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GB/T 2893.1-2013 (GBT2893.1-2013)

GB/T 2893.1-2013_English: PDF (GBT 2893.1-2013, GBT2893.1-2013)
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GB/T 2893.1-2013English105 Add to Cart 0--9 seconds. Auto-delivery Graphical symbols -- Safety colours and safety signs -- Part 1: Design principles for safety signs and safety markings Valid GB/T 2893.1-2013

BASIC DATA
Standard ID GB/T 2893.1-2013 (GB/T2893.1-2013)
Description (Translated English) Graphical symbols. Safety colours and safety signs. Part 1: Design principles for safetry signs and safety markings
Sector / Industry National Standard (Recommended)
Classification of Chinese Standard A22
Classification of International Standard 01.080.10
Word Count Estimation 20,216
Older Standard (superseded by this standard) GB/T 2893.1-2004
Quoted Standard GB/T 2893.3; GB/T 2893.4; GB/T 15565.1; GB/T 15565.2
Adopted Standard ISO 3864-1-2011, MOD
Drafting Organization China National Institute of Standardization
Administrative Organization National Standardization Technical Committee graphical symbols
Regulation (derived from) National Standards Bulletin 2013 No. 10
Proposing organization National Technical Committee for the Standardization of Graphical Symbols (SAC/TC 59)
Issuing agency(ies) General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine of the People's Republic of China, Standardization Administration of the People's Republic of China
Summary This standard specifies: safety signs and safety of different types of markers safe colors and design principles, these safety signs and safety markings in the work area and public places for the prevention of major accidents, fire prevention, transmissio

Standards related to: GB/T 2893.1-2013

GB/T 2893.1-2013
NATIONAL STANDARD OF THE
PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF CHINA
ICS 01.080.10
A 22
Replacing GB/T 2893.1-2004
Graphical symbols - Safety colors and safety signs - Part 1:
Design principles for safety signs and safety markings
(ISO 3864-1:2011, MOD)
ISSUED ON: JULY 19, 2013
IMPLEMENTED ON: NOVEMBER 30, 2013
Issued by: General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and
Quarantine of PRC;
Standardization Administration of PRC.
Table of Contents
Foreword ... 3 
Introduction ... 5 
1 Scope ... 6 
2 Normative references ... 6 
3 Terms and definitions... 7 
4 Uses of safety colors and safety signs ... 7 
5 General meaning of geometric shapes and safety colors ... 7 
6 Design of safety signs ... 8 
6.1 General requirements ... 8 
6.2 Prohibition signs ... 8 
6.3 Instruction flags ... 9 
6.4 Warning signs ... 10 
6.5 Safety status signs ... 10 
6.6 Signs of fire protection facilities ... 11 
7 Design of auxiliary signs ... 11 
8 Design of combination signs ... 13 
9 Designs of duplex sign ... 14 
10 Design principles of graphic symbols for safety signs ... 15 
11 Design of safety markings ... 15 
Appendix A (Informative) The relationship between the size of the safety sign and the
viewing distance ... 16 
References ... 22 
Foreword
GB/T 2893 "Graphical symbols - Safety colors and safety signs" is divided into four
parts:
- Part 1: Design principles for safety signs and safety markings;
- Part 2: Design principles for product safety labels;
- Part 3: Design principles for graphical symbols for use in safety signs;
- Part 4: Colorimetric and photometric properties of safety sign materials.
This Part is Part 1 of GB/T 2893.
This Part was drafted in accordance with the rules given in GB/T 1.1-2009 "Directives
for standardization - Part 1: Structure and drafting of standards".
This Part replaces GB/T 2893.1-2004 "Graphical symbols - Safety colors and safety
signs - Part 1: Design principles for safety signs and safety markings". Compared with
GB/T 2893.1-2004, the main technical changes are as follows:
- DELETE the standardization process of safety signs (Chapter 6 of GB/T 2893.1-
2004);
- DELETE the provisions on the lining in the design of safety signs (7.1 in GB/T
2893.1-2004)
- DELETE the design requirements for the combination of emergency exit signs and
directional auxiliary signs (8.6 in GB/T 2893.1-2004);
- MOVE the relationship between the size of the safety sign and the observation
distance, into the informative appendix (Chapter 10 of GB/T 2893.1-2004);
- DELETE the provisions on the chromaticity and luminosity properties of the safety
color and contrasting color (Chapter 11 of GB/T 2893.1-2004).
This Part, using the redrafting method, modifies and adopts ISO 3864-1:2011
"Graphical symbols - Safety colors and safety signs - Part 1: Design principles for safety
signs and safety markings ".
Compared with ISO 3864-1:2011, this Part has the following technical differences:
- Use the GB/T 2893.3, which modifies and adopts the international standard, to
replace the reference document ISO 3864-3 in the original international standard;
- Use the GB/T 2893.4, which modifies and adopts the international standard, to
Graphical symbols - Safety colors and safety signs - Part 1:
Design principles for safety signs and safety markings
Important note: The colors, which are presented in the electronic files of this Part
of GB/T 2893, cannot be viewed as real colors on the screen or used for printing.
Although this Part of GB/T 2893 is printed in China, in accordance with the color
requirements (within the allowable deviation, according to visual inspection), the
printed version is not used for color matching. For requirements on color matching,
please refer to GB/T 2893.4. This Part gives the color reference values quoted from
the color sequence system, whilst giving the chromaticity attributes and
photometric attributes.
1 Scope
This Part of GB/T 2893 specifies the safety colors and design principles of different
types of safety signs and safety markings, which are mainly used in work areas and
public places, to prevent accidents, prevent fires, transmit information on dangerous
situations and emergency evacuation, etc. This Part also specifies the basic principles
to be applied, in the development of standards containing safety signs.
This Part applies to all locations, that require attention to personal-related safety issues.
This Part does not apply to signals guiding railway, road, inland shipping, maritime and
air traffic. In short, it does not apply to areas otherwise specified in laws and regulations.
2 Normative references
The following documents are essential for the application of this document. For dated
references, only the dated version applies to this document. For undated references, the
latest edition (including all amendments) applies to this document.
GB/T 15565 (all parts) Graphical symbols - Terms
GB/T 2893.3 Graphical symbols - Safety colors and safety signs - Part 3: Design
principles for graphical symbols for use in safety signs (GB/T 2893.3-2010, ISO
3864-3:2006, MOD)
GB/T 2893.4 Graphical symbols - Safety colors and safety signs - Part 4:
Colorimetric and photometric properties of safety sign materials (GB/T 2893.4-2013,
ISO 3864-4:2011, MOD)
3 Terms and definitions
The terms and definitions as defined in GB/T 15565, as well as the following terms and
definitions, apply to this document.
3.1
Identifiability
The property of a graphic symbol, to make its symbolic element be understood as
the object or shape it describes.
3.2
Safe observation distance
The maximum distance, FROM the position, where the observer can recognize the
safety sign and have the opportunity to execute the safety sign's instruction, TO the
safety sign.
4 Uses of safety colors and safety signs
4.1 The role of safety colors and safety signs is to make objects or environments, that
affect safety and health, quickly attract people's attention, AND to quickly understand
specific information.
4.2 Safety signs shall only be used for instructions, which are related to personal safety
and health.
5 General meaning of geometric shapes and safety colors
Tables 1 and 2 give the general meaning of geometry, safety, contrasting colors.
Appendix A
(Informative)
The relationship between the size of the safety sign and the viewing distance
A.1 General
This Appendix is mainly concerned with the perceived quality of the graphic symbol
elements in the safety sign. It has nothing to do with the intelligibility and meaning of
the safety sign. In addition to being easy to understand, graphic symbols also need to
have sufficient perceptual quality, in order for the end-users to correctly identify the
symbol elements in the actual use environment.
Note 1: GB/T 16903.3 describes the concept of perceived quality of graphic symbol elements.
When the viewing distance of the safety sign increases, the viewing angle of the graphic
symbol will be reduced. With the increase of observation distance, it becomes
increasingly difficult to identify graphic symbol elements, which leads to a smaller and
smaller proportion of users, who can correctly identify graphic symbol elements.
Therefore, in the short observation distance, the design of the graphic symbol elements
shall keep a very high proportion of the people, who can correctly identify the graphic
symbol elements, in the expected user group. On the contrary, in the long observation
distance, the proportion that the expected user group can correctly identify the graphic
symbol elements will be low or none. Since the distance to correctly identify the
elements of graphic symbols varies from person to person, the proportion of the
expected users, who may make the correct identification, can actually be counted.
Therefore, it is very important for a higher proportion of the expected users, to correctly
identify the elements of the graphic symbols AND understand the meaning of the safety
signs, at a distance where they can follow the instructions of the safety signs. In practice,
in the minimum safe observation distance of safety signs, the proportion of the expected
users, who can correctly identify the elements of graphic symbols, is at least 85%.
The evaluation of identification of graphic symbol elements is a complex task. The
following factors and circumstances will affect the identifiability of graphic symbol
elements:
- The graphic symbol elements and the dimensions of their parts within the geometry
of the safety sign;
- Whether the safety sign is externally or internally illuminated, as well as the
material used for the safety sign;
- Brightness, brightness contrast or contrast between the graphic symbol and the
of graphic symbol elements and the basic geometric shape of safety signs are fixed in
the safety signs, which are stipulated in GB 2894.
The value of z0 will vary, among safety signs, for a given intended user population and
lighting conditions. For safety signs, which have external lighting, where the
illuminance measured on the surface of the sign is 100 lx, AND where the users have
normal or corrected vision, use the test method, which is specified in GB/T 16903.3, to
determine the z0 value, which is related to 85% correct identification ratio standard with
the graphic symbol elements. However, for a specific safety sign, the conditions for the
generation of the correct identification ratio of the graphic symbol elements, to the
normal vision population, are unknown; at this time, the general value of 60 is used for
z0.
A.2.2 For externally illuminated safety signs, the distance factor is affected by the
lighting level of the sign. Typically, for externally illuminated safety signs in low
lighting environments, such as safety signs illuminated by emergency lights, z0 is
multiplied by a factor of 0.5.
For externally illuminated emergency exit signs, Table 1 gives the recommended values
for z0, at different lighting levels. The same value for z0 can also be applied to the
auxiliary direction arrows for external lighting.
Note: When the illuminance range is exceeded for about 200 lx, the value of z0 changes linearly with the logarithm
of the illuminance.
For internally illuminated safety signs, the distance factor is affected by the brightness
and brightness contrast of the safety sign. A generalized numerical value for the distance
factor is not available. By using a longer viewing distance in a dark environment, the
test method of GB/T 16903.3 can be used.
For internally illuminated emergency exit signs, Table A.2 gives the recommended
values for z0, under different brightness conditions, with white contrasting colors. The
same value for z0 also applies to the auxiliary direction arrows for interior lighting.
Note: The value of z0 changes approximately linearly with the logarithm of the brightness, when it exceeds the
brightness range up to about 50 cd/m2.
A.2.3 The visual acuity of visually impaired people is low. For people with 6/60 visual
acuity, z0 is multiplied by a factor of 0.1.
Note: The numerical visual acuity, which is equivalent to 6/60, is 0.1. The numerical visual
acuity, which is equivalent to 6/6 visual acuity of the normal vision population, is 1.
A.3 Distance factor for viewing safety signs from different angles
When the safety sign is observed, at a certain angle to the normal line of the safety sign,
the projected size of the sign will be reduced, thus reducing the observation distance,
that can correctly identify the elements of the graphic symbol. For internally illuminated
or externally illuminated safety signs, which have Lambertian brightness characteristics,
if α is the angle between the line of sight and the normal line of the sign (located at the
center of the sign), THEN, the distance factor of the angle zα is calculated by the
following formula:
zα = z0 cosα
For example, when viewing the safety sign, at an angle of 30°, 45° or 60° from the
normal to the safety sign, z0 shall be multiplied by 0.87, 0.71 or 0.5, respectively.
The viewing distance of the safety sign, which has the same degree of identifiability of
the graphic symbol elements, forms a circle, which has a diameter of z0. Figure A.2
shows a ring, in the vertical and horizontal planes. In three-dimensional space, these
rings form the outer surface of a sphere, which has a diameter of z0.
...