to groundwater
The recommended model for groundwater risk control values for noncarcinogenic effects is given in Annex E (E.23).
9.3 Analytical determination of soil and groundwater risk control values
9.3.1 Comparing the abovecalculated control values of soilbased and noncarcinogenicbased soil risk, as well as those based on carcinogenicity
Effect and groundwater risk control based on noncarcinogenic risk, select the smaller value as the risk control value for the contaminated site. As the field
Groundwater and surrounding groundwater as sources of drinking water, groundwater should be fully taken into account the protection of groundwater to protect the wind
Risk control value.
9.3.2 When determining the target values for soil and groundwater remediation at contaminated sites in accordance with HJ 25.4, the risk assessment model should be used to calculate
Soil and groundwater risk control values as the main reference value.
Appendix A.
(Normative)
Exposure assessment recommendation model
A.1 Sensitive land exposure assessment model
A1.1 Oral intake of soil
For the carcinogenic effects of a single contaminant, taking into account the lifetime risk of exposure of the population in childhood and adulthood, oral intake of soil
Soil exposure to soil approach is calculated using equation (A.1).
ܱܫܵܧܴܿܽ ൌ
ܱܵܫܴܿ ൈ ܧܦܿ ൈ ܧܨܥ
ܤܹܿ
ܱܵܫܴܽ ൈ ܧܦܽ ൈ ܧܽܨ
ܤܹܽ ቁ ൈ ܣܤܵ
ܣܶܿ ܽ
ൈ 10 െ 6 (A.1)
In formula (A.1).
OISERca  Oral exposure to soil exposure (carcinogenic effect), kg soil kg1 body weight d1;
OSIRc  daily intake of soil for children, mg · d1; recommended values are given in Annex G, G.1;
OSIRa  Adult daily intake of soil, mg · d1; Recommended values are given in Annex G, G.1;
EDc  Childhood exposure, a; Recommended values are given in Annex G, Table G.1;
EDa  adult exposure, a; recommended values are shown in Appendix G G.1;
EFc  frequency of child exposure, d · a1; recommended values are given in Annex G, G.1;
EFa  adult exposure frequency, d · a1; recommended values in Appendix G G.1;
BWc  children's body weight, kg, the recommended value in Appendix G Table G.1;
BWa  Adult weight, kg, recommended values in Appendix G G.1;
ABSo  Absorption efficiency factor for oral ingestion, dimensionless; recommended values are given in Table G.1 of Appendix G;
ATca  mean time to carcinogenic effect, d; recommended values are given in Annex G, Table G.1.
For noncarcinogenic effects of a single contaminant, consider the hazard of exposure in childhood and orally ingested soil
The soil exposure is calculated using equation (A.2).
ܱܫܵܧܴ݊ܿ ൌ
ܱܵܫܴܿ ൈ ܧܦܿ ൈ ܧܨܥ ൈ ܣܤܵ
ܤ ܹܥ ൈ ܣܶ݊ ܿ
ൈ 10 െ 6 (A.2)
In formula (A.2).
OISERnc  Overexpressed soil exposure (noncarcinogenic effect), kg soil kg1 body weight d1;
ATnc  mean time to noncarcinogenic effect, d; recommended values are given in Annex G, Table G.1.
The parameters of OSIRc, EDc, EFc, ABSo and BWc in formula (A.2) are defined by the formula (A.1).
A1.2 Skin contact with soil pathways
For the carcinogenic effect of a single contaminant, consider the lifetime lifetime risk of exposure in childhood and in adulthood, skin contact with soil
Soil exposure to soil approach using formula (A.3) Calculated.
ܦܥܵܧܴܿܽ ൌ
ܵܣܧܿ ൈ ܵܵܣܴܥ ܧܨܥ ܧܦܥ ܧܦܥ ܧܸ ܣܤܵ݀ ܣܤܵ݀ ܣܤܵ݀
ܤܹܿ ൈ ܣܶܿ ܽ
ൈ 10 െ 6
ܵܣܧܽ ൈ ൈ ൈ ൈ ൈ ݒ ܣܤܵ݀ ܣܤܵ݀ ܣܤܵ݀ ܣܤܵ݀ ܣܤܵ݀ ܣܤܵ݀ ܣܤܵ݀ ܣܤܵ݀ ܣܤܵ݀ ܣܤܵ݀
ܤܹܽ ൈ ܣܶܿ ܽ
ൈ 10 െ 6
(A.3)
In formula (A.3).
DCSERca  Soil Exposure to Skin Contact Routes (Carcinogenicity), kg Soil kg1 Body Weight d1;
SAEc  skin surface area exposed to children, cm2;
SAEa  Adult exposed skin surface area, cm2;
SSARc  Children's skin surface soil adhesion coefficient, mg · cm2; Recommended values are shown in Appendix G G.1;
SSARa  Adult skin surface soil adhesion coefficient, mg · cm2; Recommended values are shown in Appendix G G.1;
ABSd  skin contact absorption efficiency factor, dimensionless; see Appendix B Table B.1;
Ev  Daily skin contact frequency, times · d1; recommended values are given in Annex G, Table G.1.
The parameters of EFc, EDc, BWc, ATca, EFa, EDa and BWa in formula (A.3)
The values of SAEc and SAEa are calculated using equation (A.4) and equation (A.5) respectively.
ൌ ൌ 239 ൈ ܪܿ 0.417 ൈ ܤܹܿ 0.517 ൈ ܵܧܴܿ (A.4)
ൌ ൌ 239 ൈ ܪܽ 0.417 ൈ ܤܹܽ 0.517 ൈ ܵܧܴܽ (A.5)
In formula (A.4) and formula (A.5).
Hc  children's average height, cm, the recommended value in Appendix G Table G.1;
Ha  Adult average height, cm; recommended values are given in Annex G, G.1;
SERc  Children exposed skin area ratio, dimensionless, recommended values in Appendix G G.1;
SERa  Area ratio of exposed skin to adult, dimensionless; recommended values are given in Annex G, Table G.1.
See the formula (A.1) for the parameters of BWc and BWa in formulas (A.4) and (A.5).
For the noncarcinogenic effects of a single contaminant, consider the hazard that the population is exposed to during childhood, the skintosoil approach
The corresponding soil exposure is calculated using equation (A.6).
ܦܥܵܧܴ݊ܿ ൌ
ܵܣܧܿ ൈ ൈ ൈ ൈ ൈ ݒ ܣܤܵ݀ ܣܤܵ݀ ܣܤܵ݀ ܣܤܵ݀ ܣܤܵ݀ ܣܤܵ݀ ܣܤܵ݀ ܣܤܵ݀ ܣܤܵ݀ ܣܤܵ݀
ܤܹܿ ൈ ܣܶ݊ ܿ
ൈ 10 െ 6 (A.6)
In formula (A.6).
DCSERnc  Soil exposure to skin contact (noncarcinogenic effect), kg soil · kg1 body weight · d1.
The parameters of SAEc, SSARc, Ev and ABSd in formula (A.6) are defined by the following formula (A.3), EFc, EDc and BWc
The meaning of the parameters see formula (A.1), ATnc parameter meaning see formula (A.2).
A1.3 Route of inhalation of soil particles
For the carcinogenic effects of a single contaminant, consider the lifetime risk exposure of the population during childhood and adulthood, by inhalation of soil particles
The soil exposure corresponding to the PM route is calculated using equation (A.7).
ܲܫܵܧܴܿܽ ൌ
ܲܯ10 ൈ ܦܣܫ ܦܣܫ ൈ ൈ ൈ ൈ ൈ ሻ ሻ ሻ ሻ ሻ ሻ ሻ ሻ ሻ ሻ ሻ ሻ ሻ ሻ ሻ ሻ ሻ ሻ ሻ ሻ ሻ ሻ ሻ ሻ
ܤܹܽ ൈ ܣܶܿ ܽ
ൈ 10 െ 6
PM10 ൈ DAIRa ൈ EDa ൈ PIAF ൈ ሺ fspo ൈ EFOa fspi ൈ EFIa ሻ
BWa ൈ ATca
ൈ 10 െ 6
(A.7)
In formula (A.7).
PISERca  Soil Exposure to Soil Particles (Carcinogenicity Effect), kg Soil • kg1 Body Weight • d1;
PM10  Respirable particulate matter in air, mg · m3; Recommended values are given in Annex G, G.1;
DAIRa  Adult Daily Air Breathing, m3 · d1; Recommended Values See Appendix G, G.1;
DAIRc  Children's Daily Air Breathing, m3 · d1; Recommended Values See Appendix G, G.1;
PIAF  Inhalation of soil particles in the body retention ratio, dimensionless; Recommended values are shown in Appendix G G.1;
fspi  the proportion of particulate matter from soil in indoor air, dimensionless; recommended values are given in Table G.1 of Appendix G;
fspo  proportion of particulate matter from soil in outdoor air, dimensionless; recommended values are given in Table G.1 of Appendix G;
EFIa  Adult indoor exposure frequency, d · a1; Recommended values are given in Annex G, G.1;
EFIc  Children's indoor exposure frequency, d · a1; Recommended values are given in Annex G, G.1;
EFOa  outdoor exposure frequency for adults, d · a1; recommended values are given in Annex G, G.1;
EFOc  Children's outdoor exposure frequency, d · a1; Recommended values are given in Annex G, G.1.
The parameters of EDc, BWc, EDa, BWa and ATca in the formula (A.7) are given by the formula (A.1).
For the noncarcinogenic effects of a single pollutant, consider the hazard that the population is exposed to during childhood, inhalation of soil particulate matter
The corresponding soil exposure is calculated using equation (A.8).
ܲܫܵܧܴ݊ܿ ൌ
ܲܯ10 ൈ ܦܣܫ ܦܣܫ ൈ ൈ ൈ ൈ ൈ ሻ ሻ ሻ ሻ ሻ ሻ ሻ ሻ ሻ ሻ ሻ ሻ ሻ ሻ ሻ ሻ ሻ ሻ ሻ ሻ ሻ ሻ ሻ ሻ
ܤܹܿ ൈ ܣܶ݊ ܿ
ൈ 10 െ 6
(A.8)
In formula (A.8).
PISERnc  Soil exposure to soil particulate matter (noncarcinogenic effect), kg soil kg1 body weight d1.
The parameters of PM10, DAIRc, fspo, fspi, EFOc, EFIc and PIAF in formula (A.8)
EDc, BWc, EDa, BWa parameter meaning see formula (A.1), ATnc parameter meaning see formula (A.2).
A1.4 Inhalation of gaseous pollutants from surface soil in outdoor air
For the carcinogenic effects of a single contaminant, consider the lifetime risk of exposure in childhood and in adulthood, inhalation outdoors
The corresponding soil exposure to gaseous pollutants from surface soils in the atmosphere is calculated using equation (A.9)
ܫܱܸܧܴܿܽ1 ൌ ܸܨݏ ݑ ݎܽ ൈ ሺ
ܦܣܫܴܿ ൈ ܧܨ ܱܿ ൈ ܧܦܿ
ܤܹܿ ൈ ܣܶܿ ܽ
ܦܣܫܴܽ ൈ ܧܨ ܱܽ ൈ ܧܦܽ
ܤܹܽ ൈ ܣܶܿ ܽ
ሻ (A.9)
In formula (A.9).
IOVERca1  Soil Exposure to Gaseous Contaminants from Surface Soil in Inhaled Outdoor Air (Carcinogenicity
Should), kg soil kg1 body weight d1;
VFsuroa  volatiles of contaminants in surface soil that diffuse into outdoor air, kg · m3; according to the formula in Appendix F
(F.17).
In formula (A.9), the parameters of DAIRc, DAIRa, EFOc and EFOa are defined by the following formula (A.7), EDc, BWc,
EDa, BWa, ATca parameter meaning see formula (A.1).
For noncarcinogenic effects of single contaminants, consider exposure of the population to childhood exposure to inhalation of outdoor air
The soil exposure corresponding to the gaseous pollutants pathways from the topsoil is calculated using the formula (A.10)
ܫܱܸܧܴ݊ܿ1 ൌ ܸܨݏ ݑ ݎܽ ൈ
ܦܣܫܴܿ ൈ ܧܨ ܱܿ ൈ ܧܦܿ
ܤܹܿ ൈ ܣܶ݊ ܿ
(A.10)
In the formula (A.10).
IOVERnc1  Soil exposure to gaseous contaminants from surface soil in outdoor air (noncarcinogenic
Effect), kg soil kg1 body weight d1.
Formula (A.10), VFsuroa parameter meaning see formula (A.9), DAIRc and EFOc parameter meaning see formula (A.7),
See ATnc meaning (A.2), EDc and BWc parameters see formula (A.1).
A1.5 Inhalation of gaseous pollutant from outdoor soil in the outdoor air
For the carcinogenic effects of a single contaminant, consider the lifetime risk of exposure in childhood and in adulthood, inhalation outdoors
The corresponding soil exposure to gaseous pollutants from the underlying soil in the atmosphere is calculated using equation (A.11)
ܫܱܸܧܴܿܽ2 ൌ ܸܨݏ ݑ ܾܽ ൈ ሺ
ܦܣܫܴܿ ൈ ܧܨ ܱܿ ൈ ܧܦܿ
ܤܹܿ ൈ ܣܶܿ ܽ
ܦܣܫܴܽ ൈ ܧܨ ܱܽ ൈ ܧܦܽ
ܤܹܽ ൈ ܣܶܿ ܽ
ሻ (A.11)
In the formula (A.11).
IOVERca2  Soil Exposure to Gaseous Contaminants from Subsoil in Inhaled Outdoor Air (Carcinogenicity
Should), kg soil kg1 body weight d1;
VFsuboa  volatiles of pollutants in the lower soil diffusing into outdoor air, kg · m3; according to the formula in Appendix F
(F.20) calculation.
In the formula (A.11), the parameters of DAIRc, DAIRa, EFOc and EFOa are defined by the following formula (A.7), EDc, BWc,
EDa, BWa, ATca parameter meaning see formula (A.1).
For noncarcinogenic effects of single contaminants, consider exposure of the population to childhood exposure to inhalation of outdoor air
The soil exposure corresponding to the gaseous pollutants pathways from the underlying soil is calculated using equation (A.13).
ܫܱܸܧܴ݊ܿ2 ൌ ܸܨݏ ݑ ܾܽ ൈ
ܦܣܫܴܿ ൈ ܧܨ ܱܿ ൈ ܧܦܿ
ܤܹܿ ൈ ܣܶ݊ ܿ
(A.12)
In formula (A.12).
IOVERnc2  Soil Exposure to Gaseous Contaminants from Underlying Soil in Inhaled Outdoor Air (Noncarcinogenic
Effect), kg soil kg1 body weight d1.
The parameters of VFsuboa in the formula (A.12) are shown in the formula (A.11), the parameters of DAIRc and EFOc are shown in the formula (A.7),
See ATnc meaning (A.2), EDc and BWc parameters see formula (A.1).
A1.6 Inhalation of gaseous pollutants in outdoor air from groundwater
For the carcinogenic effects of a single contaminant, consider the lifetime risk of exposure in childhood and in adulthood, inhalation outdoors
Groundwater exposure to gaseous pollutants from groundwater in the atmosphere is calculated using equation (A.13).
ܫܱܸܧܴܿܽ3 ൌ ܸ݃ܨ ݓ ܽ ൈ ሺ
ܦܣܫܴܿ ൈ ܧܨ ܱܿ ൈ ܧܦܿ
ܤܹܿ ൈ ܣܶܿ ܽ
ܦܣܫܴܽ ൈ ܧܨ ܱܽ ൈ ܧܦܽ
ܤܹܽ ൈ ܣܶܿ ܽ
ሻ (A.13)
In formula (A.13).
IOVERca3  Groundwater exposure to gaseous pollutants from groundwater drawn into outdoor air (Carcinogenicity
Should), L groundwater · kg1 body weight · d1;
VFgwoa  Volatile factor of groundwater pollutants diffusing into outdoor air, L · m3; According to the formula in Appendix F (F.21)
Calculate.
In the formula (A.11), the parameters of DAIRc, DAIRa, EFOc and EFOa are defined by the following formula (A.7), EDc, BWc,
EDa, BWa, ATca parameter meaning see formula (A.1).
For noncarcinogenic effects of single contaminants, consider exposure of the population to childhood exposure to inhalation of outdoor air
The groundwater exposure from the groundwater gaseous pollutant pathway is calculated using equation (A.14).
ܫܱܸܧܴ݊ܿ3 ൌ ܸ݃ܨ ݓ ܽ ൈ
ܦܣܫܴܿ ൈ ܧܨ ܱܿ ൈ ܧܦܿ
ܤܹܿ ൈ ܣܶ݊ ܿ
(A.14)
In formula (A.14).
IOVERnc3  Groundwater exposure to gaseous pollutants from groundwater drawn into outdoor air (noncarcinogenic
Effect), L groundwater · kg1 body weight · d1.
In formula (A.14), VFgwoa parameters see the formula (A.13), DAIRc and EFOc parameters see
Formula (A.7), ATnc meaning see formula (A.2), EDc and BWc parameter meaning see formula (A.1).
A1.7 Gaseous pollutant pathways to indoor air drawn from the underlying soil
For the carcinogenic effects of a single contaminant, account for the lifetime risk of exposure in childhood and in adulthood, inhalation of indoors
The corresponding soil exposure to gaseous pollutants from the underlying soil in the atmosphere is calculated using equation (A.15)
ܫܫܸܧܴܿܽ1 ൌ ܸܨݏ ݑ ܾ݅ܽ ൈ ሺ
ܦܣܫܴܿ ൈ ܧܨܿܫ ൈ ܧܦܿ
ܤܹܿ ൈ ܣܶܿ ܽ
ܦܣܫܴܽ ൈ ܧܨܽܫ ൈ ܧܦܽ
ܤܹܽ ൈ ܣܶܿ ܽ
ሻ (A.15)
In the formula (A.15).
IIVERca1  Soil Exposure to Inhalation of Gaseous Contaminants from Subsoil in Indoor Air (Carcinogenicity
Should), kg soil kg1 body weight d1;
VFsubia  volatiles of contaminants in lower soil that diffuse into indoor air, kg · m3; according to the formula in Appendix F
(F.26).
In the formula (A.15), the parameters of EFOc, EFOa, EFIc, EFIa, DAIRc and DAIRa are defined by the following formula (A.7)
EDc, BWc, EDa, BWa, ATca parameter meaning see formula (A.1).
For noncarcinogenic effects of single contaminants, consider exposure of the population during childhood exposure to inhalation of indoor air
The soil exposure corresponding to the gaseous pollutants from the underlying soil is calculated using equation (A.16).
ܫܫܸܧܴ݊ܿ1 ൌ ܸܨݏ ݑ ܾ݅ܽ ൈ
ܦܣܫܴܿ ൈ ܧܨܿܫ ൈ ܧܦܿ
ܤܹܿ ൈ ܣܶ݊ ܿ
(A.16)
In formula (A.16).
IIVERnc1  Soil Exposure to Inhalation of Gaseous Contaminants from Subsoil in Indoor Air (NonCarcinogenic
Should) kg soil kg1 body weight d1.
Formula (A.16), VFsubia parameters see the formula (A.15), DAIRc, EFIc meaning of the parameters see the public
(A.7), ATnc parameter meaning see formula (A.2), EDc and BWc parameter meaning see formula (A.1).
A1.8 A gaseous pollutant approach to inhalation of indoor air from groundwater
For the carcinogenic effects of a single contaminant, account for the lifetime risk of exposure in childhood and in adulthood, inhalation of indoors
Groundwater exposure to gaseous pollutants from groundwater in the atmosphere is calculated using equation (A.17).
ܫܫܸܧܴܿܽ2 ൌ ܸ݃ܨ ݓ ݅ܽ ൈ ሺ
ܦܣܫܴܿ ൈ ܧܨܿܫ ൈ ܧܦܿ
ܤܹܿ ൈ ܣܶܿ ܽ
ܦܣܫܴܽ ൈ ܧܨܫܽ ൈ ܧܦܽ
ܤܹܽ ൈ ܣܶܿ ܽ
ሻ (A.17)
In formula (A.17).
IIVERca2  Exposure to groundwater from gaseous contaminants in ground air drawn from groundwater (carcinogenic effect
Should), L groundwater · kg1 body weight · d1;
VFgwia  Volatile factor of groundwater contaminants diffusing into indoor air, L · m3; According to the formula (F.29) of Annex F,
Calculate.
In the formula (A.17), the parameters of EFOc, EFOa, EFIc, EFIa, DAIRc and DAIRa are given by the following formula (A.7)
EDc, BWc, EDa, BWa, ATca parameter meaning see formula (A.1).
For noncarcinogenic effects of single contaminants, consider exposure of the population during childhood exposure to inhalation of indoor air
The groundwater exposure from the groundwater gaseous pollutant route is calculated using equation (A.18).
ܫܫܸܧܴ݊ܿ2 ൌ ܸ݃ܨ ݓ ݅ܽ ൈ
ܦܣܫܴܿ ൈ ܧܨܿܫ ൈ ܧܦܿ
ܤܹܿ ൈ ܣܶ݊ ܿ
(A.18)
In formula (A.18).
IIVERnc2  Groundwater exposure to gaseous pollutants from indoor groundwater......
