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GB 7258-2017

Chinese Standard: 'GB 7258-2017'
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Detail Information of GB 7258-2017; GB7258-2017
Description (Translated English): Technical specifications for safety of power-driven vehicles operating on roads
Sector / Industry: National Standard
Classification of Chinese Standard: T09
Classification of International Standard: 43.020
Word Count Estimation: 58,514
Date of Issue: 2017-09-29
Date of Implementation: 2018-01-01
Drafting Organization: Ministry of Public Security Traffic Management Science Institute, Ministry of Transport Road Research Institute, China Automotive Technology Research Center
Administrative Organization: Ministry of Public Security of the People's Republic of China
Proposing organization: Ministry of Public Security of the People's Republic of China
Issuing agency(ies): People's Republic of China General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine, China National Standardization Administration

GB 7258-2017
NATIONAL STANDARD OF THE
PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF CHINA
ICS 43.020
T 09
Replacing GB 7258-2012
Technical specifications for safety of
power-driven vehicles operating on roads
机动车运行安全技术条件
[Including 2019XG1 Amendment List]
ISSUED ON: SEPTEMBER 29, 2017
IMPLEMENTED ON: JANUARY 01, 2018
Issued by: General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and
Quarantine of the People's Republic of China;
Standardization Administration of the People's Republic of
China.
Table of Contents
Foreword ... 3 
Introduction ... 17 
1 Scope ... 18 
2 Normative references ... 18 
3 Terms and definitions ... 21 
4 Vehicle ... 32 
5 Engine and drive motor ... 53 
6 Steering system ... 54 
7 Brake system ... 55 
8 Lighting, tell-tale and other electrical equipment ... 68 
9 Driving system ... 78 
10 Transmission system ... 81 
11 Vehicle body ... 83 
12 Safety protection devices ... 93 
13 Additional requirements for fire engines, ambulances, engineering rescue
vehicles and police vehicles ... 106 
14 Additional requirements for vehicles for handicapped driving ... 107 
15 Transitional period requirements for standard implementation ... 107 
References ... 112 
[2019XG1] No.1 Amendment List of national standard ... 114 
Technical specifications for safety of
power-driven vehicles operating on roads
1 Scope
This standard specifies the basic technical requirements on the running safety
such as motor vehicle main assembly and safety protection devices, as well as
the additional requirements for the fire engines, ambulances, engineering
rescue vehicles and police cars and vehicles for handicapped driving.
This standard applies to all motor vehicles traveling on the road in China.
However, it does not apply to trams and wheeled special purpose mechanical
vehicles which are not designed and manufactured for use on the road and
mainly for the operation and construction in closed roads and places.
Note: Tram refers to the motor-driven, overhead power supply, track carrying
road vehicles.
2 Normative references
The following documents are essential to the application of this document. For
the dated documents, only the versions with the dates indicated are applicable
to this document; for the undated documents, only the latest version (including
all the amendments) are applicable to this standard.
GB 811 Helmets for motorcyclists
GB 1589 Limits of dimensions, axle load and masses for motor vehicles,
trailers and combination vehicles
GB/T 2408-2008 Plastics - Determination of burning characteristics -
Horizontal and vertical test
GB/T 3181 Color standard for paint film
GB 4094 Motor vehicles - Symbols for controls, indicators and tell-tales
GB/T 4094.2 Electric vehicles - Symbols for controls, indicators and tell-tales
GB 4599 Motor vehicle headlamps equipped with filament lamps
GB 4785 Prescription for installation of the external lighting and light-
signaling devices for motor vehicles and their trailers
GB 5948 Photometric characteristics of motorcycle headlamps equipped
with filament light sources
GB 7956.1 Fire fighting vehicles - Part 1: General technical specifications
GB 8108 Vehicle electronic sirens
GB/T 8196 Safety of machinery - Guards - General requirements for the
design and construction of fixed and movable guards
GB 8410 Flammability of automotive interior materials
GB 9656 Safety glazing materials for road vehicles
GB 10396 Tractors, machinery for agriculture and forestry, powered lawn
and garden equipment - Safety signs and hazard pictorials - General
principles
GB 11567 Motor vehicles and trailers - Lateral and rear underrun protection
requirements
GB/T 12428 Laden mass calculating method for buses
GB 12676 Technical requirements and testing methods for commercial
vehicle and trailer braking systems
GB 13057 The strength of the seats and their anchorages of passenger
vehicles
GB 13365 Spark arrester
GB 13392 The vehicle mark for road transportation dangerous goods
GB 13954 Warning lamps for police cars, fire engines, ambulances and
engineering rescue vehicles
GB/T 14172 Static roll stability test method for motor vehicles
GB 15084 Motor vehicles - Devices for indirect vision - Requirements of
performance and installation
GB 15365 Symbols for controls indicators and telltales for motorcycles and
mopeds
GB 16735 Road vehicle - Vehicle identification number (VIN)
GB 17352 Performance and installation requirements of rear views mirrors
for motorcycles and mopeds
GB 17578 Requirements and test methods of strength for the superstructure
of bus
GB/T 17676 Natural gas vehicle and liquefied petroleum gas vehicle
Identification marks
GB 18100.1 Provisions for installation of lighting and light-signaling devices
for motorcycles - Part 1: Two wheels motorcycle
GB 18100.2 Provisions for installation of lighting and light-signaling devices
for motorcycles - Part 2: Two wheels moped
GB 18100.3 Provisions for installation of lighting and light-signaling devices
for motorcycles - Part 3: Three-wheel motorcycles
GB/T 18411 Road Vehicle - Manufacturer’s Plate
GB 18447.1 Safety requirements for tractors - Part 1: Wheeled tractors
GB 18564.1 Road tanker for dangerous liquid goods transportation - Part 1:
Technical requirements of atmospheric pressure metal tank
GB 18564.2 Road tanker for dangerous liquid goods transportation - Part 2:
Technical requirements of atmospheric pressure non-metal tank
GB/T 18697 Acoustics - Measurement of noise inside motor vehicles
GB/T 19056 Vehicle travelling data recorder
GB 19151 Warning triangles for motor vehicle
GB 19152 Motor vehicle headlamps emitting a symmetrical passing beam
or a driving beam or both
GB 20074 External projections for motorcycles and mopeds
GB 20075 Passenger hand-holds on motorcycles
GB 20300 Safety specifications for road transportation vehicle of explosive
substance and chemical toxic substance
GB 21259 Headlamps equipped with gas - discharge light sources for motor
vehicle
GB 21668 Provisions of vehicles for the carriage of dangerous goods with
regard to their specific constructional features
GB 23254 Retro-reflective markings for goods vehicles and trailers
GB 24315 The marker for school bus
GB 24406 The strength of student seat systems and their anchorages of
special school bus
GB 24407 The safety technique specifications of special school bus
GB/T 24545 Requirement of speed limitation system for motor vehicles
GB/T 25978 Road vehicle - Plate and label
GB 25990 Rear-marking plates for vehicles and their trailers
GB 25991 Automotive headlamps with LED light sources and/or LED
modules
GB 26511 Front underrun protective requirements for commercial vehicle
GB/T 26774 Technical specification for car carriers
GB/T 30036 Adaptive front-lighting system for motor vehicles
GB 30678 Safety signs and information symbols for the use of bus
GB/T 31883 Road vehicles - Drawbar couplings, drawbar eyes, fifth wheel
kingpins, hook couplings and toroidal eyes - Wear limits for in-use
mechanical couplings
GB 34655 Specifications for extinguishing equipment arrangement in bus
GA 524-2004 Specification of 2004 style police vehicle unified appearance
coating
GA 525-2004 Specification of 2004 style police motorcycle unified
appearance coating
GA 923 Specification of special police vehicle unified appearance coating
GA 1264 Fixed fire extinguishing systems for compartment of bus
3 Terms and definitions
The following terms and definitions apply to this document.
3.1
Power-driven vehicle
3.2.1.3.1.4
Special bus
Buses designed and manufactured for carrying specific personnel and
performing specific functions, such as special school buses; it also includes
the special buses equipped with special equipment and appliances, and
more than 9 seats (including driver's seat).
3.2.1.3.2
Bus with standing passenger area
Buses with the maximum designed speed less than 70 km/h, with seats and
passenger standing area, and enough space for frequent passengers to get
on and off when there are frequent stops, with fixed bus operation routes
and stations, running mainly in urban built-up areas; it also includes
trolleybus, which is the motor-driven bus connected with the power line.
3.2.1.4
School bus
7-seat above passenger car that is used for schooling of preschool children
over 3 years of age or students for compulsory education.
3.2.1.4.1
School bus for infants
School bus for schooling of preschool children over 3 years of age.
3.2.1.4.2
School bus for primary student
School bus for schooling of primary students.
3.2.1.4.3
School bus for primary and middle school student
School bus for schooling of nine-year compulsory education students
(primary and junior high school students).
3.2.1.4.4
Special school bus
[GB 1589-2016, Definition 3.5]
3.2.3
Special motor vehicle
Motor vehicles that are equipped with special equipment or appliances,
designed and manufactured for engineering projects (including health care),
such as goods vehicle cranes, fire engines, concrete pump goods vehicles,
wrecker goods vehicles, aerial vehicles, road sweepers, dirt pickup vehicles,
drilling locomotives, instrument vehicles, inspection vehicles, monitoring
vehicles, power vehicles, communication vehicles, TV vehicles, blood
collection vehicles, medical vehicles, medical examination medical carts,
etc., excluding the motor vehicles that are equipped with special equipment
or appliances but the number of seats (including driver’s seat) exceeds 9
(except for fire engines).
3.2.4
Gaseous fuel vehicle
Motor vehicles equipped with an engine powered by a gas such as LPG,
natural gas or gas.
3.2.5
Bi-fuel vehicle
Motor vehicles with two sets of independent fuel supply systems, and the
two sets of fuel supply systems are available for separate but not
simultaneous supply of fuel to the combustion chamber, such as
gasoline/CNG bi-fuel vehicles, gasoline/LPG bi-fuel vehicles and the like.
3.2.6
Dual-fuel vehicle
Motor vehicles with two sets of fuel supply systems and the two sets of fuel
supply systems supply fuel to the combustion chamber at a predetermined
ratio and then the fuel is mixed and combusted in the cylinder, such as
diesel-compressed natural gas dual-fuel vehicles, diesel-liquefied petroleum
gas dual-fuel vehicles and the like.
3.2.7
Battery electric vehicle
Motor vehicles driven by the motor and the driving power is from the on-
3.4.2
Goods road train
Combination of goods vehicle and draw-bar trailer or center axle trailer.
3.4.2.1
Draw-bar trailer combination
Combination of goods vehicle and draw-bar trailer.
3.4.2.2
Center axle trailer combination
Combination of goods vehicle and center axle trailer.
3.4.3
Articulated vehicle
Combination of semi-towing trailer and semi-trailer, it also includes the
combination of goods vehicles with connecting plate and caravan semi-
trailer.
3.5
Road transportation vehicle for dangerous goods
Goods vehicles, trailers, and combination of vehicles that are designed and
manufactured to transport dangerous goods.
3.6
Motorcycle and moped
Road vehicles driven by power devices, with two or three wheels, excluding:
a) Tri-wheeled vehicles with a curb weight of more than 400 kg, without a
cab, for carrying cargo;
b) Tri-wheeled vehicles with a curb weight of over 600 kg, without a cab,
without the structure or function of the cargo carrying, designed and
manufactured to accommodate a maximum of 2 people, including drivers;
c) Tri-wheeled vehicle with a curb weight of more than 600 kg, with a cab;
d) The mobile wheelchairs dedicated for the handicapped driving that has a
maximum design speed, vehicle curb weight, outline size and other
regardless of the driving mode, and:
- Having a displacement not greater than 50 mL if using internal combustion
engine;
- Having a motor rated power sum not greater than 4 kW if using the power
driving.
3.6.2.1
Moped with two wheels
Two-wheeled moped equipped with two rear wheels on the vehicle's
longitudinal center plane.
3.6.2.2
Right three-wheeled moped
A moped equipped with two rear wheels that are symmetrical with the front
wheels.
3.7
Tractor towing trailer for transportation
Power-driven vehicles composed of a tractor towing a trailer for the purposes
of goods carriage, including wheeled tractor trailer for transportation and
walking tractor trailer for transportation.
Note 1: The tractors referred to in this standard refer to walking tractors with
a maximum design speed of not more than 20 km/h and can only performing
road transportation work after towing a trailer, as well as the wheeled tractor
with a maximum design speed of not more than 40 km/h and can only
performing road transportation work after towing a trailer.
Note 2: Walking tractor trailer for transportation also includes handheld
variable transport machine, that is, the turning steering trailer for
transportation having an engine 12h nominal power not more than 14.7 kW,
using walking tractor chassis, changing the handle into a steering wheel, and
connecting to a trailer.
3.8
Wheeled mobile machinery for special purposes
Wheeled machinery with special structure and special features, equipped
with rubber wheels to run on their own, with the maximum design speed
greater than 20 km/h, such as loaders, graders, excavators, bulldozers, etc.,
identification codes (or vehicle identification numbers) for wheeled mobile
machinery for special purposes shall be engraved on the structural part at right
front of vehicle, or on other vehicle structural parts if restricted by structure. For
other power-driven vehicles (except for motorcycles and mopeds), it shall
engrave the vehicle model and exit-factory number at the corresponding eye-
catching position, with the model in front of the exit-factory number, at both ends
of the exit-factory number shall be engraved with the start and end marks.
Parts engraved with a vehicle identification number (or product identification
code, complete vehicle model and serial number) shall not be ground, cut and
repaired, cushioned, chipped, repainted (except for the painting technology
used to protect the engraved vehicle identification number during design and
manufacture), there shall not be any covering on the surface of a sufficiently
large area around the engraved area; if there is a covering, the surface of the
covering shall be clearly marked with “vehicle identification number” or “VIN”,
and the covering can be directly removed (or uncovered) and restored without
using any special tools, to easily observe a surface that is large enough to
include the engraved area.
Engraved vehicle identification number (or product identification code, vehicle
model and serial number) from above (front) side shall be easy for observation
and rubbing; for motor vehicles and trailers, it shall also be able to be
photographed. The height of the letter and number of the engraved vehicle
identification number shall be greater than or equal to 7.0 mm, the depth shall
be greater than or equal to 0.3 mm (for passenger cars and enclosed goods
vehicles having a total mass of less than or equal to 3500 kg, the depth shall
be greater than or equal to 0.2 mm), but the motorcycle and moped word height
shall be greater than or equal to 5.0 mm, the depth shall be greater than or
equal to 0.2 mm. Engraved vehicle model and exit-factory number height shall
be 10.0 mm, depth shall be greater than or equal to 0.3 mm. The total length of
engraved vehicle identification number (or product identification code, complete
vehicle model and serial number) shall be less than or equal to 200 mm, the
font and size of the letter and number shall be the same (except for the vehicle
identification number engraved in different parts); when there is start and end
marks at both ends of the engraved vehicle identification number, the space
between the start and end marks and the letter and number shall be close and
uniform.
Vehicle identification number (or product identification code, vehicle model and
exit-factory serial number) shall not be changed or altered after being engraved,
except for the re-marking or change as specified in GB 16735. On the frame of
the same power-driven vehicle (or on the unremovable parts of the vehicle body
which are mainly for load bearing purposes for the frameless power-driven
vehicles), it shall not engrave both the vehicle identification number (or product
identification code) and the vehicle model and serial number at the same time.
All vehicle identification numbers on the same vehicles shall be the same.
compartment with the vehicle identification number at a position which cannot
be observed from the outside but can be directly observed after opening, and
at least five major components shall be marked of the vehicle identification
number; however, if the manufacturer uses the production management system
which allows to trace the vehicle uniqueness information such as the vehicle
identification number from the component number, the major components can
be marked of the component number.
Vehicle identification number or part number shall be engraved directly or use
the label which can be permanently maintained to attach in the target area of
the major component as specified by the manufacturer, the character and code
height shall ensure that the content can be clearly identified.
4.1.8 In addition to the vehicle identification number engraved in accordance
with 4.1.2, 4.1.3, 4.1.5, as for the fence type, storage/stack type, auto-dumping
type, and tank type goods vehicles having a total mass greater than or equal to
12000 kg as well as the fence type, storage/stack type, auto-dumping type, and
tank type trailers having a total mass greater than or equal to 10000 kg, it shall
also engrave at least two vehicle identification numbers on the goods container
or atmospheric pressure tank (or on the structural parts designed and
manufactured to fix onto the goods container or atmospheric pressure tank and
used to connect the frame). Engraved vehicle identification number shall be
located at the right and left sides of the goods container (atmospheric pressure
tank) or front end surface at a position which is easy for photography, the depth,
height, and total length shall comply with the provisions of 4.1.3; if it is engraved
at the left and right sides of the goods container (atmospheric pressure tank),
the distance to the front end surface of the goods container (atmospheric
pressure tank) shall be less than or equal to 1000 mm; if it is engraved on the
connection structural parts at left and right sides, it shall be as close to the front
end surface of the goods container (atmospheric pressure tank) as possible.
4.1.9 The markings of the road transportation vehicles for dangerous goods
shall comply with the provisions of GB 13392; among them, road transportation
vehicles for explosives and highly toxic chemicals shall also comply with the
provisions of GB 20300. There shall be a metallic tank nameplate at the right
side of the tank body of the tank type road transportation vehicles for dangerous
goods or of the support welded to the tank, and the nameplate of the tank body
shall be marked with the unique code, tank design code, tank volume and other
information.
4.1.10 When modifying or repairing a power-driven vehicle, the vehicle
identification number (or the complete vehicle model and the exit-factory
number), the engine model and the exit-factory number, the part number, the
product nameplate and the engine identification shall not be covered (shielded),
ground, cut and repaired, cushion treatment, drilled or other destructive
operations, and it shall also not destroy or perform unauthorized modifications
minimum value for approval.
4.4.1.2 Under no-load and full-load conditions, the ratio of the axle load (or
steering wheel load) of the steering axle to the curb mass and total mass of the
vehicle shall be greater than or equal to:
- Passenger car: 30%;
- Tri-wheeled vehicles, right three-wheeled motorcycles: 18%;
- Other motor vehicles: 20%.
Articulated vehicle shall be verified for the towing vehicle at no-load and full
load conditions, the articulated buses and articulated trolleybus shall be verified
for the front vehicle at no-load and full load conditions.
4.4.1.3 When the wrecker is under traction, the steering axle load shall be
greater than or equal to 15% of the total mass.
4.4.1.4 The maximum allowable loading mass of the trailer of goods road train
shall be less than or equal to the maximum allowable loading mass of the goods
vehicle.
4.4.1.5 The total mass of the semi-trailer of the articulated vehicle shall be less
than or equal to the maximum allowable towing mass of the semi-trailer tractor.
4.4.1.6 The towed mass ratio of the wheeled tractor towing trailer for
transportation (the ratio of trailer maximum allowable total mass to the tractor
usage mass) shall be less than or equal to 3.
4.4.2 Passenger number approval of passenger cars and motor caravan
4.4.2.1 When the passenger compartment internal width is greater than or
equal to 1200 mm, the verified number of passengers of the front seats shall
be 2, when it is greater than or equal to 1650 mm, the verified number of
passengers of the front seats is 3, but the seat cushion width and depth for each
front seat passenger shall be greater than or equal to 400 mm, and it shall not
be used as students seat for passenger number approval.
Note: The front passenger compartment internal width refers to the minimum
value measured between the door interior panels extending from the lower
edge of the doors and windows on both sides to the rear pillar at the door; if
there is hand rest area designed and manufactured for the door, it refers to the
minimum value between the door interior panels above the hand rest plane.
4.4.2.2 For other rows of seats than the front seats, when it can ensure that the
spacing to the front row of seat is greater than or equal to 600 mm and the seat
cushion depth is greater than or equal to 400 mm (or the spacing to the front
backward seats failing to comply with the provisions of 4.4.2.3, there is no
verified number of passengers.
4.4.2.5 The verified number of passengers of a motor caravan shall be less than
or equal to 9, but the verified number of passengers of a motor caravan having
a length less than 6 m shall be less than or equal to 6. For the motor caravan
having a length greater than or equal to 6 m which is modified from goods
vehicle chassis, when the personnel movement cannot be ensured between
the cab and the caravan compartment, there is no verified number of
passengers for the caravan compartment; for the motor caravan having a length
less than 6 m which is modified from goods vehicle chassis, when there is a
through opening of an area greater than or equal to 4.0 x 105 mm2 and being
able to connect to a 500 mm x 700 mm rectangle between the cab and the
caravan compartment, it can verify the number of passengers for the caravan
compartment. There is no verified number of passengers for the beds (including
those converted from tables and chairs) of the motor caravan.
4.4.3 Bus passenger number verification
4.4.3.1 It is verified by the crew mass: determined by GB/T 12428.
4.4.3.2 It is verified in accordance with the seat cushion width and standing
passenger valid area: there is 1 person verified per 400 mm of seat cushion of
long seat (referring to the seat having a cushion and backrest in a strip for
seating of two or more passengers), but when used as a student seat, there is
1 person verified per 280 mm for school bus for infants (or 330 mm for special
school bus for infants), 1 person verified per 350 mm for school bus for primary
students, 1 person verified per 380 mm for school bus for primary and
secondary students; when the single seat cushion width is greater than 400 mm
(380 mm for student seats), the verified number of passenger is 1 person. For
the passenger cars with standing passenger area, it is calculated as per the
standing passenger valid area as established in accordance with GB/T 12428,
with 1 standing passenger verified per 0.125 m2; the number of standing
passengers is not verified for the upper decker of double-decker bus and other
buses.
4.4.3.3 It is verified in accordance with sleeper number: 1 person is verified for
each sleeper of the sleeper passenger car, 1 person for the driver’s seat, the
number of passengers is not verified for passenger seats (including vehicle
crew seats).
4.4.3.4 The seats in front of the transverse vertical plane wherein the foldable
single seat and driver's seat point R is located shall not be used as student seat
for passenger number verification.
4.4.3.5 For the school buses for infants, primary students, and primary and
passengers of road transportation vehicle for dangerous goods shall be less
than or equal to 3.
4.4.5 Passenger number verification for motorcycle and moped
4.4.5.1 For the motorcycles with two wheels and the right three-wheeled
motorcycles with two front wheels and one rear wheel, in addition to the driver,
one more passenger is verified if there is fixed seat.
4.4.5.2 For the motorcycles with sidecar, in addition to the driver, one more
passenger is verified for the main vehicle and side car, respectively, if having
fixed seats.
4.4.5.3 The verified passenger number is 1 driver for the cab of the right three-
wheeled motorcycle; when the passenger compartment has a longitudinally
arranged (same as the power-driven vehicle traveling direction) fixed seats (the
seat cushion depth of this fixed seat is greater than or equal to 400 mm and its
distance to the driver’s seat is greater than or equal to 650 mm), one passenger
is verified per 400 mm of seat cushion width, but at most 2 passengers; if the
above conditions cannot be met, the passenger number is not verified for the
passenger compartment.
4.4.5.4 The verified passenger for moped is 1 driver.
4.4.6 Special provisions
4.4.6.1 For the passenger cars designed and manufactured with seating
facilities for mobility-impaired passengers (such as wheelchair occupants),
ambulances equipped with stretchers, and other motor vehicles for carrying
special passengers, if it is equipped with wheelchairs (or stretchers) and other
user restraint system, 1 person is verified for each restraint system, and the
passenger number for other seats is verified in accordance with 4.4.2.1, 4.4.2.2,
4.4.2.3, 4.4.3 and 4.4.4.
4.4.6.2 The number of passengers for fire engines, medical vehicles, physical
examination medical vehicles and other special motor vehicles is verified with
reference to 4.4.2.1, 4.4.2.2, 4.4.2.3, 4.4.3 and 4.4.4.
4.4.6.3 The passenger number is not verified for the caravan.
4.4.6.4 The passenger number is not verified for the seats and sleepers
provided outside the goods vehicle cab (area).
4.5 Specific power
The specific power of low-speed vehicles and tractor towing trailer for
transportation shall be greater than or equal to 4.0 kW/t, and the specific power
of other vehicles than the trolleybus and battery electric vehicles shall be
to 460 mm are supported by strut, the parking stability angle leftwards,
rightwards, and forwards shall be respectively greater than or equal to 9°, 5°,
6°; When they are supported by parking frame, the parking stability angle
leftwards, rightwards, and forwards shall be respectively greater than or equal
to 8°.
4.7 Graphics and text mark
4.7.1 For motor vehicles (except for tri-wheeled vehicles and low-speed goods
vehicles equipped with single-cylinder diesel engine) and motorcycles and
mopeds, it shall follow the provisions of GB 4094, GB/T 4094.2 and GB 15365,
respectively, to set the graphic marks for the operating controls, indicators and
tell-tales.
4.7.2 Unless otherwise the shift lever, handle, switch and other control gears of
the tri-wheeled vehicles and low-speed goods vehicle fitted with single-cylinder
diesel engines are very clear in functions, it shall use the durable marking to
clear indicate the functions and operating direction, etc., on the control gears or
the positions nearby. Operating symbols for marking purposes shall have a
significant color difference with the background.
4.7.3 The warning text marked for power-driven vehicles shall contain a
Chinese version.
4.7.4 The special equipment and facilities in the living compartment of the motor
caravan and caravan shall be clearly indicated of the corresponding rules on
safe use.
4.7.5 Low-speed vehicles and tractor towing trailer for transportation shall be
provided with the corresponding safety signs for the safety considerations that
need to remind people's attention. Safety signs shall be consistent with the
provisions of GB 10396.
4.7.6 All the goods vehicles (except for multi-purpose goods vehicle) and
special motor vehicles (except for fire engines) shall be sprayed on both sides
of the cab (area) of the total mass (or the maximum allowable towing mass for
semi-trailer tractor); among them, fence type goods vehicles and dump goods
vehicles shall also be sprayed with a fence height on both sides of the cab. Tank
cars and tank trailers (other than tank-type road transportation vehicle for
dangerous goods) shall also be sprayed on both sides of the tank with the tank
volume and the type of goods allowed. Fence type trailers shall be sprayed on
both sides of the compartment with the fence height. Refrigerated vehicles shall
also be sprayed or pasted on the outside of the visible parts with the eye-
catching characters of “refrigerated vehicles” and the English letters of the
refrigerated vehicle type. Sprayed Chinese and Arabic numerals shall be clear,
the height shall be greater than or equal to 80 mm.
(except for low-speed vehicles and bus with standing passenger areas) shall
be sprayed / affixed to the rear of the vehicle with Arabic numerals representing
the maximum design speed (unit: km/h); Arabic numerals height shall be
greater than or equal to 200 mm, surrounded by a red circle in matched size.
4.7.12 Training vehicle shall be sprayed on both sides of the body and the rear
of the characters such as “training vehicle” and so on at a height greater than
or equal to 100 mm.
4.7.13 Motor vehicles other than police cars, fire engines, ambulances and
engineering rescue vehicles shall not be sprayed or installed with the graphic
signs and lamps same or similar as police cars, fire engines, ambulances and
engineering rescue vehicles.
4.8 Appearance
4.8.1 Motor vehicle parts shall be intact, strongly connected, without defect.
4.8.2 The body shall be regular, the height difference between the symmetric
parts at left and right sides of the body periphery shall be less than or equal to
40 mm.
4.8.3 The height difference above ground between the left & right symmetric
parts such as the handle bar and baffles of the motorcycle with two wheels and
mopeds shall be less than or equal to 10 mm; the height difference above
ground between the left & right symmetric parts such as the cab and passenger
compartment of the right three-wheeled motorcycles shall be less than or equal
to 20 mm.
4.9 Water leakage inspection
In the engine operation and parking, radiator, water pump, cylinder, cylinder
head, heater and all connections shall be free from water dripping or leakage.
4.10 Oil leakage inspection
After the power-driven vehicle continuous driving for not less than 10 km,
observe it after parking for 5 min, there shall be free from water dripping or
leakage.
4.11 Speedometer indication error (except for power-driven vehicles
having a maximum design speed not more than 40 km/h)
The relationship between the speedometer indicated speed v1 (unit: km/h) and
the actual speed v2 (unit: km/h) shall comply with the following requirements:
and number), all the different engraving positions of same vehicle type shall
be described; the specific engraving positions of the vehicle identification
number (or vehicle model and exit-factory number) shall be with graphic
description, and the use of re-painting technology to protect the engraved
vehicle identification number in design and manufacture shall also be
described;
- Length, width, height, and other outline dimension parameters of vehicle;
- Axle load, curb weight, the maximum allowable total mass and other mass
parameters;
- The main engine technical parameters (such as the maximum net engine
power/speed, rated power/speed, maximum torque/speed);
- Tank volume and the types of goods allowed to be carried;
- Fuel type and designation;
- Emission level reached by power-driven vehicle during exit-factory;
- Vehicle fuel consumption under specified test conditions;
- Maximum design speed, maximum gradeability and other dynamic
performance parameters;
- Rated working pressure of (pneumatic brake system) cylinder;
- Specific value of starting pressure;
- Drive type;
- Tire specification and spare tire specification that can be used, and the use
considerations of items such as tire pressure;
- Form and specification of leaf spring;
- Normal use state of air suspension (such as equipment);
- Seat front and back position and back rest angle status set by the factory
set (when measuring the seat cushion depth);
- Normal use status of seat back rest;
- Side and rear lower protective device material, structure, size, connection
part, form, and shape;
- Bearing capacity and goods loading considerations of the isolation device
of enclosed goods vehicle;
brake, speed limit function or speed limit device, electronic stability control
systems and other safety devices; for the motor vehicles equipped with airbags,
the product manual shall also define the airbag position, extension conditions,
and circumstances.
4.15.3 For motor vehicle with an electronic control unit (ECU) or electronic data
interface, it shall describe in the product manual how to read the vehicle
identification number information from the ECU.
4.15.4 For the motor vehicles equipped with an event data recording system
(EDR), the product manual shall have:
- The descriptions on such contents as “this vehicle is equipped with an event
data recording system (EDR)”;
- The descriptions on the meaning and possible uses of the data items
recorded by EDR;
- The descriptions on how to obtain the EDR data reading tools.
4.15.5 Product manual for passenger cars and motor caravan shall describe
the type and fixation method of the child seat which is suitable for installation.
4.15.6 For passenger cars with traction function, it shall describe the following
items in the product manual:
- Maximum allowable traction quality (described respectively for center axle
trailer with and without braking);
- National standard or international standard number corresponding to the
equipped electric connection joint, as well as the functions of each wiring;
- National standard or international standard number corresponding to the
equipped ball joint;
- Additional rear-view mirror and bracket installation location;
- Dimensional limit of center axle trailer allowed to be towed;
- Braking system connection requirements and installation and operation
instructions for passenger cars and center axle trailers;
- Driver requirements of passenger/car trailer combination;
- Precautions of passenger/car trailer combination during driving.
4.15.7 Trailer's product manual shall indicate the corresponding national
standard or international standard number of the connecting device, and
expressly indicate that no person is allowed in the living compartment in the
b) The center axle trailer shall be equipped with connecting devices meeting
the standards;
c) The center axle trailer with a total mass greater than 750 kg shall be
equipped with a braking system.
4.16.3 Passenger/car trailer combination shall meet the following requirements:
a) The electrical connector and cable model of the passenger cars and
center axle trailer match each other;
b) For all-wheel and rear-wheel driven passenger cars, the ratio of the total
mass of the center axle trailer to the curb weight of the passenger car is
less than or equal to 1.5; for the front-wheel driven passenger car, the
ratio of the total mass of trailer to the curb mass of passenger car is less
than or equal to 1.0;
c) For non-braking center axle trailers, the ratio of the total mass of trailers
to the curb weight of passenger car is less than or equal to 0.6;
d) All vehicle traction brackets are equipped with safety chains, to ensure
that the trailer and tractor cannot be separated and the trailer has a certain
degree of steering capability before the combination is braked;
e) The vertical load acting on the connecting device satisfies both:
- Greater than or equal to 4% of the maximum allowable traction mass of
passenger car and greater than or equal to 25 kg;
- Less than or equal to 10% of the maximum allowable traction mass of
the passenger car and the rear axle load of the passenger car is less
than or equal to the allowable axle load.
f) Passenger/car trailer combination has a specific power greater than or
equal to 20 kW/t;
g) Passenger car and center axle trailer can be safely connected or
disconnected without using any tools;
h) The steering and braking signals of the center axle trailer are consistent
with the signal of the passenger car.
4.17 Other requirements
4.17.1 The special structures and special devices of special motor vehicles and
wheeled mobile machinery for special purposes shall not affect the safe
operation of motor vehicles. For the special motor vehicles and other motor
vehicles equipped with special instruments or equipment, the equipped special
5.2 Diesel engine shutdown device shall be effective.
5.3 Engine starting, fuel supply, lubrication, cooling and intake and exhaust
system components shall be complete.
5.4 The motor system of battery electric vehicle shall be stable in operation.
6 Steering system
6.1 Motor vehicle (except for tri-wheeled vehicles) steering wheel shall be set
on the left, the steering wheel of the other motor vehicles shall not be set on the
right; special motor vehicles, training vehicles can be set two steering wheels,
one left and the other right. If the front three-wheeled motorcycle with two rear
wheels and cab has a steering wheel, the horizontal distance from the center
column of the steering wheel to the longitudinal center plane of the vehicle shall
be less than or equal to 200 mm; other motorcycles shall not be steered using
the steering wheel.
6.2 Motor vehicle steering wheel (or handle bar) shall be flexibly rotated, without
jamming. Motor vehicles shall be equipped with the steering position limit
device. Steering system in any operating position, shall not interfere with other
components.
6.3 During normal driving of motor vehicles (except for motorcycles and
mopeds, tri-wheeled vehicles and walking tractor towing trailer for
transportation), the steering wheel shall have a certain degree of back-turning
capability (residual angle allowed) after steering, so that the vehicle has stable
straight-line driving capability.
6.4 The maximum amount of freewheeling of the steering wheel of a motor
vehicle shall be less than or equal to:
a) Motor vehicles with a maximum design speed greater than or equal to 100
km/h: 15°;
b) Tri-wheel vehicle: 35°;
c) Other motor vehicles: 25°.
6.5 Motor vehicles (except tri-wheel vehicles) shall have a modest lack of
steering characteristics.
6.6 The steering wheel leftwards or rightwards turning angle of the tri-wheel
vehicle and motorcycles and mopeds shall be less than or equal to:
a) Tri-wheel vehicle, motorcycles with three wheels, and right three-wheel
mopeds: 45°;
7.1.3 The components such as connecting rod between the brake pedals
(including the secondary brake pedal of training vehicle) and their brackets,
brake master cylinder and its pistons, brake master valve, brake air chamber,
wheel cylinder and its pistons, brake arms and camshafts, shall be easy to
repair.
7.1.4 Various rods of brake system shall not interfere with or in friction with other
parts in the relative displacement, to avoid rod deformation or damage.
7.1.5 The brake pipeline shall be a dedicated, corrosion-resistant, high-
pressure pipeline, which shall be installed with a good continuity, sufficient
length and flexibility to accommodate the required normal movement of the
parts to which it is connected, without causing damage; brake pipeline shall be
properly guarded to prevent scratches, twisting or other mechanical damage,
and it shall avoid installing it at such positions as possible to be exposed to
motor vehicle exhaust pipe or any other high temperature sources. Brake hoses
shall not interfere with other components and shall not be aged, cracked,
squashed, bulged and so on. Other pneumatic devices in the event of failure
shall not affect the normal operation of the brake system.
7.1.6 The full release time of motor vehicles (time required from release of brake
pedal to brake elimination) shall be less than or equal to 0.80 s for bi-axle
vehicles and less than or equal to 1.2 s for tri-axle and above vehicles.
7.1.7 Motor vehicles shall not have their own braking during operation, unless
otherwise the braking by its own designed and manufactured to ensure the safe
operation of vehicle. When a trailer (except for the trailer towed by a wheeled
tractor and having a loading mass less than 3000 kg) is accidentally detached
from the tractor, the trailer shall be able to brake by itself, and the braking of the
towing vehicle shall still be effective.
7.2 Service brake
7.2.1 Motor vehicles (except for trailers of gross mass less than or equal to 750
kg) shall have a complete service brake system, of which the service brake of
motor vehicles other than tri-wheel vehicles shall be double-circuit or multi-
circuit.
7.2.2 The service brake shall ensure that drivers can control the vehicle to
safely and effectively slow down and stop. Brake service shall be controllable,
and except for motor vehicles for handicapped driving, drivers shall be able to
brake without leaving their steering wheel (or handle bar) in their seat.
7.2.3 Service brake shall be applied to all wheels of motor vehicles (except for
tri-wheel vehicles, tractor towing trailer for transportation, and the trailer having
a total mass not more than 750 kg).
the pneumatic pressure control pipeline joint extension pipeline end between
the main suspensions shall also be less than or equal to 0.4 s; for the trailer
using pneumatic braking, when tested in accordance with the methods as
specified in GB 12676, the time (C) from the pneumatic control pipeline joint
between main suspensions to the response of the most unfavorable braking air
chamber shall be less than or equal to 0.4s. The values of A, B and C (values
to 0.01 s, accurate to 0.05 s) shall be clearly marked on the product nameplate
(or other permanent markings provided on the vehicle's visible area).
7.2.11 The matching of the service brake system of goods road train and
articulated vehicle (except for the combination of goods vehicle with connecting
plate and caravan) shall ensure that the ratio of the braking force of the towing
vehicle (or trailer) at full load state to the train’s braking force is greater than or
equal to 90% of the ratio of the mass of the towing vehicle (or trailer) to the
mass of the combination of vehicles.
7.2.12 All motor vehicles (except for tri-wheel vehicles, special motor vehicles
with five or more axles) and trailers having a total mass greater than 3500 kg
shall be equipped with anti-lock braking devices which comply with the
provisions. Road transportation vehicles for dangerous goods having a total
mass greater than or equal to 12000 kg shall also be equipped with an electric
brake system (EBS).
Note: The total mass of the trailer in this article refers to the static load which is
vertically applied through all the axles of the semi-trailer onto the ground,
excluding the static load that is transferred to the traction seat of the towing
vehicle when the semi-trailer is in full load and connected with the towing
vehicle.
7.2.13 Any electrical failure in the anti-lock brake device shall not prolong the
service brake's brake actuation time and brake release time. On trailers that
require power to operate anti-lock brake device, the power supply shall be
supplied by a dedicated power line.
7.2.14 The service brakes of training vehicles (except for tri-wheel vehicles) and
self-learning vehicles shall be equipped with a secondary brake. The secondary
brake device shall be installed firmly and act reliably, to ensure that the trainer
in the driving process can effectively control the motor vehicle for deceleration
and parking.
Note: self-learning vehicle refers to the small motor vehicles and small
automatic transmission motor vehicle for the self-learning personnel to learn
the driving skills on the road.
7.2.15 For the motor vehicles and trailers using pneumatic brake, each air
cylinder (except for those with pressure gauge and other pressure display
7.4.4 The parking brake control device shall be installed in a suitable position
and the control device shall have sufficient reserved travel (except for switch
control devices) and shall normally produce the required braking performance
within two-thirds of the full travel of the control device; when the parking brake
mechanism is equipped with automatic adjustment device, it is allowed for it to
achieve the required braking performance within three-fourths of the whole
travel. When the parking brake uses electronic control device, the locking
device shall be purely mechanical device, which shall still be effective in case
of power failure. The ratchet brake control device shall ensure that when the
specified parking brake performance is reached, the number of reciprocated
pull back and forth of the control rod shall not exceed 3.
7.4.5 When using the spring energy storage brake device to make the parking
brake, it shall be ensured that the parking condition can be conveniently
released in the failure state. If it is required to use special tools, it shall be
equipped in the vehicle.
7.5 Auxiliary brake
7.5.1 Bus with a length greater than 9 m (greater than 8 m for special school
bus), goods vehicles having a total mass greater than or equal to 12000 kg,
special motor vehicle, road transportation vehicle for dangerous goods having
a total mass greater than 3500 kg shall be equipped with retarders or other
auxiliary brake. The performance requirements of the auxiliary brake of the
buses with standing passenger area having a length greater than 9 m, road
transportation vehicle for dangerous goods having a total mass greater than
3500 kg, the semi-trailer tractor shall ensure that the motor vehicles can pass
the type IIA test as specified in GB 12676.
7.5.2 For the motor vehicles equipped with eddy current retarder, at the
installation location of eddy current retarder it shall be equipped with the
temperature alarm system or automatic fire extinguishing device.
7.6 Hydraulic braking special requirements
7.6.1 For the motor vehicles using hydraulic brake, brake pipelines shall not
leak (including external leakage and internal leakage), when the pedal force at
700 N (350 N for motorcycles and mopeds) is maintained for 1 min, the pedal
shall not slowly move forward.
7.6.2 When the hydraulic service brake reaches the required braking
performance, the pedal travel shall be less than or equal to three-fourths of the
full travel of the pedal, and the brake pedal travel of the motor vehicle fitted with
the automatic gap adjustment device shall be less than or equal to four-fifths of
the full travel of the pedal, and it shall be less than or equal to 120 mm for
passenger cars, 150 mm for other motor vehicles.
7.8.2 Motor vehicles equipped with air cylinder or vacuum tanks shall be
provided with one-way valves or corresponding protective devices, to ensure
that, in the event of failure or leakage of connection between the cylinder (tank)
and compressed air (vacuum source), the compressed air (vacuum) within the
cylinder (tank) will not be completely lost.
7.8.3 The capacity of the gas cylinder shall ensure that at the rated working air
pressure without continuing charging air, the air pressure shall be not less than
the starting pressure after five full travel braking applied continuously of the
power-driven vehicle.
7.8.4 The air cylinder shall have a drain valve.
7.8.5 For air-braked vehicles and trailers with gas cylinders, the value of the
rated working air pressure of the air cylinder shall be clearly marked on the
product nameplate (or other permanent mark provided on the visible part of the
vehicle).
7.9 Brake alarm device
7.9.1 For hydraulically braked power-driven vehicles, the reservoir filling port
shall be easy to access, and from the aspect of structural design, it shall ensure
that the liquid level can be easily checked without opening the container. If this
condition cannot be met, it shall install brake fluid level low alarm device.
7.9.2 For hydraulically braked vehicles (except for tri-wheel vehicles and low-
speed goods vehicles equipped with single cylinder diesel engines), the driver
shall be warned by means of a red warning light if any part of the hydraulic
energy transmission device fails. The signal light shall stay on as long as the
failure persists and the ignition switch is in the ON (run) position. The warning
lights shall also be eye-catching even during the day, and drivers shall be able
to easily observe in their seats whether the warning lights are working properly.
Failure of the alarm device shall not result in a complete loss of braking
performance of the braking system.
7.9.3 For air-braked motor vehicles, when the brake system pressure is lower
than the starting air pressure, the alarm device shall be able to continuously
give the driver an easily audible or visible alarm signal.
7.9.4 For the motor vehicles equipped with an anti-lock braking device, the
alarm device shall be able to continuously give the driver an easily audible or
visible warning signal when the anti-lock braking device fails.
7.9.5 For the buses equipped with brake gap automatic adjusting devices,
goods vehicles, and special motor vehicles with a total mass greater than 3500
kg, the optical or acoustic warning devices shall be used to warn the driver at
the driver's seat when the service brake linings need to be replaced.
shall be less than or equal to 250 N.
In case of right three-wheeled motorcycle test, the pedal force shall be less
than or equal to 500 N.
In case of test of tri-wheel vehicle and tractor towing trailer for
transportation, the pedal force shall be less than or equal to 600 N.
7.10.2.4 Qualification requirements
If the road test service brake performance of the motor vehicle and combination
of vehicle at the brake pedal force or braking air pressure as specified in
7.10.2.3 complies with the requirements of 7.10.2.1 or 7.10.2.2, it is considered
as qualified.
7.10.3 Parking brake performance
In the no-load condition, the parking brake shall ensure that the power-driven
vehicle can be maintained static along the climbing and descending directions
of the ramp having a slope of 20% (15% for the power-driven vehicles having a
total mass less than 1.2 times the curb weight) and an adhesion coefficient
between the tire and the road surface greater than or equal to 0.7, for a duration
greater than or equal to 2 min. When testing a combination of vehicle, both the
towing vehicle and trailer parking brake shall function. The operating force
during test shall follow the provisions of 7.4.3.
Note 1: In the specified test state, when the power-driven vehicle using the
parking brake device can stop at a test ramp having a greater gradient value
and the adhesion coefficient complying with requirements, it shall be
considered to meet the parking brake performance test requirements.
Note 2: In the case of not having a test ramp, the parking brake performance
can be tested by referring to the relevant standards using the instruments
specified.
7.11 Brake performance test by bench test
7.11.1 Service brake performance
7.11.1.1 Percentage requirements of braking force
The braking force measured for motor vehicles and combination of vehicle on
the braking test bench shall meet the requirements in Table 5. When there is
any doubt about the no-load test braking force, the full-load test brake force
specified by Table 5 can be used for test. When using a drum test bench, the
maximum braking force can be calculated by measuring the braking
deceleration value.
not loose, damage, loss function, or change lighting direction due to vibration
of power-driven vehicles; all lamp switches shall be installed securely and
turned on/off flexibly, and it shall not be turned on/off automatically due to
vibration of power-driven vehicles. The switch position shall facilitate the driver
to manipulate.
8.1.2 Motor vehicles shall not be fitted with or attached to fences, guards and
the like that shield the light-transmitting surface of external lighting and tell-tale
devices, except for lamps which are designed and manufactured to have fence
or guards and which have a light distribution performance complying with
requirements. Except for the steering lights, hazard warning signals,
emergency brake signals, school bus indication lights, the indication lamps of
road sweeping vehicles, guardrail cleaning vehicles, sweeping cars, vacuum
cleaners and other special motor vehicles in the operating state, as well as the
indication lamps used by the fire engines, ambulances, engineering rescue
vehicles and police vehicles, other external lighting shall not be flashing.
8.1.3 Users shall neither modify external lighting and tell-tale devices nor add
the external lighting and tell-tale devices beyond the mandatory standards,
such as lamps that illuminate the rear of goods vehicles and trailers when
traveling forward.
8.2 Number, position, light color and minimum geometric visibility of
lighting and tell-tale devices
8.2.1 The number, position, light color and minimum geometric visibility of the
external lighting and tell-tale devices of motor vehicles (except for tri-wheel
vehicles and low-speed vehicles fitted with single-cylinder diesel engines) and
trailers shall meet the requirements of GB 4785. For each rear lights, rearward
turning signals and brake lights of the goods vehicles having a total mass
greater than or equal to 4500 kg, the special motor vehicles, and the trailers,
the light-transmitting area shall be greater than or equal to the area of a circle
of 80 mm in diameter; in the case of a non-circular light-transmitting surface, its
shape shall also be able to accommodate a 40 mm diameter circle.
8.2.2 Motorcycle lighting and tell-tale devices and their installation shall comply
with the provisions of GB 18100.1, GB 18100.2 and GB 18100.3, respectively.
8.2.3 Tri-wheel vehicles, low-speed goods vehicles fitted with single-cylinder
diesel engines, and tractor towing trailer for transportation shall be equipped
with headlamps, front lamps (except for walking tractor towing trailer for
transportation), rear lights, brake lights, rear license plate lights, rear reflector,
and front and rear turning signal lights, the light color shall be consistent with
the relevant provisions of GB 4785.
8.2.4 Motor vehicles shall be equipped with a rear reflector. Trailers and motor
shall not interfere with the normal operation of other circuits.
8.3.5 Instrument panels in the driving area shall be non-reflective panels or
guards. The interior lighting and its reflected light at windscreens, mirrors,
instrument panels, etc., shall not cause glare to the driver.
8.3.6 Instrument panel shall be provided with instrument lights. When the
instrument light is on, it shall be able to illuminate all the instruments on the
instrument panel and shall not cause glare.
8.3.7 On the instrument panel of motor vehicles (except for tri-wheeled vehicles
and low-speed goods vehicles fitted with single-cylinder diesel engines), it shall
provide a blue high beam indication signal and a steering indication signal
corresponding to the traveling direction.
8.3.8 Vehicles (except for tri-wheeled vehicles) and wheeled tractor towing
trailer for transportation shall be provided with a hazard warning signal device,
whose control device shall not be subject to the control of the main light switch.
For motor vehicles towing the trailer, the hazard warning signal control switch
shall also be able to turn on all the turning signal lights on the trailer AND shall
be able to issue a hazard warning signal even when the engine is not operating.
The hazard warning signal and turning signal flash frequency shall be 1.5 Hz ±
0.5 Hz, the starting time shall be less than or equal to 1.5 s. In the event of a
turning signal light failure (except for short circuit), the other turning signal light
shall continue to work, but the flash frequency can be different from the above-
specified frequency.
8.3.9 Bus shall be provided with compartment lights and door lights. Buses
longer than 6 m shall have at least two compartment lighting circuits, which may
include one lighting circuit only for entrances and exits. In case of failure of one
circuit, the other circuit shall be able to work normally to ensure internal
compartment lighting. The compartment light and door light shall not affect the
driver's vision line and the normal driving of other vehicles.
8.4 Body reflective sign and vehicle tail sign plate
8.4.1 Trailers with a total mass greater than or equal to 12000 kg (except for
semi-trailer tractors) and special motor vehicles modified from goods vehicle
chassis, trailers with a length greater than 8.0 m, and all motor vehicles and
trailers with a maximum design speed less than or equal to 40 km/h, shall be
provided with the tail mark plate in accordance with the provisions of GB 25990.
Semi-trailer tractor shall be provided of a body reflective sign at the rear top of
the cab to reflect the width and height of the cab, other goods vehicles (except
for multi-purpose goods vehicles), special motor vehicles modified from goods
vehicle chassis and trailers (except for special motor vehicles provided with tail
sign plate complying with provisions, trailers, and caravan) shall be provided
8.5.3 Beam irradiation position requirements
8.5.3.1 Under the vehicle condition of no-load, when the headlamp low beam
of motor vehicle and motorcycle is irradiated on the screen at the distance of
10 m, the vertical position of the cut-off line corner or midpoint of the low beam
shall not be higher above the straight line 50 mm below the horizontal plane
wherein the center of the light-transmitting plane of the low beam is located and
not lower than the straight line 300 mm below the horizontal plane wherein the
center of the light-transmitting plane of the low beam is located, for the motor
vehicles having a low beam transmitting plane center (reference center, same
as below) height is less than or equal to 1000 mm; and it shall not be higher
above the straight line 100 mm below the horizontal plane wherein the center
of the light-transmitting plane of the low beam is located and not lower than the
straight line 350 mm below the horizontal plane wherein the center of the light-
transmitting plane of the low beam is located, for the motor vehicles having a
low beam transmitting plane center height is higher than 1000 mm. Except for
the tri-wheel vehicles and motorcycles equipped with only one headlamp, the
horizontal direction position of the cut-off line or midpoint of the low-beam of the
headlamp shall, with respect to the vertical plane wherein the low-beam
transmitting plane center is located, be leftwards deviated for less than or equal
to 170 mm and be rightwards deviated for less than or equal to 350 mm.
8.5.3.2 In the vehicle condition of no-load, when the low beam of the headlamp
of the wheeled tractor towing trailer for transportation is irradiated onto the
screen at a distance of 10 m, the vertical position of the low beam center shall
be less than or equal to 0.7H (H is the height of the headlamp low beam
transmitting plan center), the horizontal position shall be deviated rightwards for
less than or equal to 350 mm and not be deviated leftwards.
8.5.3.3 In the vehicle condition of no-load, for the motor vehicles and motorcycle
whose headlamp high beam can be individually adjusted, when the high beam
of the headlamp is irradiated on a screen at a distance of 10 m, the vertical
direction position of the maximum beam density point shall be neither higher
above the straight line 100 mm above the horizontal plane (height H) wherein
the high beam transmitting plane center is located nor lower than the straight
line 0.2H below the horizontal plane wherein the high beam transmitting plane
center is located. Except for the tri-wheel vehicles and motorcycles equipped
with only one headlamp, for the horizontal direction position of the maximum
high beam intensity point of headlamp, with respect to the vertical plane wherein
the high-beam transmitting plane center is located, the leftwards deviation of
the left light shall be less than or equal to 170 mm and the rightwards deviation
shall be less than or equal to 350 mm, and the leftwards and rightwards
deviation of the right light shall be less than or equal to 350 mm.
8.6 Other electrical equipment and instruments
8.6.1 Motor vehicles (except for walking tractor towing trailer for transportation)
shall be equipped with a horn with continuous sounding function. When the
sound level of the horn is measured at a distance of 2 m from the vehicle and
1.2 m above the ground, it is 80 dB (A) ~ 112 dB (A) for motorcycles having a
maximum net power (or the sum of motor rated power) less than 7 kW, and it is
90 dB (A) ~ 115 dB (A) for other motor vehicles. Passenger cars, special school
bus horn shall still function normally inside the vehicle when the key is taken off
and the door is locked; however, for the passenger cars and special school
buses having passenger doors which can be opened internally under any
conditions (except for the passenger car door which is fitted with child lock is
locked) or being equipped with automatic detection alarm device that can
automatically detect whether there is mobile object inside the vehicle when the
key is taken off and the door is locked and issue obvious warning signal when
finding mobile object, they are considered as complying with requirements. The
training vehicle (except for tri-wheel vehicles) shall also be equipped with
auxiliary horn switch, which shall work reliably.
8.6.2 Electrical wiring shall have flame retardancy; the wiring harness in the
passenger compartment and other heat sources in the passenger compartment
of the bus shall adopt the flame-retardant wire not less than 125 °C in
temperature resistance, and the wire harness in other parts shall be of a
resistance of not less than 100 °C in temperature resistance, bellows shall meet
the V-0 level specified in Table 1 of GB/T 2408-2008. All electrical conductors
shall be bundled into bundles, neatly arranged, fixed and clamped, with tight
joint and insulating sleeve used at the joint, the conductors passing through
openings shall be equipped with the flame-retardant wear-resistant insulating
sleeve. Electronic components shall be connected reliably, the external plug
connectors of passenger compartment shall be waterproof.
8.6.3 Motorcycles shall be equipped with speedometer. Tri-wheel vehicles, low-
speed goods vehicles equipped with single-cylinder diesel engine and tractor
towing trailer for transportation shall be fitted with a water temperature gauge
(except for evaporative water cooling systems), an engine oil pressure gauge
or engine oil pressure indicator, ammeter or charge indicator; Other motor
vehicles shall be fitted with fuel gauges (gas volume display devices for
gaseous fuel vehicle, rechargeable energy storage system [REESS] electricity
display device for battery electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles,
hydrogen gas volume display device for fuel cell electric vehicles), and can
display the water temperature or water temperature alarm information, engine
oil pressure or oil pressure alarm information, current or voltage or charging
indication information, speed, mileage and other information; the power-driven
vehicles using pneumatic braking shall also be able to display air pressure. The
instrument equipped on the power-driven vehicle shall be intact, and the
specified information display function shall be valid.
8.6.4 A special school bus shall be provided with the master power switch, and
8.6.9 All the motor vehicle equipped and added electrical equipment shall not
affect the operational safety requirements of braking, steering, lighting and tell-
tale devices as specified in this standard. Motor vehicles and trailers with an
advertising screen (box) on the outside of the body shall ensure that the
advertising screen (box) is turned off when the vehicle is running.
8.6.10 Special requirements for motor caravan and caravan are as follows:
a) Motor caravan and caravan powered by a neutral insulation shall be
equipped with a good grounding system, the grounding resistance shall
be less than or equal to 50 Ω, and the passenger compartment and
electrical equipment shall be grounded for protection.
b) Motor caravan shall be provided with a master power switch and a current
leakage protection facility.
c) In addition to starter, ignition circuit, battery and charging circuit in the
motor caravan, the other circuit shall be provided with circuit breaker, the
low-consumption appliances shall be provided with public circuit breaker.
d) Motor caravan shall be able to use external power supply AND have power
conversion devices and current leakage protection.
8.6.11 The special requirements for trolleybus are as follows:
a) When the ambient air relative humidity is between 75% and 90%, the total
insulation resistance of trolleybus shall be greater than or equal to 3 MΩ;
and it shall be greater than or equal to 1 MΩ when the relative humidity is
above 90%.
b) The maximum height of the collector head to be freely raised shall be less
than or equal to 7 m above the ground AND shall have an elastic limit at
the highest point. When the collector head height above the ground is in
the range of 4.2 m ~ 6.0 m, the collector shall be able to work properly.
c) When the wire netting is at standard height, the pressure of the collector
head on the wire netting shall be able to be adjusted within the range of
80 N ~ 130 N. Sparks shall not occur when the collector head slides on
the wire while driving; when it passes through the deconcentrator, junction,
or crossover, it shall not have a serious spark.
d) Door treads, door handles, and the handrails around the door opening
which can be reached by personnel when standing at ground shall be
insulated from the metal structure of the vehicle body or made of insulating
material. Insulation resistance shall be greater than or equal to 0.6 MΩ
when measured by 1000 V tramegger, or otherwise the open circuit
steering wheels of other motor vehicles, shall not be fitted with renovated tires.
If other wheels are to be renovated, they shall comply with the relevant
standards.
9.1.3 Tire specifications and patterns on the same axle shall be the same, tire
specifications shall be consistent with the provisions of the vehicle manufacturer.
9.1.4 Passenger car tires shall have tread wear signs. When the passenger car
spare tire specifications are different from other tires of this vehicle, a
permanently maintainable sign shall be provided at an obvious position in the
vicinity of the spare tire (or other appropriate location), to remind the driver to
use the spare tire correctly.
9.1.5 Special school bus and sleeper bus shall be fitted with tubeless radial tires,
road transportation vehicles for dangerous goods and other buses having a
length greater than 9 m shall be equipped with radial tires. Passenger cars with
a centrally positioned engine and an aspect ratio less than or equal to 0.9 shall
not use tires with a nominal tire width less than or equal to 155 mm. If the rear
wheel of an interurban bus provided with in-vehicle storage area complying with
the provisions of 11.2.8 uses single tire, the nominal width of the rear tire shall
be greater than or equal to 195 mm.
9.1.6 The pattern depth of the tire tread of passenger car and trailer shall be
greater than or equal to 1.6 mm, the pattern depth of the tire tread of
motorcycles shall be greater than or equal to 0.8 mm; the pattern depth of the
tire tread of the steering wheel of other motor vehicles shall be greater than or
equal to 3.2 mm, the pattern depth of the other tire tread shall be greater than
or equal to 1.6 mm.
9.1.7 Tire treads shall not expose tire cord fabrics due to localized wear. Tires
shall not have defects, abnormal wear and deformation which may affect use.
9.1.8 The tire tread and sidewall shall not have rupture or cuts having a length
greater than 25 mm or depth sufficient to expose the tire cord fabrics.
9.1.9 The tire load shall not be greater than the rated load of the tire. The tire
pressure shall comply with the pressure specified for tire when it is loaded. For
the motor vehicles with a pneumatic automatic inflation device, the automatic
inflation device shall be able to ensure that the tire pressure meets the exit-
factory specifications.
9.1.10 Double-wheel tires shall be installed to facilitate tire inflation, there shall
be no foreign object inclusion between the double-wheel tires.
9.2 Wheel assembly
9.2.1 Tire nuts and half-axle nuts shall be complete and intact AND shall be
9.5 Other requirements
9.5.1 Frame shall not be cracked, deformed, rusted, bolts and rivets shall not
be missing or loose.
9.5.2 Front and rear axles shall not have cracks or deformation.
9.5.3 There shall be no deformation of the various tie rods and guide rods
between the axle and the suspension. The joints and bushings shall not be
loose or displaced.
9.5.4 The follower axle of the tri-axle interurban bus shall have the function of
follow-up steering or active steering.
10 Transmission system
10.1 Clutch
10.1.1 The clutch of a power-driven vehicle shall be engaged smoothly,
separated completely, there shall be no abnormal sound, jitter or abnormal
slipping phenomenon when working.
10.1.2 Pedal free travel shall be consistent with the technical requirements of
the vehicle model.
10.1.3 When the clutch is fully disengaged, the pedal force shall be less than
or equal to 300 N (less than or equal to 350 N for tractor towing trailer for
transportation), hand grip force shall be less than or equal to 200 N.
10.2 Transmission and transfer case
10.2.1 Gears shall be engaged flexibly during gearshift, inter-locking, self-
locking and reverse gear locking device shall be effective, there shall be no
disordered or automatic gearshift phenomenon; there shall be no abnormal
sound during running; shift lever and its transmission rod shall not interfere with
other parts. Motor vehicles using automatic transmissions shall be designed to
ensure that the engine can be started only when the transmission shift device
is in parking (“P” gear) or neutral (“N” gear) (the engine can also be started
when it is at driving (“D” gear) with automatic start-stop function). When the
transmission shift mechanism is shifted in or passes by the reverse (“R” gear)
or shifted from the parking (“P” gear) position into other gears, it shall be
finished by the driver’s two actions of different directions (the driver depressing
the brake pedal shall be considered as an action), unless otherwise the use of
vehicle electronic control technology can effectively prevent the driver mis-
operation when the vehicle speed is less than 10 km/h. When the transmission
is subject to limited function use, there shall be warning information prompt to
speed limit function or speed limit device, which comply with provisions) shall
have an overspeed alarm function, when the driving speed of concrete mixer is
greater than or equal to 60 km/h, or of other goods vehicles is greater than or
equal to 100 km/h, it shall be able to issue alarm through visual and audible
signals.
10.5.3 Interurban bus, touring buses, road transportation vehicle for dangerous
goods, other buses having a length greater than 9 m, and motor caravan having
a length greater than or equal to 6 m shall have a speed limit function or they
shall be equipped with speed limit devices. Speed limit function or speed limit
device shall meet the requirements of GB/T 24545, and the maximum speed
set by the speed limit function or speed limit device shall be less than 70 km/h
for the interurban bus which has internal carry-on belongs storage area
complying with the requirements of 11.2.8, it shall be not more than 100 km/h
for the other interurban buses, touring buses, other buses having a length
greater than 9 m, and the motor caravan having a length greater than or equal
to 6 m, it shall be not more than 80 km/h for the road transportation vehicles for
dangerous goods. Special school bus shall be installed with the speed limit
device in line with the requirements of GB/T 24545, and the set maximum speed
shall not exceed 80 km/h.
10.6 Special requirements for speed limited vehicle
Vehicles with limited speed such as low-speed vehicles, mopeds, right three-
wheeled motorcycles, and tractor towing trailer for transportation shall, from the
aspect of design and manufacture, ensure that the actual maximum driving
speed will not exceed its maximum design speed at full load state, or not exceed
100% of the maximum design speed at no load state.
Note: The actual maximum driving speed refers to the maximum speed that the
vehicle can reach when driving on a flat and good road surface.
11 Vehicle body
11.1 Basic requirements
11.1.1 The technical condition of the vehicle body shall ensure that the driver
has normal working conditions and passenger and goods safety. The exterior
of the vehicle body shall not have obvious specular reflection (unless otherwise
chrome plating and stainless steel decorative parts are used locally).
11.1.2 The power-driven vehicle driver's cab shall ensure the driver's front view
and side view.
11.1.3 The vehicle body and cab shall be strong and durable; the covering piece
has no crack. Vehicle body and cab shall be firmly installed on the frame, which
luggage compartment shall be less than or equal to 1200 mm; if the special
school bus has the luggage compartment body, the top height of the luggage
compartment from the ground shall be less than 1000 mm.
11.2.6 Special school bus front shall be provided with collision safety structure.
In case of front transverse engine, the engine crankshaft center line shall be
located in front of the foremost point of front windshield; in case of front
longitudinal engine, the engine first cylinder and the second cylinder center line
shall be located in front of the foremost point of the front windshield; for a school
bus larger than 6 m, if the front crash performance is not lower than the first two
structures, the arrangement of the engine may not be limited.
11.2.7 The height of the lower edge of the side window of the school bus for
infant and the school bus for primary students from the upper surface of the
lower seat shall be greater than or equal to 250 mm, otherwise, the protective
device shall be installed.
11.2.8 For the interurban bus having a length less than or equal to 7.5 m, if a
carry-on belongs storage area is provided inside, the storage area shall be
greater than or equal to 20% of the passenger area and less than or equal to
25% of the passenger area, and there shall be firm and reliable isolation panel
or fence between the storage area and the passenger area for effective isolation,
the installation height of the isolation panel or fence shall reach up to the inside
top of the vehicle, the grid size of the fence shall be less than or equal to 100
mm × 100 mm.
11.2.9 Interurban bus, touring bus, and public bus without standing passenger
area shall be equipped with single fuel tank, and the volume of the single fuel
tank shall be less than or equal to 400 L.
11.3 Special requirements for power-driven goods vehicles
11.3.1 Goods compartment (container) shall be installed firmly and reliably AND
shall be designed and manufactured to have no goods compartment (container)
heightening, lengthening, widening structure and device.
11.3.2 For goods compartment or other goods-carrying devices, they shall be
constructed so as to ensure the safe and secure loading of goods, the fence
and bottom plate shall be regular-structured and have adequate strength. The
construction of container goods vehicles and container semi-trailers shall
ensure that the containers are always safely and securely fixed to the vehicles
during their transport.
11.3.3 The goods carrying parts of goods vehicle and trailer shall not set
passenger seats.
11.3.4 The goods carrying parts of goods vehicle and trailer shall not be
11.4 Special requirements for motorcycle and moped
11.4.1 The central plane allowable deviation of the front and rear wheels of the
motorcycles with two wheels and mopeds with two wheels as well as the front
and rear area of the main vehicle of the motorcycle with sidecar shall be less
than or equal to 10 mm.
11.4.2 Motorcycles and mopeds shall not have outward sharp parts, the other
external parts and arrangement on the body which may be touched by other
road users shall be in line with the provisions of GB 20074.
11.4.3 Passenger seats of motorcycles with two wheels and motorcycles with
sidecars shall be provided with seat cushions, armrests (or drawstrings) and
pedals. Armrests of motorcycles with two wheels shall be consistent with the
provisions of GB 20075.
11.4.4 For the right three-wheeled motorcycles having a front wheel track less
than or equal to 460 mm, it shall be designed and manufactured to make its two
wheels at front during turning in contact with the ground at the same time and
tilt together with the overall motorcycle body.
11.5 Doors and windows
11.5.1 Vehicle doors and windows shall be opened and closed flexibly, they
shall not open or close by their own, the door lock shall be firm and reliable.
The doors and windows shall be well sealed, without water leakage.
11.5.2 Except for the passenger cars designed to transport special type of
personnel and have special requirements for use, the passenger car shall
ensure each passenger can get on and off the vehicle from at least two different
doors; and meanwhile, when the passenger car is standstill, all the doors for
passenger getting on and off (unless otherwise the installed child lock is locked)
shall be able to be opened from inside. Motor caravan shall have at least two
doors, wherein there shall be one passenger door located at the rear part or
side of the compartment, and then net height of this passenger door shall be
more than or equal to 1650 mm and the net width shall be more than or equal
to 500 mm; however, when the net width of the passenger door is more than or
equal to 750 mm, the net height more than or equal to 1400 mm is considered
as complying with requirements.
11.5.3 Except for the driver’s door and emergency door of bus, it shall not set
doors at the left side of the vehicle body. However, for the public buses
operating on bus lanes only provided along the central lane of the road, it is
allowed to open passenger doors on the left side of the vehicle body due to the
position of the bus stop, but it shall not set passenger doors at the right side of
vehicle body for such kinds of public bus. For buses that operate both on bus
lanes located along the central lane of the road and on common roads, it is
observing the status of the goods).
11.5.9 Passenger cars fitted with power windows (including electric sunroofs)
shall be provided with controls that ensure that the window glass can be reliably
stopped at any position during movement or automatically descended
(retracted) when obstacles are encountered.
11.5.10 Under the engine running status of the motor vehicles (except for
special motor vehicles), the driver shall be clearly warned if the door can be
locked outside by the use of remote control key; however, if the engine can
automatically turn off within the specified time (up to not more than 30 min) after
locking the door outside by the use of remote control key, it is considered as
complying with requirements. If the vehicle is equipped with a means of
deactivating the above functions, the above functions shall be activated each
time the ignition system of the vehicle is restarted (i.e., the means for
deactivating the above functions shall be deactivated).
11.6 Seat (sleeper)
11.6.1 The driver's seat shall have sufficient strength and rigidity, be reliably
fixed, the front and rear positions of the driver's seat (except for the tri-wheeled
vehicle) shall be adjustable. The operating mechanism in the driving area shall
be arranged reasonably and easy to operate.
11.6.2 All passenger seats and their arrangements shall ensure the seating
capacity for passengers. Passenger seats of the passenger car shall comply
with the relevant provisions, be reasonably arranged, and distributed as uniform
as possible if there is no special requirement, it shall not form an apparently
large luggage area which is inappropriate to the vehicle design functions due to
the centralized arrangement of the seats (unless otherwise the luggage area is
effectively isolated from the passenger area by partitions or barriers). The
strength of the passenger seats and vehicle fixation parts of the buses (except
for the bus with standing passenger area and special school bus) shall comply
with the requirements of GB 13057.
11.6.3 Passenger cars less than 6 meters in length (except ambulances and
prisons) shall not be fitted with sideward or rearward seats, except for the
rearwards seats of passenger car designed and manufactured to have seating
facilities for the mobility impaired passengers (e.g. wheelchair riders). The
spacing of the seats in same directions of the passenger car and motor caravan
shall be greater than or equal to 600 mm (the spacing between the foldable
seats after the second row of seats of passenger car shall be greater than or
equal to 570 mm), it shall also be less than or equal to 1000 mm for the
passenger car having centrally positioned engine and a width-to-height ratio
less than or equal to 0.9. The spacing between opposite seats of the motor
caravan and the passenger cars designed and manufactured to have seating
less than 40, two or three caretaker seats shall be provided; when the number
of student seats is greater than or equal to 40, three or four caretaker seats
shall be provided. For special school bus and the non-special school bus
specifically for the schooling of students, the caregiver's seat shall be
permanently marked. The strength of the student seats of special school bus
and its fixation pieces shall comply with the requirements of GB 24406.
11.6.9 The student seat near the aisles of a special school bus shall be provided
with armrests on one side of the aisles. The armrests and handles shall be of
sufficient strength, so that the handrails shall be easily gripped by passengers
and the surfaces of each handrail shall be non-slippery.
11.6.10 For the fixed seat cushion for each passengers of the main vehicle of
motorcycles with two wheels, mopeds with two wheels, and motorcycles of
sidecar, the length shall be greater than or equal to 220 mm. Passenger seats
for a right three-wheeled motorcycle shall be longitudinally arranged (in the
same direction as the vehicle traveling), with a distance of less than or equal to
1000 mm from the rear surface of the front driver's seat (or front surface of the
passenger compartment); for the right three-wheeled motorcycles equipped
with two front wheels which are symmetrically arranged with the rear wheel, the
driver’s seat and passenger seat (if any) shall also be located at the longitudinal
center plane of the vehicle.
11.7 Interior decorative materials and noise & thermal insulation materials
11.7.1 The interior decorative materials used in the cab and passenger
compartment shall be flame-retardant materials in line with the provisions of GB
8410, wherein the burning rate of the passenger car interior decorative
materials shall be less than or equal to 70 mm/min.
11.7.2 Thermal insulation materials shall be installed between engine
compartment or other heat source (such as retarder or internal heating device,
excluding hot water circulation device) and other parts of the vehicle, the fixing
clips and washers for connecting insulation materials shall also be fireproof. For
the bus with standing passenger area and other buses having rear positioned
engine, the noise and thermal insulation materials used in the engine
compartment of shall meet the grade A requirements of GB 8410.
11.8 License number plate (rack)
11.8.1 Motor vehicles shall be provided with the license number plate (rack)
complying with the license plate installation requirements. The front license
number plate (rack) (except for motorcycles and mopeds) shall be installed at
the middle and right side (based on power-driven vehicle traveling direction) of
the front part, the rear license number plate (rack) shall be located at the middle
or left side of the rear part.
12 Safety protection devices
12.1 Motor vehicle seat belts
12.1.1 All seats of the passenger cars, motor caravans, buses without standing
passenger area, goods vehicles (except for tri-wheeled vehicles), special motor
vehicles as well as the driver’s seat and front row passenger seats of the bus
with standing passenger area shall be equipped with motor vehicle seat belts.
Note: The front row passenger seat means the seats on the cross section or in
front of the cross section wherein the “foremost H point” is located at the driver’s
R point.
12.1.2 Except for tri-wheeled vehicles, all driver’s seats, all passenger seats of
passenger cars (except for the rearwards seats designed and manufactured to
provide seating facilities for the passengers with reduced mobility), all external
seats of other motor vehicles having a total mass less than or equal to 3500 kg,
front row external passenger seats of other motor vehicles (except for buses
with standing passenger area) shall be equipped with the three-point (or full
harness) motor vehicle seat belts.
12.1.3 Each student seat of the special school bus and the non-special school
bus dedicated for schooling of students as well as each sleeper of the sleeper
bus shall be equipped with two-point seat belts.
12.1.4 Motor vehicle seat belts shall be reliable and effective, the installation
location shall be reasonable, the fixed point shall have sufficient strength. For
an integral seat or seat cushion or backrest that can be folded to facilitate
access to the rear or luggage compartment of a vehicle, the seat belt can be
easily used by a single person after folding and restoring the seat to the seating
position in accordance with the vehicle's product instruction manual, or
otherwise easily restored from under or behind of these seats.
12.1.5 Motor vehicles (except tri-wheeled vehicles) shall be equipped with
driver's seat belts wearing reminder devices. When the driver fails to wear a
seat belt, it shall be able to alarm by visual and acoustic signals.
12.1.6 Passenger cars (except for single-row seat passenger cars) shall have
at least one seat fitted with a compliant ISOFIX child seat restraint device or at
least one of the rear seats being able to use the seat belt to effectively fix the
child seat.
12.1.7 The passenger cars designed and manufactured to be equipped with
seating facilities for passengers with reduced mobility (such as wheelchair rider)
and the ambulance equipped with stretchers shall be equipped with seat belts
or other restraint devices which can effectively fix the wheelchairs and
device, to ensure that the driver can see the conditions within the range 1.5 m
length front below the windshield glass, the outmost point of left side of cab
parallel with the vehicle longitudinal centerline, and 1.5 m width at right side
from the vehicle longitudinal centerline leftwards; however, when the driver’s
cab/area height fails to satisfy the requirements that the mirror surface or the
front-view mirror or any parts of its bracket is greater than or equal to 1800 mm
above ground, the front-view mirror shall not be provided.
12.2.4 External rear-view mirrors and front-view mirrors shall be easy to adjust
and maintain their position effectively.
12.2.5 Rear-view mirrors installed on the outside below 1.8 m from the ground
shall have the function of reducing the impact when it is touched by pedestrians.
12.2.6 Training vehicles (except for tri-wheeled vehicles) and self-learning
vehicles shall be fitted with compliant auxiliary rear-view mirrors, to enable
coaches to effectively observe the traffic conditions at both sides and rear of
the vehicle.
12.2.7 Rear-view mirror performance and installation requirements of
motorcycles (except for motorcycles with the driver partially or totally enclosed
vehicle body) shall comply with the requirements of GB 17352, the performance
and installation requirements of rear-view mirrors for wheeled tractor towing
trailer for transportation shall comply with the requirements of GB 18447.1.
12.3 Front windshield wiper
12.3.1 The windshield of a motor vehicle shall be equipped with a wiper whose
wiper area shall ensure that the driver has a good front view.
12.3.2 The wiper shall be able to work normally.
12.3.3 When the wiper is closed, the blade shall automatically return to the
original position.
12.4 Emergency exit
12.4.1 Basic requirements
12.4.1.1 Passenger cars shall be provided with the number of passenger doors
and emergency windows which matches the number of passengers.
12.4.1.2 Buses with a length greater than or equal to 6 m (except for special
passenger cars with a seating capacity of less than 20), if there is only one
passenger door at right side and there is no driver’s door at left side, it shall
provide emergency door at the left side or rear side of the vehicle body. Bus
having a length greater than 7 m (except for special passenger cars with a
seating capacity of less than 20) shall be provided with evacuation hatches.
(450 mm × 700 mm for passenger cars less than or equal to 7 m in length) shall
be inscribed; if the emergency window is located at the rear of the passenger
car, it can be regarded as satisfying the requirement when a 350 mm × 1550
mm internal rectangle with a radius of curvature less than or equal to 250 mm
in four corners can be inscribed.
12.4.3.2 Emergency windows shall be fitted with a device which can open the
emergency window outwards quickly and easily; or fitted with automatic window
breaking means, or marked with a center-point breaking point not less than 50
mm in diameter in the middle or right above the windowpane, an emergency
hammer is provided in the immediate vicinity of the emergency window to easily
crush the window glass, and the alarm shall be audible when the emergency
hammer is taken off.
12.4.3.3 The windows on both sides of the bus body with standing passenger
area shall be provided with push-pull or outward pull emergency windows if
there is a rectangle with an area larger than or equal to 800 mm × 900 mm can
be inscribed in the opening; if rectangle having an area greater than or equal to
500 mm × 700 mm can be inscribed in the opening, a glass breaking type
emergency window shall be provided, and an emergency hammer or an
automatic window breaking function shall be provided nearby.
Note: The side window opening size is measured from the inside of the side
window pillar after the vehicle is manufactured.
12.4.3.4 Interurban buses, touring buses, public buses without standing
passenger area shall, when the length is greater than 9 m, be equipped with at
least 2 outwards push emergency windows on the left and right sides of the
vehicle body and 1 emergency door at the left side of the vehicle body, and be
equipped with at least 1 outwards push emergency window on the left and right
sides of the vehicle body when the vehicle length is greater than 7 m and less
than or equal to 9 m; the upper middle or right corner of the outwards push
emergency window shall be marked with the point of breakage, and the
emergency hammer shall be provided nearby. For other buses without standing
passenger area having a length greater than 9 m, there shall be at least two
glass-breaking emergency windows on the left and right sides of the vehicle
body (all glass-breaking emergency windows when the total number of the
glass-breaking emergency windows at both sides of the vehicle body is less
than or equal to 4), but if it has automatic window breaking function, it shall be
considered as complying with requirements.
12.4.3.5 Safety roof windows shall be easily opened or removed from inside
and outside of the vehicle OR be crushed by a hammer. After the safety roof
window is opened, it shall ensure smooth access of the vehicle from inside and
outside. Ejection type safety roof windows shall be able to prevent misuse.
cylinder shall have a fuel flow restriction function to ensure automatic closing of
rear fuel supply at the rear fuel supply pipeline leaks, rupture, fracture and other
cases.
12.6.2 Bi-fuel vehicles shall be equipped with fuel conversion system and a fuel
transfer switch. In fuel control, there shall be a function of automatically cutting
off the supply of gaseous fuel even when the ignition switch is turned on when
the engine suddenly stops operating. The location of the fuel transfer switch
shall be easy for the driver to operate. The gear mark of the fuel transfer switch
shall be obvious, which can control the two states of oil supply and gas supply,
respectively. Gaseous fuel and gasoline solenoid valve operation shall be under
the unified control by the fuel transfer switch; when the current is cut off, the
solenoid valve shall be in the “off” position.
12.6.3 Compressed natural gas pipelines shall be made of stainless steel pipe
or other vehicle-specific high-pressure natural gas pipeline, and high-pressure
liquefied petroleum gas pipelines shall be of special pipelines. It is not allowed
for users to change or add gas cylinders.
12.6.4 Vent interface exhaust direction shall be oriented to the tail of the vehicle
and within a 45° cone range to the ground, to discharge the leakage gas out of
the vehicle. The distance from the vent interface to the exhaust pipe and other
heat sources shall be greater than or equal to 250 mm. The total vent area shall
be greater than or equal to 450 mm2. Liquefied natural gas pipeline pressure
relief valve shall not be located in the sealed space or the upper part having a
relative sealing air pocket.
12.6.5 Flexible piping shall be used for special parts of high-pressure pipeline
(such as between relatively moving parts), and rigid piping shall be used for the
rest parts.
12.6.6 Rigid high-pressure piping shall be arranged neatly and reasonably,
fixed effectively AND shall not collide with and rub on adjacent components. All
high-pressure piping and high-pressure piping fittings shall be effectively
protected. The high-pressure piping fittings shall be so installed as easy to be
access by the operator.
12.6.7 Gaseous fuel vehicles shall be fitted with a leak alarm device, and no
gas leaks shall occur at all piping joints.
12.6.8 Gaseous fuel vehicles with gas addition volume greater than or equal to
375 L shall be fitted with electrostatic conductive rubber dragging strips. The
cross-sectional area of the dragging strip conductors shall be greater than or
equal to 100 mm2 and the grounding end of the dragging strip shall be grounded
at all times, regardless of no load or full load.
12.6.9 Cylinders shall be securely fastened to the vehicle. The seat to which
12.7.2 The connection device between the towing vehicle and towed vehicle
shall be constructed so as to ensure a secure connection to each other. The
specifications of the goods road train, articulated vehicle draw-bar hole, draw-
bar seat, and draw-bar pin shall match the overall mass of the trailer.
12.7.3 The connecting device of the towing vehicle and towed vehicle shall be
equipped with safety devices that prevent the motor vehicle from being
disconnected due to vibration and impact while driving.
12.7.4 There shall be no visible cracks in the mechanical connectors of the
traction connector, the draw-bar hole, draw-bar seat, draw-bar pin, connecting
hook and the annular hole, and the wear limit dimensions shall comply with the
provisions of GB/T 31883.
12.8 Front bottom protection requirements of goods vehicles and special
motor vehicles
For the goods vehicles having a total mass greater than 7500 kg and the special
motor vehicles modified from goods vehicle chassis, it shall provide the front
bottom protection means with sufficient resistance force for the action parallel
to the vehicle longitudinal axle in accordance with the provisions of GB 26511,
to prevent the entry collision occurred during the frontal collision.
12.9 Side and front bottom protection requirements of goods vehicles,
special motor vehicles and trailers
12.9.1 Goods vehicles having a total mass greater than 3500 kg (except for
semi-trailer tractors), special motor vehicles modified from goods vehicle
chassis, and trailers shall be provided with lateral protection to prevent
personnel from being drawn in accordance with the provisions of GB 11567.
12.9.2 Lateral protection against the drawing in of persons shall be provided
between the goods vehicle and trailer of the goods road train.
12.9.3 At the rear bottom part of goods vehicles having a total mass of greater
than 3500 kg, special motor vehicles modified from goods vehicle chassis
(except for the semi-trailer tractors and special goods vehicles and special
motor vehicles which cannot be fitted with a lower rear guard for objective
reasons) and trailers (other than long-haul trailer) shall be provided with the rear
bottom protection in line with the provisions of GB 11567, to prevent entry
collision due to rear-end collision.
Note: Long-haul trailer is a special purpose vehicle that is specially designed
and manufactured to handle long goods that cannot be segmented, such as
vehicles transporting goods such as lumber and steel bar stock.
12.10 Special requirements of bus
fuel pipe shall be greater than or equal to 200 mm, exhaust pipe outlet shall be
installed in front of the tank/box, not higher than the plane above the vehicle
longitudinal beam, and it shall be equipped with the power-driven vehicle
exhaust spark quenching device in accordance with GB 13365, the tail of the
power-driven vehicle shall be provided with the electrostatic conductive rubber
dragging strip having a grounding end conductor cross sectional area greater
than or equal to 100 mm2, and the grounding end of the dragging strip shall
always be grounded regardless of no load or full load.
12.12.2 If the tank-type road transportation vehicles for dangerous goods are
equipped with such auxiliary facilities as safety valve, vent valve assembly,
inspection hole, charging and discharging valve, and pipeline, etc. at the tank
top, it shall be equipped with the rollover protection device which can bear
inertia force equivalent to 2 times vehicle total mass multiplied by the
acceleration of gravity, and such device shall have the structure or function to
discharge the liquid which is accumulated inside; if the tank top has no auxiliary
equipment and facilities or otherwise the auxiliary equipment and facilities do
not expose from the tank, it shall not be equipped with the rollover protection
device. The highest points of pipe fittings, valves and other accessories on the
tank top shall be at least 20 mm below the highest point of the rollover protection
device.
12.12.3 Piping and piping accessories on tanks of tank-type road transportation
vehicles for dangerous goods shall not extend beyond the side and rear lower
guards of the vehicle. The distance from the tank rear end socket and the outer
end surface of the pipeline and pipeline accessory on the tank rear end socket
to the vertical projection of the rear bottom guard inside onto the vehicle length
direction shall be greater than or equal to 150 mm.
12.12.4 For the tank-type road transportation vehicles for dangerous goods
eq......
Related standard:   GB/T 37337-2019  GB/T 37130-2018
   
 
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