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GB 50174-2017

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BASIC DATA
Standard ID GB 50174-2017 (GB50174-2017)
Description (Translated English) Code for design of electronic information system room
Sector / Industry National Standard
Classification of Chinese Standard P34
Word Count Estimation 118,192
Date of Issue 2017-05-04
Date of Implementation 2018-01-01
Older Standard (superseded by this standard) GB 50174-2008
Regulation (derived from) Housing and Urban-Rural Development Bulletin 2017 No. 1541

GB 50174-2017
NATIONAL STANDARD OF THE
PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF CHINA
UDC
P GB 50174-2017
Code for design of data centers
ISSUED ON: MAY 04, 2017
IMPLEMENTED ON: JANUARY 01, 2018
Issued by: Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development of PRC;
General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and
Quarantine of PRC.
Table of Contents
Foreword ... 6 
1 General provisions ... 9 
2 Terms and symbols ... 10 
2.1 Terms ... 10 
2.2 Symbols ... 15 
3 Rating classification and required features ... 16 
3.1 Rating classification ... 16 
3.2 Required features ... 16 
4 Site selection and equipment layout ... 18 
4.1 Site selection ... 18 
4.2 Composition ... 18 
4.3 Equipment layout ... 19 
5 Environmental requirement ... 21 
5.1 Temperature, dew point temperature and airborne particle concentration ... 21 
5.2 Noise, electromagnetic interference, vibration and static electricity ... 21 
6 Building and structure ... 22 
6.1 General requirements ... 22 
6.2 People flow and goods flow, entrances and exits ... 23 
6.3 Retaining structure thermal design and energy saving measures ... 23 
6.4 Interior design ... 24 
7 Air conditioning ... 26 
7.1 General requirements ... 26 
7.2 Thermal load calculation ... 26 
7.3 Airflow management ... 27 
7.4 System design ... 27 
7.5 Equipment selection ... 29 
8 Electrical systems ... 31 
8.1 Power supply and distribution ... 31 
8.2 Lighting ... 33 
8.3 Electrostatic discharge protection ... 34 
8.4 Lightning protection and grounding ... 35 
9 Electromagnetic shielding ... 37 
9.1 General requirements ... 37 
9.2 Shielding structure ... 37 
9.3 Shielding objects ... 38 
10 Network and cabling system ... 39 
10.1 Network system ... 39 
10.2 Cabling system ... 39 
11 Intelligent system ... 42 
11.1 General requirements ... 42 
11.2 Environment and equipment monitoring ... 42 
11.3 Security system ... 43 
11.4 Enterprise command center ... 43 
12 Water supply and drainage ... 45 
12.1 General requirements ... 45 
12.2 Piping layout ... 45 
13 Fire protection and safety ... 46 
13.1 General requirements ... 46 
13.2 Fire prevention and evacuation ... 46 
13.3 Fire protection facilities ... 48 
13.4 Safety measure ... 49 
Appendix A -- Technical requirements for data center ratings ... 50 
Explanation of wording in this code ... 59 
List of quoted standards ... 60 
Code for design of data centers
1 General provisions
1.0.1 To standardize the design of the data center, ensure that the electronic
information system operates safely, stably and reliably, make the technology
advanced, economically reasonable, safe and applicable, energy saving and
environmental protection, it hereby formulates this code.
1.0.2 This code applies to the design of newly built, rebuilt, expanded data
centers.
1.0.3 The design of the data center shall follow the principle of coordination
between the recent construction scale and the long-term development plan.
1.0.4 In addition to complying with this code, the design of the data center shall
also comply with the relevant national standards.
2 Terms and symbols
2.1 Terms
2.1.1 Data center
A building site that provides an operating environment for a centralized
electronic information equipment, which may be one or several buildings, or
may be part of a building, including a computer room, an auxiliary area, a
support area, an administrative area.
2.1.2 Computer room
A building space which is mainly used for the installation and operation of data
processing equipment, including the server room, network room, storage room
and other functional areas.
2.1.3 Auxiliary area
A place for installation, commissioning, maintenance, operation monitoring and
management of electronic information equipment and software, including wire-
incoming room, test equipment rooms, general control centers, fire and security
control rooms, unpacking areas, spare parts warehouses, printing rooms,
maintenance room and other areas.
2.1.4 Support area
Areas providing power support and safety for the computer room and auxiliary
area, including power transform and distribution room, diesel generator room,
battery room, air-conditioning room, power station room, uninterruptible power
supply system, fire-fighting facilities, etc.
2.1.5 Administrative area
A place which is used for daily administrative management and management
of equipment as entrusted by customers, including offices, foyers, duty rooms,
washrooms, locker rooms, user studios, etc.
2.1.6 Business recovery data center
A place wherein the critical business functions such as data processing and
support are continued in case of a disaster to substitute the operation of the
production system, including restricted areas, regular areas, dedicated areas.
2.1.7 Restricted area
2.1.16 Electromagnetic shielding
The use of conductive material to reduce the penetration of the alternating
electromagnetic field into the designated area.
2.1.17 Electromagnetic shielding enclosure
A building space which is specifically designed to attenuate and isolate the
internal or external electric and magnetic fields.
2.1.18 Cut-off waveguide vent
A device which integrates the cut-off waveguide with the vent, which allows air
to circulate and attenuate electromagnetic waves in a certain frequency range.
2.1.19 Modular electromagnetic shielding enclosure
An electromagnetic shielding enclosure which, according to the design
requirements, has modular structures and is assembled at construction site by
the pre-formed shielding enclosure modular plate, structural member, shielding
components, etc.
2.1.20 Welded electromagnetic shielding enclosure
An electromagnetic shielding enclosure whose main structure is a fixed
structure built by field welding.
2.1.21 Remote power panel (RPP)
An equipment which provides power distribution management equipment for
cabinets arranged in rows or by functional area.
2.1.22 Horizontal distribution area cabinet
A horizontal distribution area device that provides network services for cabinets
arranged in rows or by functional area.
2.1.23 Intelligent cabling management system
A complete software and hardware integration system which realizes intelligent
management of tracking, recording, reporting of the connection status of the
wiring system and network equipment through real-time monitoring of the port
connection properties of the electronic distribution equipment.
2.1.24 Static state
The air conditioning system of the computer room is in normal operation; the
indoor temperature and dew point temperature meet the operational
requirements of the electronic information equipment; but the electronic
bundle, a bonding bar, or an equipotential bonding grid.
2.1.34 power usage effectiveness (PUE)
A parameter that characterizes the efficiency of power utilization in a data center.
The value is the ratio of the total electrical energy consumed by all powered
devices in the data center to the total electrical energy consumed by all
electronic information equipment.
2.1.35 Water usage effectiveness (WUE)
A parameter that characterizes the water usage efficiency of a data center. The
value is the ratio of the total water consumed by all water equipment in the data
center to the total energy consumed by all electronic information equipment.
2.1.36 Automatic transfer switching equipment (ATSE)
An electrical appliance consisting of one or several transfer switching
equipment and other necessary electrical appliances, for monitoring the power
supply circuit and automatically switching one or more load circuits from one
power source to another.
2.1.37 Computational fluid dynamics (CFD)
The calculation method of using the computer simulation to solve the fluid
mechanics equation, analyzing the physical phenomena such as fluid flow and
heat transfer, to obtain the temperature field, pressure field, velocity field.
2.1.38 Duplicate-supply
A load of power is provided by two circuits that are considered to be
independent of each other in terms of safe power supply.
2.1.39 Enterprise command center (ECC)
A platform for centralized monitoring, command and dispatch, technical support,
and emergency drills for data center systems. It can also be called a monitoring
center.
2.1.40 Uninterruptible power system (UPS)
A system consisting of a combination of a converter, a switch, an energy storage
device that delivers AC or DC power during normal or faulty input power, to
maintain continuity of power to the load for a certain period of time.
2.1.41 Total cost of ownership (TCO)
The sum of construction and operating costs over the life of the data center.
3 Rating classification and required features
3.1 Rating classification
3.1.1 Data centers shall be divided into three levels: A, B, C. During design, it
shall, based on the usage nature of the data center, the economic or social loss
or impact due to the loss of data or the interruption of network, determine the
level.
3.1.2 A data center that meets one of the following conditions shall be level A:
1 The interruption of the operation of the electronic information system will
cause significant economic losses;
2 The interruption of the operation of the electronic information system will
cause serious disorder in public places.
3.1.3 A data center that meets one of the following conditions shall be level B:
1 The interruption of the operation of the electronic information system will
cause greater economic losses;
2 The interruption of the operation of the electronic information system will
cause disorder in public places.
3.1.4 Data centers that are not level A or level B shall be Level C.
3.1.5 The business recovery data center established in the same city or in
different places should be designed at the same level as the primary data center.
3.1.6 The data center’s infrastructure components should be designed
according to the same level of technical requirements; or can be designed
according to different levels of technical requirements. When the components
are designed according to different levels, the level of the data center shall be
determined according to the lowest level of the components.
3.2 Required features
3.2.1 The infrastructure of the level A data center shall be configured according
to the fault-tolerant system. During the operation of the electronic information
system, the infrastructure shall ensure the normal operation of the electronic
information system after an accident or maintenance or overhaul of the single-
system equipment.
3.2.2 When the level A data center meets the following requirements at the
4 Site selection and equipment layout
4.1 Site selection
4.1.1 Data center location shall be selected according to the following
requirements:
1 The power supply shall be sufficient and reliable; the communication shall
be fast and smooth; the traffic shall be convenient;
2 For the data center which is cooled by water evaporation cooling method,
the water source shall be sufficient;
3 The natural environment shall be clean; the ambient temperature shall be
conducive to energy conservation;
4 It shall be away from the production of dust, soot, harmful gases and the
production or storage of corrosive, flammable, explosive materials;
5 It shall be away from flood hazards, earthquakes and other areas of natural
disasters;
6 It shall be away from strong vibration sources and strong noise sources;
7 It shall avoid strong electromagnetic field interference;
8 The level A data center should not be built directly above the public parking
garage;
9 The large and medium-sized data centers should not be built in residential
and commercial areas.
4.1.2 For the data center at a local area in the building, when determining the
location of the computer room, it shall conduct comprehensive analysis and
economic comparison for such issues as safety, equipment transportation,
pipeline laying, lightning induction, structural load, flooding, installation location
of outdoor equipment of the air conditioning system.
4.2 Composition
4.2.1 The composition of the data center shall be determined according to the
operating characteristics of the system and the specific requirements of the
equipment. It should be composed of the computer room, auxiliary area,
support area, administrative area, other functional areas.
5 Environmental requirement
5.1 Temperature, dew point temperature and airborne particle
concentration
5.1.1 The temperature, dew point temperature and relative humidity in the
computer room and auxiliary area shall meet the requirements for the use of
electronic information equipment. When the electronic information equipment
has not been determined, it shall be implemented in accordance with Appendix
A of this code.
5.1.2 The airborne particle concentration in the computer room shall be tested
under static or dynamic conditions. The number of suspended particles with a
particle size greater than or equal to 0.5 µm per cubic meter of air shall be less
than 17.6 million.
5.1.3 The indoor air quality after the decoration of the data center shall comply
with the relevant provisions of the current national standard “Indoor air quality
standard” GB/T 18883.
5.2 Noise, electromagnetic interference, vibration and static
electricity
5.2.1 In the enterprise command center, the noise value measured at the long-
term fixed working position shall be less than 60 dB(A).
5.2.2 The radio interference field intensity of the computer room and the
auxiliary area shall not exceed 130 dB (µV/m) in the frequency range of 80 MHz
~ 1000 MHz and 1400 MHz ~ 2000 MHz; the field strength of the power
frequency field shall not exceed 30 A/m.
5.2.3 Under the condition of electronic information equipment shutdown, the
vertical and horizontal vibration acceleration of the floor surface of the computer
room shall not exceed 500 mm/s2.
5.2.4 The absolute value of the electrostatic voltage of the insulator in the
computer room and auxiliary area shall not be greater than 1 kV.
6 Building and structure
6.1 General requirements
6.1.1 The design of the building and structure shall be carried out in accordance
with the level of the data center in accordance with Appendix A of this Code.
6.1.2 The layout and building plane and space shall be flexible and shall meet
the process requirements of the data center.
6.1.3 The net height of the computer room shall be determined according to the
height of the cabinet, pipeline installation, ventilation requirements. When
building a new data center, the net height of the computer room shall not be
less than 3.0 m.
6.1.4 The deformation joint should not pass through the computer room.
6.1.5 The computer room and auxiliary area shall not be placed directly below
the water usage area and shall not be adjacent to sources of vibration and
electromagnetic interference.
6.1.6 For the data center with technical interlayer and technical clamping, the
building design shall meet the installation and maintenance requirements of
various equipment and pipelines. When the pipeline needs to cross the floor, it
should provide a technical shaft.
6.1.7 The seismic fortification category of the data center shall not be lower than
category C. The seismic fortification category of the newly built Level A data
center shall not be lower than category B.
6.1.8 The reconstructed data center shall be subjected to seismic identification
according to the load requirements, meanwhile it shall comply with the relevant
provisions of the current national standard “Standard for seismic appraisal of
buildings” GB 50023. Buildings that require seismic strengthening after seismic
identification shall be reinforced according to the current national standard
“Code for design of strengthen concrete structure” GB 50367, “Technical
specification for seismic strengthening of buildings” JGJ 116, “Technical
specification for post-installed fastenings in concrete structures” JGJ 145.
When a building with a seismic fortification category of level C is reconstructed
into a level A data center, the building may not be reinforced if use load meets
requirements.
6.1.9 The completion level of the first-floor building of the newly built level A
data center shall be above 1.0 m higher than the water level of the local flood
in the 100-year return period, meanwhile it shall be above 0.6 m higher than the
battery room is equipped with an external window, it shall avoid direct sunlight.
6.4 Interior design
6.4.1 The combustion performance of the materials used for interior decoration
design shall comply with the relevant provisions of the current national standard
“Code for fire prevention in design of interior decoration of buildings” GB 50222.
6.4.2 Interior decoration of the computer room shall use the materials with good
air tightness, no dust, easy to clean, meet environmental protection
requirements, have small deformation under surface temperature and humidity,
have surface static dissipative properties. It shall not use the material of strong
hygroscopicity and the high polymer insulating material without surface
modification treatment.
6.4.3 The decoration of the wall and ceiling of the computer room shall meet
the functional requirements. The surface shall be flat, smooth, dust-free, avoid
glare, reduce the uneven surface.
6.4.4 The ground design of the computer room shall meet the functional
requirements. When laying the anti-static raised floor, the height of the raised
floor shall be determined according to the cable wiring and air-conditioning
requirements, and shall meet the following requirements:
1 When the space under the raised floor is only used as cable wiring, the
floor height should not be less than 250 mm. The floor and four-wall
decoration under the raised floor can be plastered with cement mortar.
The floor material shall be flat and wear resistant.
2 When the space under the raised floor is used as both cable wiring and
static pressure chamber for air-conditioner, the floor height should not be
less than 500 mm. The floor and the four-wall decoration under the raised
floor shall be made of materials that are not dusty, easy to accumulate,
easy to clean. Floor or ground shall be thermal insulated and moisture-
proof. A layer of ground cushion should be reinforced. The retaining
structure should adopt anti-condensation measures.
6.4.5 The walls and ceiling surfaces of the technical interlayer shall be flat and
smooth. When using a lightweight construction ceiling as a technical interlayer,
it should set up an access passage or access.
6.4.6 When water equipment is installed in the computer room, it shall take
measures to prevent water overflow and leakage.
6.4.7 The structure and construction joints of doors, windows, walls and floors
(grounds) shall use airtightness measures.
7 Air conditioning
7.1 General requirements
7.1.1 The design of air conditioning system of the data center shall be
performed based on the level of the data center in accordance with Appendix A
of this code. The design of the air conditioning system shall comply with the
relevant provisions of the current national standard “Design code for heating
ventilation and air conditioning of civil buildings” GB 50736.
7.1.2 A data center built in the same building with other functional buildings shall
be equipped with an independent air conditioning system.
7.1.3 Air conditioning system shall be set separately for the computer room and
other rooms.
7.2 Thermal load calculation
7.2.1 The amount of heat dissipated by electronic information equipment and
other equipment shall be calculated based on the actual electricity consumption
of the equipment.
7.2.2 The cooling load of air conditioning system in summer shall include the
following:
1 Heat dissipation of equipment in the data center;
2 Temperature rise of building retaining structure;
3 Solar radiant heat entering through the external window;
4 Heat dissipation from body;
5 Heat dissipation from lighting device;
6 Fresh air load;
7 The latent heat generated by various wetting processes.
7.2.3 The wet load of air conditioning system shall include the following:
1 Wet dispassion of human body;
2 Wet load of fresh air;
3 Wet load of leaked air;
double return mode. When the water source cannot reliably guarantee the
operation needs of data center, the level A data center may also adopt the
supply method by two cold sources.
7.4.2 The thermal insulation, noise-cancelling materials and adhesives for ducts
and pipes in data centers shall be made of non-combustible materials or flame-
retardant level B1 materials. The cold surface shall be subject to gas-isolation
and thermal insulation treatment.
7.4.3 When the air is supplied under the raised floor, the height of the floor shall
be determined according to the amount of air supplied.
7.4.4 The computer room shall maintain a positive pressure. The pressure
difference between the computer room and other rooms and corridors shall not
be less than 5 Pa. The static pressure difference between the outdoor shall not
be less than 10 Pa.
7.4.5 The fresh air volume of the air conditioning system shall be the maximum
of the following two:
1 As calculated according to the staff, 40 m3/h per person;
2 Air volume required to maintain indoor positive pressure.
7.4.6 The circulating unit of the air conditioning system in the computer room
shall be equipped with a primary effect filter or an intermediate efficiency filter.
The fresh air system or the full air system shall be equipped with primary and
intermediate efficiency air filters, or sub-high efficiency air filters and chemical
filtration devices. The final filter unit should be placed at the positive pressure
end.
7.4.7 The computer room with the fresh air system shall, while ensuring a
certain pressure difference between indoor and outdoor, maintain the balance
between the air supply and air exhaust.
7.4.8 For printing room, battery room and other rooms that are likely to cause
secondary pollution to the air, it shall take measures for the air conditioning
system to prevent pollutants from entering the room with the airflow.
7.4.9 The data center’s dedicated air conditioner may be installed in a dedicated
air conditioner room close to the computer room, or it may be installed in the
computer room.
7.4.10 The design of air-conditioning system shall adopt energy-saving
measures and shall comply with the following provisions:
1 The air conditioning system shall make full use of natural cold sources
according to local climatic conditions.
8 Electrical systems
8.1 Power supply and distribution
8.1.1 The power load level and power supply requirements of the data center
shall be implemented in accordance with Appendix A of this code based on the
level of the data center. It shall comply with the relevant provisions of the current
national standard “Code for design of electric power supply systems” GB 50052.
8.1.2 The power supply quality of the electronic information equipment shall be
performed based on the level of the data center, in accordance with Appendix
A of this code. When the electronic information equipment is powered by a DC
power supply, the power supply voltage shall meet the requirements of the
electronic information equipment.
8.1.3 The power supply and distribution system shall reserve spare capacity for
the scalability of the electronic information system.
8.1.4 Outdoor power supply lines should not be laid overhead.
8.1.5 The data center shall be powered by a dedicated distribution transformer
or a dedicated circuit. The transformer should be a dry-type transformer. The
transformer should be placed close to the load.
8.1.6 The grounding of the low-voltage distribution system of the data center
should adopt the TN system. For electronic information equipment using AC
power, the power distribution system shall adopt TN-S system.
8.1.7 Electronic information equipment should be powered by an uninterruptible
power system. The uninterruptible power system shall have automatic and
manual bypass devices. When determining the basic capacity of an
uninterruptible power system, it shall reserve a margin. The basic capacity of
an uninterruptible power system may be calculated as follows:
Where:
E - The basic capacity of the uninterruptible power system, which does not
include backup uninterruptible power system equipment [kW / (kV·A)];
P - Computational load of an electronic information equipment: kW/(kV·A)].
8.1.8 Air-conditioning equipment and electronic information equipment powered
by uninterruptible power supply systems in data centers shall not be powered
by the same set of uninterruptible power supply systems. The normal working
8.1.16 Lighting and maintenance power supply for maintenance purposes shall
be installed around the diesel generator. The power supply should be powered
by the uninterruptible power supply system.
8.1.17 When the switching between normal power supply and standby power
supply uses the automatic switching electrical appliances, the automatic
switching electrical appliance shall have a bypass function or take other
measures. When the automatic switching electrical appliance is overhauled or
faulty, it shall not affect the switching of power supply.
8.1.18 The power supply of the same-city business recovery data center and
the main data center shall not come from the substation of the same city. For
data centers powered by distributed energy sources, the backup power source
may be powered by a mains or diesel generator.
8.1.19 The power distribution line laid in the concealed ventilation space should
adopt low-smoke halogen-free flame-retardant copper core cable or power
distribution bus. The cable shall be laid along the trunking, bridge or through
conduit locally. When the underside of the raised floor is used as the air
conditioning’s static pressure chamber, the arrangement of the cable trunking
(bridge) or the distribution busbar shall not block the airflow path.
8.1.20 The neutral line’s cross-sectional area of the power distribution line shall
not be less than the cross-sectional area of the phase line. The single-phase
load shall be evenly distributed on the three-phase line.
8.2 Lighting
8.2.1 The standard illumination value of general lighting in computer room and
auxiliary area shall be designed according to 300 lx ~ 500 lx. The general color
rendering index should not be less than 80. The illumination standard value of
support area and administrative area shall conform to the relevant provisions of
the current national standard “Standard for lighting design of buildings” GB
50034.
8.2.2 The main lighting source in the computer room and auxiliary area should
adopt high-efficiency energy-saving fluorescent lamps, or the LED lights. The
harmonic limit of the fluorescent lamp ballast shall comply with the relevant
provisions of the current national standard “Electromagnetic compatibility -
Limits - Limits for harmonic current emissions” GB 17625.1. The luminaire shall
adopt the control measures based on zoning and grouping.
8.2.3 The visual work in the auxiliary area shall take the following protective
measures:
1 Visual work should not be on the specular reflection angle formed by the
shall be stable for a long time and shall not be dusted.
8.3.4 The working surface of the auxiliary area should adopt static conductive
or static dissipative materials. Its electrostatic performance index shall meet the
requirements of clause 8.3.1 of this code.
8.3.5 The connection line of electrostatic grounding shall meet the requirements
of mechanical strength and chemical stability; it should use welding or crimping.
When the conductive adhesive is bonded to the grounding conductor, the
contact area should not be less than 20 cm2.
8.4 Lightning protection and grounding
8.4.1 The lightning protection and grounding design of the data center shall
meet the requirements for personal safety and the normal operation of the
electronic information system. Meanwhile it shall comply with the relevant
provisions of the current national standards “Design code for protection of
structures against lightning” GB 50057 and “Technical code for protection of
building electronic information system against lightning” GB 50343.
8.4.2 Protective earthing and functional grounding should share a set of
grounding devices whose grounding resistance shall be determined by the
minimum value.
8.4.3 For the electronic information equipment which has special requirements
for the functional grounding and requires separate grounding line, the
grounding line shall be insulated from other grounding lines. The power supply
line and the grounding line should be laid along the same route.
8.4.4 The metal casing, metal pipes, metal trunking, metal structures of all
equipment in the data center must be equipotentially connected and
grounded.
8.4.5 The equipotential bonding method of electronic information equipment
shall be determined according to the frequency at which the electronic
information equipment is susceptible to interference and the level and scale of
the data center. It may use the S type, M type, SM hybrid type.
8.4.6 When the equipotential bonding mode of M-type or SM hybrid type is
adopted, the equipotential bonding grid shall be set in the computer room; the
equipotential bonding strip shall be set around the grid; the equipotential
bonding strip shall be connected to the adjacent grounding row, metal pipes,
metal trunking, building metal structures through the equipotential bonding
conductor. Each electronic information equipment (cabinet...