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GB/T 2997-2015 (GBT2997-2015)

GB/T 2997-2015_English: PDF (GBT 2997-2015, GBT2997-2015)
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BASIC DATA
Standard ID GB/T 2997-2015 (GB/T2997-2015)
Description (Translated English) Test method for bulk density, apparent porosity and true porosity of dense shaped refractory products
Sector / Industry National Standard (Recommended)
Classification of Chinese Standard Q40
Classification of International Standard 81.080
Word Count Estimation 11,140
Date of Issue 2015-12-10
Date of Implementation 2017-01-01
Older Standard (superseded by this standard) GB/T 2997-2000
Drafting Organization Sinosteel Luoyang Institute of Refractories Co., Ltd.; New Materials Co., Ltd. Jiangsu Yue Exhibition; Zhejiang Ruitai refractories Ltd.; Zhengzhou Zhendong wear-resistant materials Co., Ltd.; Zhengzhou, the Nike Industries Limited; China University of Geosciences (Beijing)
Administrative Organization National Refractories Standardization Technical Committee (SAC/TC 193)
Regulation (derived from) National Standard Announcement 2015 No.38
Proposing organization National Refractories Standardization Technical Committee (SAC/TC 193)
Issuing agency(ies) Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine of People's Republic of China; Standardization Administration of China

Standards related to: GB/T 2997-2015

GB/T 2997-2015
GB
NATIONAL STANDARD OF THE
PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF CHINA
ICS 81.080
Q 40
Replacing GB/T 2997-2000
Test method for bulk density, apparent porosity and
true porosity of dense shaped refractory products
(ISO 5017.2013, Dense shaped refractory products – Determination of bulk
density, apparent porosity and true porosity, MOD)
ISSUED ON. DECEMBER 10, 20015
IMPLEMENTED ON. JANUARY 1, 2008
Issued by. General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and
Quarantine of the People's Republic of China;
Standardization Administration of the People's Republic of
China.
Table of Contents
Foreword ... 3 
1 Scope ... 5 
2 Normative references ... 5 
3 Terms and definitions ... 5 
4 Principle... 7 
5 Apparatus and materials ... 7 
6 Test pieces ... 9 
7 Procedure ... 9 
8 Expression of results ... 11 
9 Test errors ... 12 
10 Test report ... 12 
Annex A (Informative) Comparison of the paragraph numbers between this
Standard and ISO 5017.2013 ... 14 
Annex B (Informative) Technical differences between this Standard and ISO
5017.2013 and their reasons ... 15 
Foreword
This Standard was drafted in accordance with the rules given in GB/T 1.1-2009.
This Standard replaced GB/T 2997-2000, Test method for bulk density, apparent
porosity and true porosity of dense shaped refractory products; compared with GB/T
2997-2000, the main changes are as follows.
-- it deletes the conventional method (see 7.2.1 of Edition 2000);
-- it adds the content of the note in the determination of the mass of dry test piece
(m1) (see NOTE to 7.1);
-- it modifies the liquid for the immersion of test pieces (see 5.6; 5.8 of Edition 2000);
-- it modifies the provision on the number of items to be tested (see 6.1; 6.1 of
Edition 2000); and
-- it modifies the tools used when the mass of immersed test piece is determined
(see 7.4; 7.4 of Edition 2000).
This Standard was redrafted by modifying and adopting ISO 5017.2013, Dense shaped
refractory products – Determination of bulk density, apparent porosity and true porosity.
Many adjustments are made in this Standard, compared with ISO 5017.2013; Annex
A lists the paragraph numbers of this Standard and ISO 5017.2013.
There are technical differences between this Standard and ISO 5017.2013. The
technical differences are marked with vertical single line (|) in the page margin of the
provisions concerned in this Standard. Annex B lists the technical differences between
this Standard and ISO 5017.2013. Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the
elements of this document may be the subject of patent rights. The issuing organization
of this document shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent
rights.
This Standard was proposed by and shall be under the jurisdiction of the Technical
Committee 193 on Refractories of Standardization Administration of China.
The drafting organizations of this Standard. Sinosteel Luoyang Institute of Refractories
Research Co., Ltd., Jiangsu Yuezhan New Material Co., Ltd., Zhejiang Ruitai
Refractory Technology Co. Ltd., Zhengzhou Zhendong Wear-resistant Materials Co.,
Ltd., Annec Industrial Co., Ltd and China University of Geosciences (Beijing).
The drafters of this Standard. Zhang Yi, Mao Qinghui, Fan Shengliang, Li Fuchao, Hou
Huifeng, Huang Zhaohui, Wu Jiaxuan, Sun Yang, Wang Junchao, and Sun Juchen.
Test method for bulk density, apparent porosity and
true porosity of dense shaped refractory products
1 Scope
This Standard specifies the terms and definitions, principle, apparatus and materials,
test pieces, procedure, expression of results, test errors and test report for the
determination of the bulk density, apparent porosity and true porosity of dense shaped
refractory products.
This Standard applies to the determination of the bulk density, apparent porosity and
true porosity of dense shaped refractory products.
2 Normative references
The provisions in the following documents become part of this Standard through
reference in this Standard. For dated documents, the subsequent amendments
(excluding corrigenda) or revisions do not apply to this Standard. However, all parties
who enter into agreement based on this Standard are encouraged to study whether
the latest versions of these documents are applicable. For undated documents, the
latest versions apply to this Part.
GB/T 5071, Refractory materials – Determination of true density (GB/T 5071-2013,
ISO 5018.1983, MOD)
GB/T 8170, Rules of rounding off for numerical values and expression and
judgement of limiting values
GB/T 10325, Shaped refractory products – Rule of acceptance, sampling and
inspection (GB/T 10325-2012, ISO 5022.1979, NEQ)
GB/T 22230, Liquid chemical products for industrial use – Determination of density
at 20°C (GB/T 22230-2008, ISO 758.1976)
3 Terms and definitions
For the purpose of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
3.1
5.6 Immersion liquid. For materials that do not react with water, the immersion liquid
may be cold distilled water or deionized water. For materials that are sensitive to
contact with water, distilled kerosene or other suitable organic liquid shall be used. The
immersion liquid shall not fractionate at a pressure above the absolute pressure
attained in the test.
5.7 Desiccator.
5.8 Hydrostatic balance or aerometer, with an accuracy of 0.01 g.
6 Test pieces
6.1 The number of items to be tested shall be as specified in GB/T 10325 or
determined by agreement between the interested parties.
6.2 Generally, one test piece is taken from each item. The number of test pieces to
be tested per item can also be agreed between the parties and shall be stated in the
test report. If the test pieces are cut out of bricks or blocks, the same number shall be
cut from each one, in order to facilitate statistical analysis.
6.3 Test pieces shall be cut in the form of prisms or cylinders. The bulk volume of a
test piece shall be not less than 50 cm3, and shall be not more than 200 cm3. The ratio
of the longest to the shortest dimension of a test piece shall not exceed 2.1.
NOTE 1 Where it is not possible to obtain the given size and volume from the item,
test pieces of other dimensions and volume may be used by agreement between
parties, and are to be reported.
NOTE 2 If test pieces are to be cut from an item in which variations in density could
occur, the position of the test pieces should be agreed between parties and stated in
the report.
6.4 Any test piece showing cracks shall be eliminated.
7 Procedure
7.1 Determination of mass of dry test piece (m1)
Before weighing, clean the dust and debris on the surface of test pieces. Dry the test
piece at 110°C ± 5°C to constant mass, i.e. until two successive weighings made before
and after at least 2 h in the oven (5.1) do not differ by more than 0.1%.
Before each weighing, place the test piece in a desiccator until it has cooled to room
temperature. Weigh the mass (m1) of each test piece to the nearest 0.01 g.
5 Bridge
Figure 2 – Example of arrangement for the determination of apparent mass (m2)
of immersed test piece using single- and double-pan balances
7.4 Determination of mass of soaked test piece (m3)
Prepare a linen cloth by saturating it in the immersion liquid and lightly wringing it out
by hand before each use. Fold the cloth and lay flat on a bench.
Remove the test piece from the liquid and immediately remove the excess liquid by
quickly rolling the test piece over a damp cloth on all four sides and then blot the two
ends. The aim of undertaking this action quickly is to ensure that liquid is not drawn
out of the pores.
Immediately weigh the test piece in air to the nearest 0.01g. In this way, the mass of
the soaked test piece is obtained (m3).
7.5 Determination of density of immersion liquid
In accordance with GB/T 22230, determine the density ρing of the immersion liquid at
the temperature of the test. It can be determined directly with a hydrostatic balance or
aerometer. If distilled water is used, the accuracy of the test is such that its density
between 15°C and 30°C can be assumed to be 1.0 g/cm3.
8 Expression of results
8.1 The apparent porosity πa is given by the equation.
8.2 The bulk density ρb is given by the equation.
In the equation.
ρing is the density of the immersion liquid at the test temperature.
8.3 The true porosity πt is given by the equation
f) the number of test pieces per item and if relevant their position;
g) the pressure to which the vacuum chamber was reduced;
h) the immersion liquid used;
i) the individual values and the mean value of the bulk dens...
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