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GB/T 32161-2015 (GBT32161-2015)

GB/T 32161-2015_English: PDF (GBT 32161-2015, GBT32161-2015)
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Standard ID GB/T 32161-2015 (GB/T32161-2015)
Description (Translated English) General principles for eco-design product assessment
Sector / Industry National Standard (Recommended)
Classification of Chinese Standard Z04
Classification of International Standard 13.020.20
Word Count Estimation 22,287
Date of Issue 2015-10-13
Date of Implementation 2016-05-01
Quoted Standard GB/T 7635.1; GB 17167; GB/T 19001; GB/T 23331; GB/T 24001; GB/T 24040; GB/T 24044; GB/T 28001
Drafting Organization China National Institute of Standardization; China Light Industry Cleaner Production Center; Beijing Technology and Business University; Yu Xin Yongxing Environmental Protection Nickel Industry Co., Ltd; Hengyang Transport Machinery Co., Ltd.
Administrative Organization National Environmental Management Standardization Technical Committee Subcommittee on Environmental Awareness Design (SAC/TC 207/SC 6)
Regulation (derived from) National Standard Announcement 2015 No.33
Proposing organization Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, Department of Energy Conservation and Comprehensive Utilization
Issuing agency(ies) Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine of the People's Republic of China; Standardization Administration of China
Summary This Standard specifies the terms and definitions of eco-design product evaluation, evaluation principles and methods of evaluation requirements, life cycle assessment reporting methods. This Standard applies to the preparation of specific eco-design specifications for product evaluation.

Standards related to: GB/T 32161-2015

GB/T 32161-2015
ICS 13.020.20
Z 04
General principles for eco-design product assessment
Issued by: General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and
Standardization Administration of PRC.
Table of Contents
Foreword ... 3 
1 Scope ... 4 
2 Normative references ... 4 
3 Terms and definitions ... 5 
4 Assessment principles and methods ... 6 
4.1 Assessment principles ... 6 
4.2 Assessment methods and processes ... 7 
5 Assessment requirements ... 8 
5.1 Basic requirements ... 8 
5.2 Assessment index requirements ... 9 
6 Preparation method of life cycle assessment report ... 11 
6.1 Preparation basis ... 11 
6.2 Report content framework ... 11 
Appendix A (Normative) Content framework of eco-design product assessment
specifications ... 13 
Appendix B (Normative) Methodological framework for life cycle assessment of
industrial products ... 14 
Appendix C (Informative) Example of data collection form ... 23 
Appendix D (Informative) Priority ranking methods and examples of
improvement program of product eco-design ... 26 
References ... 30 
General principles for eco-design product assessment
1 Scope
This standard specifies the terms and definitions, assessment principles and
methods, assessment requirements, methods for preparing life cycle
assessment reports of eco-design product assessment.
This standard applies to the compilation of specifications of specific eco-design
product assessment.
2 Normative references
The following documents are essential to the application of this document. For
the dated documents, only the versions with the dates indicated are applicable
to this document; for the undated documents, only the latest version (including
all the amendments) are applicable to this standard.
GB/T 7635.1 National central product classification and codes - Part 1:
Transportable product
GB17167 General principle for equipping and managing of the measuring
instrument of energy in organization of energy using
GB/T 19001 Quality management systems - Requirements
GB/T 23331 Energy management systems - Requirements
GB/T 24001 Environmental management systems - Requirements with
guidance for use
GB/T 24040 Environmental management - Life cycle assessment -
Principles and frameworks
GB/T 24044 Environmental management - Life cycle assessment -
Requirements and guidelines
GB/T 28001 Occupational health and safety management systems -
Background data
Product’s lifecycle data obtained from sources other than direct
Report for life cycle assessment
A report prepared based on the life cycle assessment method for disclosing
the eco-design of the product and the full life cycle environmental impact
4 Assessment principles and methods
4.1 Assessment principles
4.1.1 Principle of combining life cycle assessment and index assessment
According to the life cycle assessment method, consider the whole life cycle of
industrial products, from the stages of product design, raw material acquisition,
product production, product use, post-disposal recycling, etc., to in-depth
analyze the resource consumption, ecological environment, human health
impact factors at each stage, to select evaluable indicators at different stages
to constitute an assessment index system. Different types of products shall
establish different eco-design assessment index systems, as the access
conditions for evaluating and screening eco-design products. On the basis of
meeting the assessment index requirements, use a life cycle assessment
method to carry out a life cycle inventory analysis, conduct a life cycle impact
assessment, compile a life cycle assessment report, which serves as a
necessary condition for evaluating eco-design products.
4.1.2 Principles for optimal selection of environmental impact types
In order to reduce the difficulty of life cycle assessment, according to the
characteristics of the product, it should select the types of environmental
impacts with high impact, high social attention, clear requirements of national
laws or policies. Usually, they can be selected in climate change, ozone layer
destruction, water body ecological toxicity, human body toxicity-cancer effect,
human toxicity-non-cancer effect, respirable particulate matter, ionizing
radiation-human health effect, photochemical ozone generation potential,
acidification, eutrophication-terrestrial, eutrophication-water body, water
consumption, minerals and fossils energy consumption, land use change and
meet the national and local total pollutant discharge control targets;
f) Environmental management of production enterprises shall establish and
operate environmental management systems, energy management
systems, quality management systems and occupational health and
safety management systems in accordance with GB/T 24001, GB/T 23331,
GB/T 19001, GB/T 28001, respectively;
g) Production enterprises shall be equipped with energy measuring
instruments in accordance with GB 17167 and shall be equipped with
pollutant detection and online monitoring equipment in accordance with
environmental laws and regulations and standards.
5.2 Assessment index requirements
5.2.1 Composition of assessment index
The indicator system can be composed of primary indicators and secondary
indicators. The primary indicators should include resource attribute indicators,
energy attribute indicators, environmental attribute indicators, product attribute
indicators. The secondary indicators shall indicate the stages of the life cycle,
that is, the stages of product design, raw material acquisition, product
production, product use, post-disposal recycling. See Appendix A for examples
of assessment indicators.
5.2.2 Index selection Resource attribute indicators
The resource attributes focus on indicators such as the control of toxic and
hazardous substances in raw materials (components), the use of recycled
materials, the identification of components that are easy to recycle, the
packaging materials and recycling at the production stage, the water
consumption in the production stage. Resource attribute indicators may include,
but are not limited to:
a) For the use of raw materials (components) containing toxic and hazardous
substances, it shall propose the indicators for prohibiting or limiting the
use of toxic and hazardous substances;
b) Regarding the use of recycled materials, it shall propose the indicators
such as the proportion of recycled materials;
c) For the identification of parts that are easy to recycle, it shall require
identifying the material categories of product parts to facilitate recycling;
The calculation method or detection method of each index shall be given in the
appendix in the developed standards. The judgment basis shall be given in the
assessment index requirement form, see Table A.1.
6 Preparation method of life cycle assessment report
6.1 Preparation basis
The product life cycle assessment methodology shall be established in
accordance with the industrial product life cycle assessment method framework
in Appendix B; meanwhile a life cycle assessment report shall be prepared
based on this methodology.
6.2 Report content framework
6.2.1 Basic information
The report shall provide basic information such as report information, applicant
information, assessment object information, standard information used, etc.
Among them, the report information includes the report number, compiler,
reviewer, release date, etc.; the applicant information includes the company's
full name, organization code, address, contact person, contact information, etc.;
the assessment object information includes product model / type, main
technical parameters , manufacturer and factory site, etc.; the standard
information used shall include the standard name and standard number.
6.2.2 Compliance assessment
The report shall provide compliance with the basic requirements and
assessment index requirements; provide an explanation of the improvement of
all assessment indicators in the reporting period compared to the base period.
The reporting period is the current assessment year, which generally refers to
the year before the year in which the product participated in the assessment;
the base period is a comparison year, which is generally one year earlier than
the reporting period.
6.2.3 Life cycle assessment Assessment objects and tools
The report shall describe the objects of assessment, functional units, main
functions of the product in detail; provide the material composition of the product
and the main technical parameter table; draw and explain the system boundary
of the product; disclose the life cycle assessment tools used based on Chinese
Appendix B
Methodological framework for life cycle assessment of industrial
B.1 Overview
Based on GB/T 24040 and GB/T 24044, establish a life cycle assessment
methodology for each type of product. Products should be classified with
reference to GB/T 7635.1.
The life cycle assessment process shall include purpose and scope
determination, inventory analysis, impact assessment, interpretation and
reporting. The details are as follows:
a) Determination of purpose and scope: Study to determine the purpose of
the assessment; determine the assessment object and functional unit;
define the system boundary and time boundary; define the impact types,
necessary elements and optional elements; propose data and quality
requirements; give an assessment report form.
b) Inventory analysis: Mainly include data collection preparation, data
collection, data confirmation, association of data and unit process,
association of data and functional unit, inventory calculation method, data
consolidation, data distribution, etc.
c) Impact assessment: Select impact types, type parameters,
characterization models; divide the life cycle inventory data into the
selected impact types; calculate the type characterization value.
d) Interpretation and reporting: Comprehensively consider inventory analysis
and impact assessment; check the completeness, sensitivity, consistency
uncertainty of the assessment results; explain the conclusions,
recommendations and limitations; prepare a product life cycle assessment
B.2 Scoping
B.2.1 General
The assessment scope shall be determined according to the assessment
purpose to ensure that the two are compatible. In some cases, the scope of the
assessment may be adjusted, but a written explanation of the content and
reason for the adjustment is required.
equipment for each process, personnel and living facilities in the plant
area are ignored;
g) The selection principle does not apply to toxic and hazardous substances.
Any toxic and hazardous materials and substances shall be included in
the list.
B.3 Life cycle inventory analysis
B.3.1 General
An inventory of all materials / energy inputs and discharges to air, water and
soil within the boundaries of the product system shall be prepared as the basis
for product life cycle assessment.
All calculation procedures and calculation formulas shall be given in writing; the
assumptions made shall be clearly stated. When the data collection is
completed, the collected data shall be reviewed. Then, determine the basic flow
of each unit process; calculate the quantitative input and output of the unit
process accordingly. After that, the input and output data of each unit process
is divided by the output of the product, to obtain the resource consumption and
environmental emissions of the function unit. Finally, sum up the data of the
same influencing factors in the process of each unit of the product, to obtain the
total amount of the influencing factors and provide the necessary data for
product-level impact assessment.
A data management plan is an effective tool for managing data and tracking the
inventory process of product data. A data management plan may include:
a) A description of the data collection procedures;
b) Data sources;
c) Calculation methods;
d) Data transmission, storage and backup procedures;
e) Quality control and review procedures for data collection, input and
processing activities, data files and emissions calculations.
B.3.2 Data collection
B.3.2.1 Overview
Data from the following stages shall be included in the data list:
a) Raw material procurement and pre-processing;
b) Production;
b) Pre-processing of all materials, such as coal washing, etc.;
c) Conversion of recovered materials;
d) Photosynthesis of biological materials;
e) Planting and harvesting of trees or crops;
f) Transport within the extraction or pre-processing facilities or between pre-
processing facilities.
B. Production stage
This stage begins when the product components enter the production site and
ends when the finished product leaves the production facility. Examples of
production activities include chemical processing, manufacturing,
transportation of semi-finished products during manufacturing, assembly of
parts, packaging, etc.
B. Product distribution and storage stage
This stage is the process of product transfer and storage from the production
plant to the consumer. Examples include energy input for warehouse lighting
and heating, refrigerant use in warehouses and transportation vehicles, fuel use
for vehicles, and so on.
The transport parameters that shall be considered include the mode of transport,
vehicle type, fuel consumption, loading rate, back empty quantity, transport
Transport parameters that should be considered include transport infrastructure,
cranes, transport aircraft, other resources and tools.
B. Use stage
This stage begins when the product is owned by the consumer or end user and
ends when the product used is discarded and shipped to a recycling or waste
disposal facility. Examples include usage / consumption model, location, time,
assumed period of product use stage, resource consumption during use,
product repair and maintenance during use.
B. Recovery and processing stage
This stage begins when the user discards the used product and ends when the
product returns to nature as waste or enters the life cycle of another product.
Examples include collecting and transporting end-of-life products and
packaging, removing components, sorting, converting to recycled materials,
composting, landfilling, incineration, and so on.
B.4.1 Overview
According to the inventory consumption data and various emission data
provided by the inventory analysis, the potential environmental impact of the
product system is evaluated, to provide necessary information for the life cycle
According to GB/T 24040, life cycle impact assessment is divided into
necessary elements and optional elements. The necessary elements include
impact types, type parameters, characterization models; classification and
division of the inventory analysis results into corresponding impact types;
calculation (characterization) of the type parameter results. This standard does
not involve optional elements because normalization and weighting calculations
are not required for type parameter results.
B.4.2 Selection of impact type
Impact types can be divided into three categories: resource consumption,
ecological and environmental impacts; human health hazards. Among them,
resource consumption may include water resource consumption, mineral and
fossil energy consumption; the types of ecological and environmental impacts
may be selected from climate change, acidification, eutrophication-terrestrial,
eutrophication-water bodies, photochemical ozone generation potential, ozone
layer destruction, water body ecology toxicity, utilization of land use; human
health hazards may include human toxicity-cancer effects, human toxicity-non-
cancer effects, inhalable particulate matter, ionizing radiation-human health
B.4.3 Data classification
According to the physical and chemical properties of the inventory factors, the
factors that contribute to a certain type of influence are grouped together. For
example, the inventory factors such as carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide,
perfluorocarbons that contribute to climate change are classified into the types
of climate change impacts.
B.4.4 Classification assessment
It shall give characteristic models of different impact types, as well as the origin
of the models. The results of classification assessment are expressed by the
material equivalents in Table B.1.
the impact of the method choices such as system boundaries, data sources,
allocation choices, types of life cycle, etc., on the results.
Tools that should be used to evaluate the robustness of a product life cycle
model include:
a) Integrity inspection: Evaluate the data list to ensure its completeness
relative to the identified goals, scope, system boundaries and quality
criteria. This includes the completeness of the process scope (i.e.,
encompassing all processes of each supply chain stage under
consideration) and the input / output scope (i.e., including all material or
energy inputs and emissions associated with each process).
b) Sensitivity inspection: Evaluate the reliability of final results and
conclusions by determining how they are affected by uncertainties in data,
allocation methods, or type parameters.
c) Consistency inspection: The purpose of the consistency inspection is to
confirm whether assumptions, methods and data are consistent with the
requirements and scope requirements.
B.5.3 Identification of hot issues and determination of improvement plans
In order to generate environmental benefits or at least minimize environmental
responsibility, it shall, based on the information in the inventory analysis and
impact assessment stages, propose a series of eco-design improvement plans
related to the evaluated products.
The improvement programs proposed by the assessors based on the results of
the product life cycle assessment are generally extensive and comprehensive.
Not all improvement programs can be implemented. It shall, from the technical
feasibility, environmental improvement, economic benefit, impact of customer
added value (CVA), production management, etc., assess the improvement
program; prioritize them; draw the implementer prioritization diagram and life
cycle stage prioritization diagram; see Appendix D for specific methods.
Note: Customer added value is the difference between the value perceived by the
customer and the cost incurred. Only when the value of a product is perceived by the
customer, can it bring benefits to the enterprise.
B.5.4 Conclusions, recommendations, limitations
It shall state the conclusions, recommendations, limitations in accordance with
the objectives and scope of the identified product life cycle assessment.
Conclusions should include assessment results, a summary of "hot issues”,
improvement options.