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GB/T 21562.3-2015 (GBT 21562.3-2015)

Chinese Standard: 'GB/T 21562.3-2015'
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GB/T 21562.3-2015English160 Add to Cart 0--10 minutes. Auto-delivered. Railway applications -- Specification and demonstration of reliability, availability, maintainability and safety (RAMS) -- Part 3: Guide to the application for rolling stock RAM GB/T 21562.3-2015 Valid GB/T 21562.3-2015
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Standard ID GB/T 21562.3-2015 (GB/T21562.3-2015)
Description (Translated English) Railway applications - Specification and demonstration of reliability, availability, maintainability and safety (RAMS) - Part 3: Guide to the application for rolling stock RAM
Sector / Industry National Standard (Recommended)
Classification of Chinese Standard S04
Classification of International Standard 45.060
Word Count Estimation 51,546
Date of Issue 2015-12-31
Date of Implementation 2016-07-01
Drafting Organization Zhuzhou CSR Times Electric Co., Ltd.
Administrative Organization National electric traction systems and equipment Standardization Technical Committee (SAC/TC 278)
Regulation (derived from) State Standard Announcement 2015 No.43
Proposing organization National Railways
Issuing agency(ies) Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine of People's Republic of China; Standardization Administration of China

GB/T 21562.3-2015
ICS 45.060
S 04
Railway applications - Specification and demonstration of
reliability, availability, maintainability and safety (RAMS) -
Part 3. Guide to the application for rolling stock RAM
轨道交通 可靠性, 可用性, 可维修性和安全性规范及示例
第 3部分. 机车车辆 RAM的应用指南
(IEC/TR 62278-3.2010, Railway applications - Specification and
demonstration of reliability, availability, maintainability and safety (RAMS) -
Part 3. Guide to the application of IEC 62278 for rolling stock RAM, MOD)
Issued by. General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and
Quarantine of the PRC;
Standardization Administration of the PRC.
Table of Contents
Foreword ... 3 
Introduction ... 5 
1 Scope ... 6 
2 Terms and definitions ... 7 
3 Approach ... 7 
3.1 General ... 7 
3.2 Entities involved in the life cycle phases of rolling stock ... 7 
4 Application ... 8 
4.1 Object of the application ... 8 
4.2 Application of GB/T 21562-2008 ... 8 
5 SPECIFY RAM requirements ... 10 
5.1 Introductory remarks ... 10 
5.2 Preliminary RAM analysis ... 10 
5.3 RAM requirements ... 19 
5.4 Process for choosing RAM figures ... 29 
5.5 RAM program ... 29 
6 RAM assurance during life cycle ... 44 
6.1 General ... 44 
6.2 Tender phase ... 46 
6.3 Design phase ... 47 
6.4 Demonstration phase ... 50 
7 RAM parameters of LCC model ... 54 
7.1 General ... 54 
7.2 Overview of LCC modelling ... 55 
7.3 RAM parameters for LCC model ... 56 
Appendix A (Informative) Breakdown structure (examples) ... 58 
References ... 83 
Railway applications - Specification and demonstration of
reliability, availability, maintainability and safety (RAMS) -
Part 3. Guide to the application for rolling stock RAM
1 Scope
This Part of GB/T 21562 provides guidance on applying the RAM requirements
in GB/T 21562-2008 to rolling stock during the system life cycle phases from
invitation to tender to demonstration in operation.
The Part is aimed at the customers/operators and main suppliers of rolling stock
(including D-series high-speed train). It mainly specifies the following contents.
- Tasks which the customer/operator of rolling stock is responsible for.
 SPECIFY the RAM requirements, ADDRESS the type of operation in
terms of the end customer needs, service availability, and economic
 EVALUATE different tenders, in terms of RAM requirements, on a
common basis with the aid of specific RAM documents;
 CONFIRM whether, during design/development phase, the rolling
stock satisfies the RAM requirements by examining step by step
detailed and specific RAM documents as an output of the RAM
activities performed; VALIDATE that the rolling stock, as delivered,
satisfies the specified RAM requirements.
- Tasks which the main supplier of rolling stock is responsible for.
 UNDERSTAND the customers/operators’ RAM requirements;
 PROVIDE substantive performance in a tender to show that the
product offered is likely to satisfy the RAM requirements by performing
preliminary RAM analysis;
 PROVIDE substantive performance during design/development
phase to show that the product offered is likely to satisfy the RAM
requirements by performing detailed RAM analysis;
 DEMONSTRATE that the product delivered satisfies the RAM
Regarding LCC model, this Part specifies only the required key RAM
This Part excludes the following contents.
- RAM values connected to the different RAM requirements (However, 5.4
provides a simple guideline of actions for more in-depth decision making
and selection of appropriate values);
- Specific RAM documents and activities (However, this Part provides, only
as an example, typical data and document templates for recording the
output of a RAM analysis).
2 Terms and definitions
The following terms and definitions are applicable to this document.
2.1 Part number
The alphanumeric code, generally assigned by the main supplier, to represent
a family of products with the same characteristics of form, fit, and function.
3 Approach
3.1 General
To determine the requirements of GB/T 21562-2008 and the basic conditions
for these requirements, for each phase of the life cycle, the following questions
shall be addressed.
- WHAT. What activities/tasks are to be performed and the supporting
documents to be produced?
- WHO. Who has the responsibility for these activities/tasks?
- HOW. Which type of method or tool shall be used?
This process is adopted for the development of the Part and shall be applied in
accordance with the structure of the application.
3.2 Entities involved in the life cycle phases of rolling stock
Depending on the organizational and management structure of the railway
system concerned, a number of entities, performing different functions, may be
involved within the life cycle phases of rolling stock. The entities in the contract
e) ESTABLISH and IMPLEMENT an adequate and effective configuration
management system including, at least.
1) All system documentation;
2) All other system deliverables.
Both the customer and the main supplier shall provide evidence by documents
about the fulfilment of the above mandatory requirements, within their
responsibility. The RAM program shall include these documents.
5 SPECIFY RAM requirements
5.1 Introductory remarks
The purpose of this chapter is to establish the process to define RAM
requirements for rolling stock and for the subsystems, assemblies, and parts
(distinguished by their boundary limits) belonging to the rolling stock.
This chapter gives detailed information on the requirements of phases 1, 2, 4,
and 5 of system life cycle described in 6.1, 6.2, 6.4, and 6.5 of GB/T 21562-
The system definition process shall first collect all available data and relevant
information about the rolling stock under consideration.
The final goal is the derivation of RAM targets through the appropriate analysis
of all the information collected and organized in a structured way.
5.2 Preliminary RAM analysis
5.2.1 General
This clause complements,,,, and A.2 of GB/T
21562-2008 and gives further details.
The preliminary RAM analysis shall identify the application environment and the
operating conditions of the rolling stock, to recognize the fundamental concepts
based on the overall RAM requirements.
The analysis includes.
- Similar system review. CREAT a list of similar existing rolling stock, and
EXTRACT suitable RAM-related information;
- Preliminary system analysis. All available and relevant rolling stock
documentation is reviewed in order to define, at a preliminary level, the
maintenance conditions (including logistic support). Items contained in each of
these are listed below.
a) Mission profile.
1) Reference route;
2) Commercial operating speed (operating distance/operating time);
3) Mean distance of a run;
4) Mean distance between two train stops;
5) Operating time or distance per year;
6) Revenue of operating time or distance per year;
7) Stand-by time per day;
8) Idle time per day (i.e. time when the rolling stock is neither in operation
nor stand-by);
9) Planned total time of use (life expectancy in years).
b) Route profile.
1) Number of tunnels related to reference route;
2) Number of viaducts related to reference route;
3) Cumulative distance in tunnels;
4) Cumulative distance on surface, including viaducts;
5) Gradients and curves of the route and related lengths.
c) Operating conditions.
1) Equivalent speed related to the time the equipment is powered during
a given calendar period (cumulated distance/time the equipment is
powered over the period);
2) Time an equipment is powered over a given calendar period (This
parameter can be defined for each equipment, but is generally defined
for categories of equipment);
3) Time during which traction is activated;
4) Time or percentage of time during which electric braking is activated;
e) Maintenance conditions.
1) DEVELOP a maintenance plan (including minimum preventive
maintenance interval, maximum contemporary number of personnel
required for maintenance interval tasks, maximum standstill time to
complete maintenance interval tasks, etc.);
2) Number, location, and description of the sites for maintenance;
3) Description of the standard equipment, tools, and resources at the
maintenance sites. Breakdown structure and boundary limits General
Breakdown structure of the rolling stock is the most important baseline of the
identification process. Establishing a breakdown structure of the rolling stock,
gives a clear reference outline for all the activities and analyses, and supports
RAM program through the life cycle.
Generally, the operating scope of the breakdown structure is to set up the
borders of a system. By using an appropriate breakdown level for the system,
LIST all the subsystems belonging to the rolling stock; and DRAW out the
relationships existing between the different subsystems of the rolling stock.
RAM analyses can use the two methods.
- Functional breakdown;
- Physical breakdown.
The functional breakdown is often used to perform preliminary criticality
analyses. The last functional level allows consequences of functional failure
modes to be developed and the next physical level allows the critical subsystem
list to be developed.
The physical breakdown is used to perform maintainability analyses. The last
level of this breakdown is the line replaceable unit (LRU), as defined in
This breakdown is sometimes called the logistic breakdown structure. Common rules to set up a physical breakdown structure
The decomposition process of the breakdown structure shall be divided into
different levels step by step. All the subsystems and their functional
relationships shall be determined.
The decomposition process is based on a hierarchical breakdown in a top down
specification might be applied.
5.3 RAM requirements
5.3.1 General
This clause complements and of GB/T 21562-2008 and gives
further details.
This clause gives the most commonly used RAM requirements, guides the
customer to choose the most appropriate requirements for his rolling stock, and
also considers the legal requirements which may arise from regulations (if any).
In choosing the appropriate RAM requirements, the customer shall give priority
to the following items.
- System characteristics (mission profile, operating condition, and function
requirements, etc.);
- Economic implications;
- Practicalities (being able to measure RAM performance according to the
field operations, depending on the organizational and logistical structure,
and service procedures).
The customer shall document his process for choosing RAM requirements
stating the factors considered for the selected RAM requirements and giving a
description of each selected requirement.
5.3.2 Reliability targets
This clause provides guidance on the reliability target requirements (MTBF,
failure rate per million hours, or failure rate per million kilometers) of significant
(immobilizing) failure, major (service) failure, and minor failure.
The reliability targets are applicable to the total rolling stock and all its
subsystems, assemblies, and parts defined according to the boundary limits.
For each failure category, the customer shall specify the following reliability
- Maximum accepted failure rate;
- Minimum accepted MTBF/MTTF/MDBF.
The terms “hours/kilometers” represent hours/kilometers of service.
MTBF is intended for repairable units. MTTF is intended for non-repairable units.
Examples of logistical and administrative delays are as follows.
- Waiting time in the depot;
- Waiting time for spare parts;
- Time to prepare maintenance actions;
- Time to shunt rolling stock.
5.4 Process for choosing RAM figures
This clause complements and of GB/T 21562-2008 and gives
further details.
The aim of this clause is to provide simple guidance to help customers choose
appropriate figures for RAM requirements.
Considering the deliverables of the previous clauses, the customer shall
complete the following tasks.
a) ANALYZE rolling stock system identification and its breakdown structure;
b) CONSIDER functional requirements involved and the related subsystems;
c) DERIVE RAM requirements by analyzing the failure conditions of each
functional requirement;
d) CONSIDER RAM requirements of similar rolling stock;
e) REVIEW past RAM performances achieved;
f) CONSIDER technical evolution of the rolling stock under consideration;
g) EVALUATE the impact of new functionalities requested;
h) CONSIDER a realistic improvement of RAM requirements;
i) CONSIDER other specific and documented needs.
The above actions would enable the customer to make better choices with
substantial supporting documentation.
The customer shall document his process for choosing RAM figures stating how
to choose each figure.
5.5 RAM program
5.5.1 General
 Failure data collection from field;
5.4 Follow up of RAM critical products.
6. RAM deliverable documents and schedule
6.1 List of RAM deliverable documents;
6.2 Schedule for RAM analyses;
6.3 Periodical RAM activities report.
The RAM program establishes all the program management tasks, including
timing and implementation details of the program activities and documentation
to accomplish the RAM program requirements.
The RAM program includes declarations for the procedures, tools and time
schedule foreseen for implementing the RAM program.
The main supplier shall be responsible for establishing the RAM program,
specifying the RAM program, for the contents of the documents submitted to
the customer, and for reaching consensus through consultation with the
customer on the acceptance timescale of the system quality plan.
5.5.4 Example of RAM analyses document template and data General
This clause provides an overview of RAM analyses document templates and
data, to guide the user to handle the issues related to the RAM program.
The following are examples of templates for the most common RAM
documentation and analyses provided by the main supplier, to give substantive
information/visual information of the RAM activities carried out and to show that
the rolling stock satisfies the RAM requirements in each phase of the life cycle
from the tender to the operation phase.
A list of tools suitable for the different analyses and the management of all RAM
activities is given in B.5 of GB/T 21562-2008. Common data for the analyses
A set of data for the identification of the object being analyzed. The types of the
data are generally common through the different analyses and levels of the
breakdown structure. They represent the header data set of the analysis.
To simplify the understanding, a 3-level breakdown structure has been given in
these examples, and the third level is the LRU level.
maintenance actions. The depot may minimize standstill time for the rolling
stock and complete maintenance within the lowest possible time, to release it,
ready for service.
For complex maintenance actions, if adequate trained personnel, resources,
minimum set of spare parts, tools and equipment available within the depot
cannot be provided, the maintenance actions shall be carried out elsewhere,
e.g. within a specialized depot/workshop. In this case, the rolling stock shall be
out of service.
The first situation is referred to as “in-service maintenance” and the second one
as “out-of-service maintenance”.
Considering the above situations and RAM requirements, there are 2
possibilities for preventive maintenance.
a) In-service maintenance, to address the target of minimizing standstill time,
two choices can be considered for maintenance.
 All the maintenance actions are carried out in the depot;
 Only removing/installing of products (replacing a product with a spare)
is carried out in the depot. Other maintenance actions are carried out
on the removed products in a specialized depot/workshop.
b) Out-of-service maintenance, all the maintenance actions are carried out
only in a specialized depot/workshop.
For these situations, the maintenance levels of preventive maintenance
analysis templates and data sheets are described as follows.
- InS-PM (in-service preventive maintenance);
- OutS-PM (out-of-service preventive maintenance).
Besides the resources of the depot (personnel, tools, equipment, etc.),
corrective maintenance shall also consider the impact of failure mode (divided
into repairable failure mode or not repairable failure mode) on the RAM
a) In-service maintenance. The choice shall be made based on the principle
of minimizing standstill time.
 Repairable failure mode. All maintenance actions for the repair are
carried out in the depot;
 Not repairable failure mode. Only removing/installing products is
itself, its normal operation, or the supplier staff.
Therefore, the customer shall define, before the beginning of the checking
period and of each RAM requirement, detailed acceptance criteria to establish
clear rules to be followed.
6.4.3 In service checking period
The customer is responsible for defining an appropriate duration for the
checking period.
For defining a checking period, the customer shall consider that usually RAM
targets may not be achieved in the first period of checking operation but after a
burn-in period, during which a reliability growth monitoring process shall have
been implemented.
Generally, the steady level is achieved at least after two years of revenue
Reliability growth monitoring process is a continuous monitoring of the field data,
RAM analysis and matching of the results against the targets for contractual
requirements. Additional requirements may be agreed between customer and
Where results from field data fall short of contractual requirements, the main
supplier shall undertake corrective actions.
When choosing the checking period, it shall meet the following requirements.
- Within the reliability growth process, the corrective actions shall be
managed as described in 5.5, with a corrective action plan, as appropriate;
- Before start of the RAM checking period, reliability growth process shall be
- In order to manage a coherent field data collection, the rolling stock
configuration status shall have been stable. If necessary technical
modifications are carried out, the supplier shall precisely quantify the
consequences of modified configuration (e.g. software update); ......
Related standard: GB/T 21562.2-2015    GB/T 16566-2018
Related PDF sample: GB/T 21562.2-2015    GB 146.2-2020