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GB/T 42260-2022 (GBT42260-2022)

GB/T 42260-2022_English: PDF (GBT 42260-2022, GBT42260-2022)
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GB/T 42260-2022English250 Add to Cart 0--9 seconds. Auto-delivery Electrochemical performance test of lithium iron phosphate -- Test method for cycle life Valid GB/T 42260-2022

BASIC DATA
Standard ID GB/T 42260-2022 (GB/T42260-2022)
Description (Translated English) Electrochemical performance test of lithium iron phosphate -- Test method for cycle life
Sector / Industry National Standard (Recommended)
Classification of Chinese Standard H21
Classification of International Standard 77.160
Word Count Estimation 14,146
Date of Issue 2022-12-30
Date of Implementation 2023-04-01
Drafting Organization Xi'an Taijin Industrial Electrochemical Technology Co., Ltd., Northwest Nonferrous Metals Research Institute, Hefei Guoxuan Hi-Tech Power Energy Co., Ltd., Hunan Changyuan Lithium Technology Co., Ltd., Jiangxi Lithium Battery Product Quality Supervision and Inspection Center, Xi'an Yahongtai New Energy Technology Co., Ltd. , Beijing Dangsheng Material Technology Co., Ltd., Guangdong Bangpu Recycling Technology Co., Ltd., Shenzhen Defang Nano Technology Co., Ltd., Tianjin Guoan Mengguli New Material Technology Co., Ltd., Hubei Wanrun New Energy Technology Co., Ltd.
Administrative Organization National Nonferrous Metals Standardization Technical Committee (SAC/TC 243)
Proposing organization State Administration for Market Regulation, National Standardization Management Committee

Standards related to: GB/T 42260-2022

GB/T 42260-2022
GB
NATIONAL STANDARD OF THE
PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF CHINA
ICS 77.160
CCS H 21
GB/T 42260-2022
Electrochemical performance test of lithium iron phosphate
- Test method for cycle life
ISSUED ON: DECEMBER 30, 2022
IMPLEMENTED ON: APRIL 01, 2023
Issued by: State Administration for Market Regulation;
Standardization Administration of the People’s Republic of China.
Table of Contents
Foreword ... 3
1 Scope ... 4
2 Normative references ... 4
3 Terms and definitions ... 4
4 Test conditions ... 4
5 Reagents and materials ... 4
6 Instruments and equipment ... 5
7 Test steps ... 7
8 Data recording and cycle life test ... 16
9 Allowable difference ... 17
10 Test report ... 17
Electrochemical performance test of lithium iron phosphate
- Test method for cycle life
1 Scope
This document describes the test method for cycle life of lithium iron phosphate, i.e.,
the cathode material for lithium-ion batteries.
This document applies to the test using the winding method for cycle life of lithium
iron phosphate, i.e., the cathode material for lithium-ion batteries.
2 Normative references
The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this
document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references,
the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.
GB/T 6682 Water for analytical laboratory use - Specification and test methods
GB/T 18287 General specification of lithium-ion cells and batteries for mobile
phone
3 Terms and definitions
There are no terms or definitions to be defined in this document.
4 Test conditions
Unless otherwise specified, each test step should be carried out at a relative humidity
not greater than 40.0 % and an ambient temperature of 20 ℃ ~ 30 ℃. The rolling
process should be carried out at a relative humidity not greater than 30.0 % and an
ambient temperature not greater than 30 °C.
5 Reagents and materials
5.1 Lithium iron phosphate: the particle size characteristic value (D50) is 0.5 μm ~ 8.0
μm, and the specific surface area is 6 m2/g ~ 30 m2/g.
5.2 Conductive agent: conductive carbon material.
5.3 Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF): battery grade, the weight average molecular
weight is not less than 5 × 105, and the moisture (mass fraction) is not greater than
0.10 %.
5.4 N-methylpyrrolidone (NMP): battery grade, the purity is not less than 99.9 %, and
the moisture (mass fraction) is not greater than 0.02 %.
5.5 Aluminum foil: the thickness is 8 μm ~ 20 μm.
5.6 Positive electrode tab (positive terminal): made of aluminum, with tab glue.
5.7 Lithium-ion battery separator: polyolefin porous membrane, the porosity is 35.0 %
~ 60.0 %, the air permeability is 100 s/100 mL ~ 500 s/100 mL, the average pore size
is not greater than 1.0 μm, and the thickness is 9.0 μm ~ 25.0 μm.
5.8 Graphite: D50 is 10.0 μm ~ 22.0 μm, the initial discharge specific capacity is not less
than 340.0 mA • h/g, and the initial charge-discharge efficiency is not less than 90.0 %.
5.9 Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC): the main content (mass fraction) is not
less than 99.5 %, and the relative molecular mass is 6.5 × 106.
5.10 Styrene-butadiene rubber emulsion (SBR): water-soluble binder, special for
lithium batteries, the solid content is 35 % ~ 52 %, the viscosity is 80 mPa • s ~ 400
mPa • s, and the pH is 6.0 ~ 7.0.
5.11 Deionized water: GB/T 6682, not less than grade three.
5.12 Copper foil: the thickness is 5 μm ~ 12 μm.
5.13 Negative electrode tab (negative terminal): made of nickel, with tab glue.
5.14 Aluminum plastic film: special for lithium batteries, and the thickness is 110 μm
~ 160 μm.
5.15 Polyimide tape.
5.16 Lithium-ion battery electrolyte: lithium-ion battery electrolyte composed of
lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF6) and mixed carbonate-based organic solvents
[ethylene carbonate (EC), dimethyl carbonate (DMC), ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC),
etc.], the moisture is not greater than 0.002 %, the free acid (HF) is not greater than
0.005 %, and the conductivity (25 ℃) is not less than 7.0 mS/cm.
5.17 Nitrogen (or argon): the purity (volume fraction) is not less than 99.99 %.
6 Instruments and equipment
6.1 Balance: the accuracy is 0.01 g.
7 Test steps
7.1 Preprocessing
7.1.1 Place lithium iron phosphate (5.1) and conductive agent (5.2) into a vacuum oven
(6.3); during drying, vacuum or circulate in a nitrogen (or argon) (5.17) atmosphere;
bake at a temperature of 100 ℃ ~ 150 ℃ for 2 h ~ 20 h to dry; cool to room temperature
and place in a desiccator (6.4).
7.1.2 Place PVDF (5.3) into a vacuum oven (6.3); during drying, vacuum or circulate
in a nitrogen (or argon) (5.17) atmosphere; bake at a temperature of 70 ℃ ~ 90 ℃ for
4 h ~ 6 h to dry; cool to room temperature and place in a desiccator (6.4).
7.2 Preparation of positive electrode sheets
7.2.1 Weighing
Calculate the lithium iron phosphate, conductive agent, and PVDF pretreated in 7.1
according to the mass fractions of 90 % ~ 97 %, 1 % ~ 5 %, and 2 % ~ 5 % respectively,
and weigh them with a balance (6.1). Calculate the amount of NMP (5.4) according to
the design requirements of solid content (mass fraction) of 40 % ~ 65 %, and weigh
with a balance (6.1).
7.2.2 Pulping
The cathode pulping process is as follows:
a) Add the weighed NMP into the mixing tank of a dispersing mixer (6.5); gradually
add the weighed PVDF; disperse and stir until completely dissolved; to prepare a
transparent glue;
b) Add the weighed conductive agent to the above transparent glue; vacuum,
disperse and stir evenly;
c) Gradually add the weighed lithium iron phosphate in portions; vacuum, disperse
and stir evenly;
d) Add another NMP according to the designed solid content (mass fraction), to
control the slurry viscosity at 4000 mPa • s ~ 8000 mPa • s; vacuum, disperse and
stir evenly; complete the pulping process.
NOTE: The solid content in this document is the ratio of the mass of the cathode active material
lithium iron phosphate, conductive agent, and PVDF to the mass of the cathode slurry.
7.2.3 Coating
digital thickness gauge (6.11) to measure the mass (mc) and thickness (dc) of the positive
electrode sheet, respectively.
Use a punching machine (6.10) to punch out an aluminum foil substrate with an area of
Sc, and use an electronic balance (6.2) and a desktop digital thickness gauge (6.11) to
measure the mass (mAl) and thickness (dAl) of the aluminum foil substrate, respectively.
The compacted density of the positive electrode sheet (ρc) is calculated according to
formula (1):
where:
ρc - the compacted density of the positive electrode sheet, in grams per cubic
centimeter (g/cm3);
mc - the mass of the positive electrode sheet, in grams (g);
mAl - the mass of the aluminum foil substrate, in grams (g);
Sc - the area of the positive electrode sheet, in square centimeters (cm2);
Dc - the thickness of the positive electrode sheet, in centimeters (cm);
dAl - the thickness of the aluminum foil substrate, in centimeters (cm).
Design according to the compacted density of 2.1 g/cm3 ~ 2.7 g/cm3, calculate the
theoretical thickness of the positive electrode sheet, use a roller machine (6.12) to roll
the positive electrode sheet after the secondary baking in 7.2.3 to the target thickness,
and operate according to the following steps:
a) Use an edge trimming machine (6.7) to trim the edges of the positive electrode
sheet after rolling;
b) Use a soft brush (6.8) to remove abnormal protrusions and edge burrs on the
surface of the positive electrode sheet;
c) Use an adjustable slitting machine (6.9) to cut the positive electrode sheet to the
designed width (Wc) (see Figure 1);
d) Use a ruler (6.13) to measure the length of the area covered by the active material
on both sides of the positive electrode sheet, record it as Lc1 (see Figure 1);
e) Use an electronic balance (6.2) to weigh the positive electrode sheet after wiping,
and number and record;
f) Use a ruler (6.13) to measure the total length of the positive electrode active
material and the exposed foil area of the aluminum foil, record it as Lc0 (see Figure
1).
In the exposed foil area, use an ultrasonic welding machine (6.17) to weld the positive
electrode tab (5.13) to the A side of the positive electrode sheet. Randomly inspect to
ensure that there are no missing welding, weak welding, or over-welding in the battery
core, and then place it in a vacuum oven (6.3) for storage. The positive electrode sheet
before assembly is shown in Figure 1.
7.3 Preparation of negative electrode sheets
7.3.1 Weighing
Calculate graphite (5.8), conductive agent (5.2), CMC (5.9), and SBR (5.10) according
to the mass fractions of 91.0 % ~ 98.0 %, 0.5 % ~ 3.0 %, 0.5 % ~ 3.0 %, and 1.0 % ~
3.0 % respectively, and weigh them with a balance (6.1). Calculate the amount of
deionized water (5.11) according to the solid content (mass fraction) of 45.0 % ~ 60.0 %,
and weigh with a balance (6.1).
7.3.2 Pulping
The negative electrode pulping process is as follows:
a) Add the weighed deionized water into the mixing tank of the dispersing mixer
(6.5), gradually add the weighed CMC, and disperse and stir for more than 2 h
until uniform;
b) Add the weighed conductive agent; vacuum, disperse and stir evenly;
c) Add the weighed graphite; vacuum, disperse and stir evenly;
d) Add the weighed SBR, vacuum; disperse and stir evenly; control the slurry
viscosity at 1500 mPa • s ~ 4500 mPa • s; complete the pulping process.
7.3.3 Coating
Design based on the ratio of negative electrode sheet capacity to positive electrode sheet
capacity of 1.10 ~ 1.15. Calculate the single-sided density of the negative electrode
sheet. Control the single-sided coating surface density of the negative electrode slurry
within the range of 60 g/m2 ~ 110 g/m2, the thickness difference to be not greater than
5 μm, and the density deviation between the front and back sides to be less than 5.0
g/m2.
Use a coater (6.6) to evenly coat the mixed negative electrode slurry on the front and
back sides of the copper foil (5.12). The coating rate parameter of the coater (6.6) is set
to 800 mm/min ~ 2000 mm/min, and the baking temperature of the blast is set to 70 ℃
~ 90 ℃.
The compacted density of the negative electrode sheet (ρa) is calculated according to
formula (2):
where:
ρa - the compacted density of the negative electrode sheet, in grams per cubic
centimeter (g/cm3);
ma - the mass of the negative electrode sheet, in grams (g);
mCu - the mass of the copper foil substrate, in grams (g);
Sa - the area of the negative electrode plate, in square centimeters (cm2);
da - the thickness of the negative electrode sheet, in centimeters (cm);
dCu - the thickness of the copper foil substrate, in centimeters (cm).
Design according to the compacted density of 1.45 g/cm3 ~ 1.65 g/cm3, calculate the
thickness of the negative electrode sheet, use a roller machine (6.12) to roll the negative
electrode sheet after the secondary baking in 7.3.3 to the target thickness, and operate
according to the following steps:
a) Use an edge trimming machine (6.7) to trim the edges of the negative electrode
sheet after rolling;
b) Use a soft brush (6.8) to remove abnormal protrusions and edge burrs on the
surface of the negative electrode sheet;
c) Use an adjustable slitting machine (6.9) to cut the negative electrode sheet to the
designed width (Wa) (see Figure 2);
d) Use a ruler (6.13) to measure the length of the area covered by the active material
on both sides of the negative electrode sheet, record them as lengths La1 and La2,
and ensure that Lc1 < La2 < La1;
e) Use an electronic balance (6.2) to weigh the negative electrode sheet after wiping,
and number and record;
f) Use a ruler (6.13) to measure the total length of the negative active material and
the exposed foil area of the aluminum foil, record it as La0.
In the exposed foil area, use an ultrasonic welding machine (6.17) to weld the negative
electrode tab (5.13) to the C side of the negative electrode sheet. Randomly inspect to
ensure that there are no missing welding, weak welding, or over-welding in the battery
core, and then place it in a vacuum oven (6.3) for storage. The negative electrode sheet
before assembly is shown in Figure 2.
7.4 Separator preparation
Take the lithium-ion battery separator (5.7) and use the adjustable slitting machine (6.9)
to cut the separator. The length is recorded as Ls and the width is recorded as Ws. It shall
meet the requirements of Wc < Wa < Ws and Lc0 < La0 < Ls, where Wc is the width of the
positive electrode sheet, Wa is the width of the negative electrode sheet, Ws is the width
of the separator, Lc0 is the length of the positive electrode sheet, La0 is the length of the
negative electrode sheet, and Ls is the length of the separator.
7.5 Battery assembly
The schematic diagram of how to roll up the upper and lower separators and the positive
and negative electrode sheets is shown in Figure 3. To assemble a test battery, it can
refer to the following steps:
a) Take the cut separators in 7.4, and put them on the winding needle of a winding
machine (6.14);
b) Place the negative electrode sheet in 7.3.4 between the two layers of separators
and align them in the center;
c) Take the positive electrode sheet in 7.2.4 and place it on a separator, so that the
positive electrode sheet, separators, and negative electrode sheet are centered and
wound;
d) Start the winding machine, and automatically wind according to the set program;
e) Take out the winding core from the winding needle, and use polyimide tape (5.15)
to glue and fix the tail and top of the core respectively;
f) Place the winding core flat on a battery flattening machine (6.15) and press it flat.
After the flattening is completed, disassemble the first winding core, and check
the status of the electrode sheets to ensure there are no cracks;
g) Put the winding core into an aluminum plastic film (5.14) shell, use a heat-sealing
machine (6.16) to seal the top side of the aluminum plastic film shell to make a
battery core; place it in a vacuum oven (6.3), and set the oven temperature at 50 ℃
~ 85 ℃; vacuum or dry under nitrogen (or argon) (5.17) atmosphere circulation
for 15 h ~ 36 h;
h) Transfer the battery core to an inert atmosphere (argon) glove box (6.18); use a
pipette gun (6.19) to inject the lithium-ion battery electrolyte (5.16) into the open
end of the aluminum plastic film shell; after injection, use a vacuum sealing
machine (6.20) to perform initial vacuum sealing in the glove box;
NOTE: Other battery formation conditions are agreed upon between the supply and demand parties.
7.7 Battery capacity division
Take the test battery formed in 7.6, use a lithium-ion battery electrochemical
performance tester (6.22) to divide the capacity. In the capacity dividing process, the
constant-current constant-voltage charging cut-off voltage is 3.6 V ~ 3.7 V, the constant-
voltage charging cut-off current is 0.02 C ~ 0.05 C, and the constant-current discharge
end voltage is 2.0 V ~ 2.5 V. It can refer to the following steps for the capacity division
system:
a) Use a 0.1 C/0.1 C rate constant-current constant-voltage charging-discharging
system for charging and discharging (the initial charge-discharge efficiency can
be calculated). That is, at 0.1 C rate, constant-current charge to 3.6 V ~ 3.7 V;
then constant-voltage charge, the constant-voltage charging cut-off current is 0.02
C ~ 0.05 C; and then at 0.1 C rate, constant-current discharge to 2.0 V ~ 2.5 V;
b) Use a 0.5 C/0.5 C rate constant-current constant-voltage charging-discharging
system for charging and discharging. That is, at 0.5 C rate, constant-current
charge to 3.6 V ~ 3.7 V; then constant-voltage charge, the constant-voltage
charging cut-off current is 0.02 C ~ 0.05 C; and then at 0.5 C rate, constant-current
discharge to 2.0 V ~ 2.5 V;
c) Use a 1 C/1 C rate charging-discharging system for charging and discharging.
That is, at 1 C rate, constant-current charge to 3.6 V ~ 3.7 V; then constant-voltage
charge, the constant-voltage charging cut-off current is 0.02 C ~ 0.05 C; and then
at 1 C rate, constant-current discharge to 2.0 V ~ 2.5 V;
d) At 1 C rate, constant-current constant-voltage charge to the end voltage of 3.5 V,
and the constant-voltage charging cut-off current is 0.02 C ~ 0.05 C.
Among them, the current value corresponding to the charging-discharging current (It)
at t C rate can be calculated by referring to formula (3):
where:
m - the mass of the active material lithium iron phosphate in the test battery, in grams
(g);
C - the initial discharge specific capacity in the half-battery of the active material
lithium iron phosphate in the test battery, in milliamperes per gram (mA • h/g);
t - the rate at which charging or discharging is completed in 1/t h, in per hour (h-1).
NOTE: Other battery capacity division systems are agreed upon between the supply and demand
parties.
7.8 Battery test
After the formation and capacity division of the test battery, use a lithium-ion battery
electrochemical performance tester (6.22) to carry out the cycle life test. The charge
and discharge voltage limits are as follows:
a) Charge limit voltage: constant-current constant-voltage charge to 3.6 V ~ 3.7 V,
constant-voltage charging cut-off current is 0.02 C ~ 0.05 C;
b) Discharge end voltage: 2.0 V ~ 2.5 V;
c) Charge-discharge system: according to the provisions in GB/T 18287, use 1C/1C
to perform charge-discharge cycles at ambient temperatures of (23 ± 2) ℃ and
(55 ± 2) ℃ respectively.
8 Data recording and cycle life test
8.1 Data recording
Record the charge-discharge capacity at different number of cycles during the cycle
process of the test battery. The discharge capacity of the 1st cycle when it is discharged
to the end voltage is recorded as Q1, and the discharge capacity of the nth cycle when
it is discharged to the end voltage is recorded as Qn.
8.2 Cycle life test
The ratio of the discharge capacity of the nth cycle to the discharge capacity of the 1st
cycle of lithium iron phosphate is calculated according to formula (4):
where:
ηn - the ratio of the discharge capacity of the nth cycle to the discharge capacity of
the 1st cycle;
Qn - the discharge capacity of the nth cycle, in milliampere hour (mA • h);
Q1 - the initial discharge capacity, in milliampere hour (mA • h).
Calculation results are rounded to one decimal place.
The cycle life of lithium iron phosphate is determined as follows: the number of cycles
n when ηn ≥ 80 % and ηn+1 < 80 % is the cycle life of the test sample.
...