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GB/T 36584-2018 (GBT36584-2018)

GB/T 36584-2018_English: PDF (GBT 36584-2018, GBT36584-2018)
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Standard ID GB/T 36584-2018 (GB/T36584-2018)
Description (Translated English) Test methods for roofing tiles
Sector / Industry National Standard (Recommended)
Classification of Chinese Standard Q17
Classification of International Standard 91.100.25
Word Count Estimation 18,134
Date of Issue 2018-09-17
Date of Implementation 2019-08-01
Drafting Organization China Building Materials Inspection and Certification Group Xi'an Co., Ltd., Manning Home (Shanghai) Investment Management Co., Ltd., Hunan Xiangxiang Tangsheng Wye Co., Ltd.
Administrative Organization National Technical Committee for Standardization of Wall and Roof Building Materials (SAC/TC 285)
Proposing organization China Building Materials Federation
Issuing agency(ies) State Administration of Markets and China National Standardization Administration

Standards related to: GB/T 36584-2018

GB/T 36584-2018
ICS 91.100.25
Q 17
Test methods for roofing tiles
Issued by: State Administration for Market Regulation;
Standardization Administration of PRC.
Table of Contents
Foreword ... 3 
1 Scope ... 4 
2 Normative references ... 4 
3 Terms and definitions ... 4 
4 Dimensional deviation and appearance quality ... 4 
5 Physical performance test ... 7 
6 Test report ... 22 
Test methods for roofing tiles
1 Scope
This standard specifies the terms and definitions, dimensional deviation,
appearance quality, bending resistance, frost resistance, rapid cooling and heat
resistance, water absorption, impermeability, salt resistance, acid and alkali
resistance, wind resistance, simulated rain test method of roof tiles.
This standard is applicable to plate or block roofing tile products for building
roof covering and decoration.
2 Normative references
The following documents are essential to the application of this document. For
the dated documents, only the versions with the dates indicated are applicable
to this document; for the undated documents, only the latest version (including
all the amendments) are applicable to this standard.
GB/T 9195 Classification and terms of building and sanitary ceramics
JGJ/T 191 Standard for terminology of building materials
ISO 3585 Borosilicate glass 3.3 - Properties
3 Terms and definitions
The terms and definitions defined in GB/T 9195 and JGJ/T 191 apply to this
4 Dimensional deviation and appearance quality
4.1 Dimensional deviation
4.1.1 Gauge
Steel ruler, which has an accuracy of 1 mm.
4.1.2 Measurement methods and results evaluation Measure the length (L) and width (b) at the middle of the front side of
tile, respectively, where it measures the width (b) at the tile head for the S- Crack Measure the maximum straight-line distance between the two ends of
the crack. The measurement of penetrated crack length shall include the length
of the continuous non-penetrated crack. The measurement result is expressed by the maximum crack length
of each specimen. Impact, glaze adhesion Measure the projection size of length and width of edges of tiles
corresponding to the locations of bumps and glaze adhesion. If the damage is
extended from one face to the other, accumulate its extended projecting size.
At the destruction of the edge part, measure its projection size on the visible
face and hidden faces or on the front and back side, respectively. The residual
heights of the flat tile’s side ribs and the rear paws are measured from the
bottom of the reference plane of the tile’s side ribs and the back of the tile,
respectively. The measurement results shall be expressed in terms of the size at
the largest failure point of each specimen. Lime burst Measure the maximum diameter dimension of the lime burst. The measurement results are expressed in terms of the size of the
largest failure of each specimen. Under-fire, stratification Hit the specimen manually, discriminate it according to the difference
in sound, or observe the side of the specimen for inspection. The test results are expressed by the obvious degree of under-fire
and delamination defects of each specimen. Glaze thickness, coating thickness Take 2 pieces of broken tile specimens with regular cross section.
Place a 10 times magnifying glass with scale on the cross-section of the tile.
Measure the thickness of the glaze layer or coating at 3 horizontal points. The
spacing of the measurement point is about b/3. At least one measurement point
of the corrugated tile is at the peak position. The measurement result is expressed by the minimum thickness of
each specimen.
5.2.1 Method 1 Equipment Low temperature box or freezer: The temperature in the box (chamber)
after the specimen is placed can be adjusted to -20 °C or below. Water tank. Specimen holder. Preparation of specimen
Use the whole tile in the natural dry state as a specimen; the number of
specimens is 5 pieces. Test procedure Check the appearance; mark bumps, glaze adhesion, missing glazes
and cracks (including glaze cracks); record the condition. Immerse the specimen in water at 15 °C ~ 25 °C. Take it out after 24
h. Put it in the specimen rack in the freezer which has been cooled to -20 °C ±
3 °C in advance. There shall be a distance of not less than 20 mm between the
specimens and between the specimen and the freezer wall. Close the freezer
door. When the temperature inside the box drops to -20 °C ± 3 °C again,
start time keeping. Maintain it at this temperature for 3 h. Open the freezer door;
take out the specimen and melt it in water at 15 °C ~ 25 °C for 3 h. This is a
freeze-thaw cycle. Test results
It is expressed by the degree of appearance damage of each specimen.
5.2.2 Method 2 Equipment Drying box: The working temperature is 110 °C ± 5 °C. It may also use
other drying systems that can obtain the same test results. Water tank (water): The temperature shall be maintained at 20 °C ±
5 °C. Freezer: It can freeze at least 5 specimens and keep the specimens
from contact with each other.
a distance of not less than 20 mm between the specimens and between the
specimens and the oven wall. Close the oven door. Make the oven reach the pre-heated temperature again within 5 min
and start timekeeping. Hold at this temperature for 45 min. Open the oven door.
Take out the specimen and immediately immerse it in a water sink with flowing
cold water. Quench it for 5 min. This is a rapid cooling and heating cycle.
5.3.4 Test results
The test result is expressed by the degree of appearance damage of each
Note: This test is recommended for glazed tiles.
5.4 Water absorption
5.4.1 Equipment Oven: The working temperature is 110 °C ± 5 °C. It may also use other
drying systems that can obtain the same test results. Dryer. Vacuum container and vacuum system: A vacuum container with a
sufficiently large volume capable of containing the required number of
specimens and a vacuum system capable of evacuating to 10 kPa ± 1 kPa and
maintaining it for 30 min. Suede or other suitable material. Balance: The weighing accuracy is 0.01% of the mass of the tested
specimen. Deionized water or distilled water.
5.4.2 Specimen preparation
Take the whole tile in the natural dry state or half of the tile after the bending
resistance test as the specimen. Cut the minimum side length of 100 mm × tile
thickness in the middle part as the specimen. The number of specimens is 5.
5.4.3 Test procedure Wipe the specimen clean and put it in a drying box to dry to constant
mass (that is, the difference between two consecutive masses every 24 h is
less than 0.1%), as the drying mass m0. During the test, place the specimens
in a desiccator which contains silica gel or other desiccants to cool it to room
temperature. It shall not use acidic desiccants. Each specimen is weighed and
Take the whole tile in the natural dry state or half of the tile after the bending
resistance test as the specimen. Cut (50 ± 2) mm × (25 ± 2) mm × tile thickness
from the visible surface of the specimen as the test specimen. The number of
specimens is 5.
5.6.3 Test procedure Check the appearance of the cleaned specimen. Remove loose
materials on the surface. Mark the cracks (including glaze cracks), bumps,
glaze adhesion, glaze missing. Record the defects. Dry the specimen and sodium chloride: Place the specimen and an
appropriate amount of solid sodium chloride in a glass dish. Place it in a
specimen rack in a blast drying box heated in advance to 115 °C ± 3 °C. The
drying time of the specimen is greater than 12 h, to make it reach to constant
weight (the interval between the two consecutive weighing is 2 h; the difference
between weighing does not exceed 0.2% of the last weighing). The drying time
of sodium chloride is at least 4 h. Then remove the specimen and solid sodium
chloride. Place it in an environment or thermostat with a controlled temperature
of 19 °C ± 3 °C to cool it for 1 h ~ 2 h to room temperature. Weigh 140 g of dry sodium chloride. Prepare 1000 mL of sodium
chloride solution which has a concentration of 14%. Divide it into five 200 mL
plastic beakers with lids. Dip the cooled specimens into the plastic beaker solution. The solution
surface shall be more than 10 mm higher than the specimen. Cover the lid.
Place it in an environment or incubator that can control the temperature of 19 °C
± 3 °C again. The soaking time is 1.75 h ~ 2.5 h. Then remove the specimen
from the plastic beaker. Drain the solution for 1 min ~ 10 min. Place it in the
glass dish on the specimen rack in the blast drying oven at 115 °C ± 3 °C. In
this way, the drying of specimen is used as the starting point, before the
specimen is placed in the desiccator after the end of immersion in solution is
used as the end point, which form a cycle. From the first cycle, the selection of the specimen’s drying time is
alternately performed by overnight drying greater than 12 h and short-term
drying 2.5 h ± 0.5 h. The short-term drying method shall not be used
continuously, but continuous overnight drying is allowed. After that, start the
tenth cycle, the twentieth cycle, until the end of the fortieth cycle. Each time it
shall check the specimen. If it finds that particles other than the marking position
have fallen, remove these particles and place them in the corresponding
numbered glass dish and take record. Add the appropriate amount of 14%
sodium chloride solution prepared in advance to supplement the loss. Every ten
cycles completed, use the fresh solution.
5.7.4 Test procedure
Apply a 3 mm thick sealing material to the edge of the cylinder. Invert the
cylinder on a clean part of the specimen surface. Seal the periphery. Inject the
test solution from the opening. The level of the liquid surface is 20 mm ± 1 mm.
The test solution shall be one of the solutions listed in 5.7.1. Store the test
device at a temperature of 20 °C ± 2 °C. Make the test solution contact the
specimen for 4 days. Gently shake the device once a day, to ensure that the
liquid level of the test solution does not change. After 2 d, change the solution
once. After another 2 d, remove the cylinder and use a suitable solvent to
thoroughly wash the sealing material on the specimen.
5.7.5 Grading after test Overview
Tested specimens shall be completely dry before evaluation. In order to
determine the applicability of the pencil test, use a pencil to draw a few lines on
the untreated portion of the specimen and use a damp cloth to wipe the test
marks. If the pencil traces cannot be wiped off, these tiles will be recorded as
"not suitable for the standard grading method". It can only use the visual grading
method for evaluation. Standard grading method
For specimens that passed the pencil test, the evaluation and grading are
continued according to the following steps. Preliminary visual grading Observe the apparent difference between the measured surface
and the untreated surface, such as changes in reflectance or glossiness, with
the naked eye (usually glasses that can be worn) at a standard distance of 25
cm from different angles. The light source can be daylight or artificial light source (about 300
lx); but avoid exposure to direct sunlight. If no visible change is found after observation, perform the pencil
test. If there are visible changes, perform the reflection test. Pencil test
Use a pencil to draw a few lines on the surface of the specimen and the non-
treated surface. Use a soft wet cloth to wipe the pencil lines. If it can be wiped
off, it is grade A; otherwise it is grade B. Reflection test Keep the ambient temperature at 23 °C ± 5 °C during the test. When
the test plate is installed in place, turn on the fan immediately. Adjust the wind
speed at the air outlet to the specified grade, which is 97 km/h for type A, 147
km/h for type B, 177 km/h for type C. The allowable fluctuation range of wind
speed is ± 5%. The test time is 2 h. During the test, the observer shall pay
attention to the blowing of the specimen. It shall record any damage or shedding
of the entire specimen plate. Meanwhile record the time of occurrence. If
damage occurs during the test, stop blowing and record the elapsed time. Mark
the position where the damage occurred.
5.8.5 Test results If any part does not detach from the test plate during this test, meanwhile
the specimen does not fall off or be damaged, the test is passed. If the specimen
assembled on the specimen plate is not fixed and blown off, or any free part of
the specimen in the test is blown up to 90°, it is considered that the test fails. It is expressed by the damage degree of the specimen and the
specimen plate after blowing. If both test plates pass the test, the product is
considered to have passed the wind resistance test.
5.9 Simulated rain
5.9.1 Equipment Tiled frame and support: The area of the frame is not less than 1 m2 or
4 tiles can be laid in the length and width directions, respectively; the support is
kept sufficiently rigid, so that the frame slope is 30° ± 1°; the height is sufficient
for the observer to make observation from the back side of the tile on the frame. Simulated rain shower device: It consists of a rain pipe and a sprinkler
nozzle controlled, water-supplied, supported by flow adjustment. The inner
diameter of the rain pipe is about 15 mm. The pipe wall has a small hole of
about 2 mm. The water output of the rain shower pipe 2 times the amount of
water coming out of the water outlet. Flowmeter, thermometer, stopwatch.
5.9.2 Specimen preparation
Take the whole tile in the natural dry state as the specimen. The number of
specimens shall satisfy the laying area of not less than 1 m2 or 4 pieces in the
length direction × 4 in the width direction.
5.9.3 Test procedure According to the specimen manual, lay the specimen on the tiled frame
according to the field construction method. It shall not use nails.