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GB 50111-2009

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BASIC DATA
Standard ID GB 50111-2009 (GB50111-2009)
Description (Translated English) [GB 50111-2006 Edition-2009] Code for seismic design of railway engineering
Sector / Industry National Standard
Classification of Chinese Standard P15
Word Count Estimation 56,593

GB 50111-2006 (2009)
UDC
NATIONAL STANDARD OF THE
PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA
P GB 50111-2006
Code for Seismic Design of Railway Engineering
(2009 Edition)
ISSUED ON. JUNE 19, 2006
IMPLEMENTED ON. DECEMBER 01, 2006
Jointly issued by. Ministry of Construction (MOC) and the General
Administration of Quality Supervision;
Inspection and Quarantine (AQSIQ) of the People's
Republic of China.
GB
Table of Contents
1 General Provisions ... 9 
2 Terms and Symbols ... 9 
2.1 Terms ... 9 
2.2 Symbols ... 10 
3 Basic Requirements of Seismic Design ... 11 
4 Site and Foundation ... 15 
5 Route ... 18 
6 Subgrade ... 18 
6.1 Checking of Seismic Strength and Stability ... 18 
6.2 Seismic Measures ... 27 
7 Bridge ... 29 
7.1 General Requirements ... 29 
7.2 Seismic Analysis Method of Pier ... 31 
7.3 Ductility Design of Reinforced Concrete Bridge Pier ... 38 
7.4 Support and Abutment ... 39 
7.5 Seismic Measures ... 40 
8 Tunnel ... 44 
8.1 Checking of Seismic Strength and Stability ... 44 
8.2 Seismic Measures ... 46 
Appendix A Shear Wave Velocity Value of Different Rock and Soil ... 48 
Appendix B Test Methods of Liquefied Soil Determination ... 49 
Appendix C Reduction Coefficient of Mechanical Indexes of Liquefied Soil ... 51 
Appendix D Natural Vibration Performance Calculation of Beam Bridge Pier ... 52 
Appendix E Simplified Method for Seismic Calculation of Beam Bridge Pier under
Low-level Earthquake ... 55 
Appendix F Simplified Calculation Method for Ductility Design of Reinforced Concrete
Pier under High-level Earthquake ... 62 
Explanation of Wording in This Code ... 65 
1 General Provisions
1.0.1 This code is formulated with a view to implementing "Law of the People's Republic of
China on Protecting Against and Mitigating Earthquake Disasters", unifying seismic design
standard of railway engineering, and meeting the performance requirements for seismic
fortification of railway engineering.
1.0.2 This code is applicable to seismic design of route, subgrade, bridge, tunnel, etc. works
of Grade I and II railway engineering of rapid transit railway, passenger dedicated line
(including intercity railway) and newly-built and renovated standard gauge mixed passenger
and freight railway in the region with a fortification intensity of Intensity 6, Intensity 7,
Intensity 8 or Intensity 9.
For the engineering with fortification intensity larger than Intensity 9 or with special
seismic requirements and new type structure, the seismic design shall be specialized.
1.0.3 Seismic fortification intensity shall be adopted according to the basic seismic intensity
specified in Appendix D of the national standard "Seismic Ground Motion Parameter
Zonation Map of China" GB 18306-2001.
1.0.4 Under general situation, seismic design may comply with ground motion parameters
specified in the national standard "Seismic Ground Motion Parameter Zonation Map of
China" GB 18306-2001.
For the region subjected to special earthquake research, the seismic design may be
carried out according to approved seismic fortification intensity or design parameters of
ground motion.
For specially important railway engineering, the site position shall be subjected to
seismic safety evaluation.
1.0.5 Seismic design shall be carried out for railway engineering according to low-level
earthquake, design earthquake and high-level earthquake.
1.0.6 Concrete structures, with durability requirements, of route, subgrade, bridge and
tunnel of rapid transit railway, passenger dedicated line (including intercity railway) and
newly-built and renovated standard gauge mixed passenger and freight railway engineering in
seismic region shall not only comply with this code, but also meet the relevant requirements
of "Temporary Regulation for Durability Design of Railway Concrete Structures" Tie Jian She
[2005] No. 157.
1.0.7 Seismic design of railway engineering shall not only comply with this code, but also
those in the current relevant ones of the nation.
2 Terms and Symbols
2.1 Terms
2.1.1 Seismic design
Engineering design for defending seismic hazard, including seismic checking and
seismic measures.
2.1.2 Seismic fortification intensity
Seismic intensity which is approved according to the authority specified by the nation as
the criterion of seismic fortification of one region.
2.1.3 Seismic peak ground acceleration
Horizontal acceleration corresponding to maximum value of seismic acceleration
response spectrum.
2.1.4 Low-level earthquake
Ground motion that the earthquake recurrence interval is 50 years.
2.1.5 Design earthquake
Ground motion that the earthquake recurrence interval is 475 years.
2.1.6 High-level earthquake
Ground motion that the earthquake recurrence interval is 2475 years.
2.1.7 Characteristic period of the seismic response spectrum
A period of the points when seismic acceleration response spectrum starts to drop.
2.1.8 Isolation technology
Adopt special components to change structure vibration characteristic and energy
consumption mechanism at some position of engineering structure so as to reduce seismic
force generated by the structure during earthquake.
2.1.9 Ductility design
Utilize nonlinear deformation capacity of engineering structure to consume seismic
energy and conduct structure seismic design.
2.1.10 Seismic fortification measures
Seismic design content except seismic action calculation and resistance calculation,
including seismic structural measures.
2.1.11 Site
Location of the engineering, with similar response spectrum characteristic.
2.2 Symbols
2.2.1 Ground motion parameters
Tg——Characteristic period of the seismic response spectrum;
Ag——Seismic peak ground acceleration;
α——Basic acceleration of horizontal earthquake.
2.2.2 Action and action effect
M0——Pier foundation top section moment;
Mmnx——Maximum bending moment of linear response of pier under high-level
earthquake;
FiwE——Horizontal earthquake hydrodynamic force in unit pier height acted on i point of
pier in water;
V0——Pier foundation top section shear force;
R0——Counter stress of bridge bearing.
2.2.3 Calculation coefficient
η——Correction coefficient of horizontal seismic action;
ηi——Amplification coefficient of horizontal seismic action along height;
4.0.5 Where the liquefied soil strata are included in the subgrade, its dynamics index may be
reduced in accordance with Appendix C of this code. The correction coefficient of allowable
bearing capacity of soil strata below liquefied soil strata shall meet the requirements of Article
4.0.4 of this code. The allowable bearing capacity of soil strata above the liquefied soil strata
shall not be corrected.
5 Route
5.0.1 The lines shall be selected at the section where the engineering geologic condition is
good and the topography is open and flat or the slopes are very easy and avoided the area
where the fault fracture zone moves recently, the subgrade of sandy soil, silty soil and soft
soil are easy to be liquefacient and the slope wash deposit is loose and thicker and the serious
debris-flow develops and such districts unfavorable to the seismic protection as unsteady cliff
and couloir, serious hillside deformation and underground cavity easy to be collapsed.
5.0.2 The lines shall keep clear of the main motional fault zone in the seismic region with
Intensity 8 and 9 seismic fortification intensity; if it is difficult to be avoided, get through it in
a narrower place; the influence of the seismic secondary disaster shall be considered
comprehensively during selection of the lines.
5.0.3 Where the lines get through the soft areas like liquefiable soil and soft soil etc., they
should be selected at the place where the ground surface has thicker non-liquefied soil strata
or duricrust strata, setting with low embankment.
5.0.4 Deep and long cutting shall not be made in the lines with soft soil nature or broken
rock strata and the unfavorable geologic structure.
5.0.5 The lines shall keep clear of unsteady cliff area or get it through the tunnel if it is
difficult to be avoided.
5.0.6 If the tunnel is built close to the mountains, it shall be moved inward; the tunnel
mouth shall not be set at the area with adverse geologic condition and easy to generate such
seismic hazard as collapse, landslide, scattering. The high-intensity seismic region should not
be set up with the short tunnel group close to the mountains.
5.0.7 The bridge shall be selected at the districts with good subgrade and stable river bank.
If the liquefiable soil strata and soft foundation are difficult to be avoided, the bridge center
line should be orthogonal to the river. The bridge height shall be controlled at the high-intense
seismic region which is passed with a simple structure form.
5.0.8 The track of the high-intense seismic region should adopt ballast track; if not, a
construction of ballastless tracks shall be selected easy to be cured and maintained.
6 Subgrade
6.1 Checking of Seismic Strength and Stability
6.1.1 Checking scope of seismic strength and seismic stability of subgrade engineering shall
meet the following requirements.
0 M
K y
 (6.1.7-2)
Where,
∑My——the total moment of stabilizing force system for toe of wall (kNꞏm);
∑M0——the total moment of overturning force systems for toe of wall (kNꞏm).
5 Safety coefficient Kc of stability against sliding of retaining wall along foundation
bottom shall not be less than 1.1 and the safety coefficient K0 of stability against overturning
shall not be less than 1.3.
6.1.8 The horizontal seismic force of gliding mass in the engineering influenced by the
landslide shall be calculated in accordance with Article 6.1.3 of this code and the safety
coefficient of the residual gliding force of the sliding block shall be determined according to
the development of the landslide, soil and rock mechanics index, influence degree of the
earthquake, classification of rail and the importance of the engineering and taken 1.05~1.20
generally.
6.1.9 Retaining structures for the railway shall consider the influence of horizontal seismic
action and check the seismic strength and stability. The light ones shall cover the checking of
the external stability and internal stability which includes horizontal seismic force generated
by mound gravity between non-anchorage zone and potential failure surface and wall surface.
The horizontal seismic force generated by load combination, active soil pressure of
earthquake and structure gravity shall meet the requirements of the current professional
standard "Design Code for Retaining Structures of Railroad Foundation" TB 10025
6.2 Seismic Measures
6.2.1 Selection of road embankment filling shall meet the following requirements.
1 Road embankment filling shall meet the relevant requirements of current railroad
design codes and shall select filling better in seismic stability. Category C engineering shall
not adopt silty sand, fine sand as filling and Category D engineering should not adopt the silty
sand and fine sand as filling; if they must be used under the limited conditions, the measures
like soil improvement or reinforcement measures shall be taken
2 The filling for the road embankment in water shall adopt permeable soil. Category C
engineering shall not adopt silty sand, fine sand and medium sand as filling and Category D
engineering should not adopt silty sand, fine sand and medium sand as filling; if they must be
used under limited conditions, such measures to prevent the liquefaction shall be taken.
6.2.2 Where the side slope height of road embankment on rock and non-liquefied soil and
non-soft foundation is larger than those specified in Table 6.2.2, its slope ratio shall be
lowered by one grade in accordance with the current professional standard "Design Code for
Railway Foundation" TB 10001 or such measures shall be taken as to adopt geosynthetics
reinforcement etc. to reinforce side slope
Table 6.2.2 Height Limit of Side Slope of Road Embankment (m)
Seismic fortification type
Ag
Filling
Category C engineering Category D engineering
0.1g,
0.15g 0.2g 0.3g 0.4g 0.2g 0.3g 0.4g
protection and reinforcement measures as removing, anchorage, supporting and protection etc.
and the reinforcement measures shall be taken, or the open cut tunnel shall be set. The slope
protection should adopt anchor bolt (cable) frame beam and the surface and shallow treatment
measure should not be taken as mixture by hanging wire netting with Zn, grouting slab-stone
slope protection.
6.2.12 The rock cutting may adopt controlled blasting technology like smooth blasting and
presplitting blasting etc. according to rock mass structure, rock character, structural plane
occurrence by combination of the safety requirements of existing building in the scope
influenced by the construction and the major blasting shall not be adopted.
6.2.13A Where the fortification intensity is Intensity 8 and Intensity 9, the retaining
structures of the railway should adopt such light flexible structures as pile siding wall or piled
anchor structures, reinforced soil retaining wall, soil nail wall ,anchor bolt and prestressed
tendon etc.
6.2.14 Gravity retaining wall shall adopt integral pouring of slab-stone concrete or concrete
and its intensity category shall not be less than C25. The retaining wall height shall meet the
following requirements.
1 For the height of shoulder, road embankment and retaining wall for soil cutting,
Category C engineering should not be larger than 6m and Category D engineering should not
be larger than 8m.
2 For the height of retaining wall for stone cutting, Category C engineering should not
be larger than 8m and Category D engineering should not be larger than 10m.
6.2.15 Rabbet setting or short steel bars reinforcement must be taken at the construction
joint of concrete retaining wall or variable cross section of balance weight retaining wall and
the area of rabbets shall not be less than 20% of section area.
6.2.16 Where the fortification intensity is Intensity 8 and Intensity 9, and the total height of
the railway revetment wall is larger than 10m, the integral concrete pouring should be adopted
and the intensity category shall not be less than C25.
6.2.17 The retaining wall shall be constructed by segments and length per segment should
not be larger than 15m; the settlement joint shall be set at the segment joints and the area
where the foundation soil strata and the variation in wall height is relatively large.
6.2.18 The retaining wall at the liquefiable soil strata and on soft foundation should take
such foundation reinforcement measures as to composite the foundation and the pile
foundation and the pile tip shall be stretched into the stable soil strata.
7 Bridge
7.1 General Requirements
7.1.1 This chapter is applicable to seismic design of beam bridge whose steel beam has span
of less than 150m and railway reinforced concrete and prestressed concrete have span of less
than 120m. Each railway culvert located in the seismic region may be free from seismic
design.
7.1.2 Bridge whose fortification intensity is Intensity 7, 8 and 9 and Category B bridge
α——the basic acceleration of horizontal earthquake, adopt by Article 7.2.4 of this Code.
7.3 Ductility Design of Reinforced Concrete Bridge Pier
7.3.1 The seismic action of pier under high-level earthquake may not count in live load
effect.
7.3.2 Ductility design shall be carried out for reinforced concrete bridge pier; and
constructional measures shall be adopted according to the following requirements.
1 Where pier body rigidity varies uniformly, occurrence of abrupt change shall be
avoided.
2 Total cross section reinforcement ratio of pier body main reinforcement shall not be
less than 0.5%, and not larger than 4%.
3 The pier plastic hinge zone shall strengthen stirrup arrangement; the height of
strengthening zone shall not be less than 2 times the section height in bending direction.
Where plastic hinge zone is located at pier bottom, the strengthening zone height is the
section height; where the ratio of pier height to section height in checking direction is less
than 2.5, strengthening shall be carried out to all sections, and shearing strength checking
shall be carried out according to the most unfavorable deforming stage; arrange web
reinforcement where necessary.
4 The diameter of stirrup shall not be less than 10mm; the stirrup ratio shall not be less
than a quarter of reinforcement ratio of main reinforcement, and shall not be less than 0.3%.
5 Regions whose fortification intensity is Intensity 8 or below, the stirrup spacing in
strengthening zone shall not be larger than 10cm; for other positions, the spacing shall not be
larger than 15cm; regions whose fortification intensities are larger than Intensity 8, the stirrup
spacing in strengthening zone shall not be larger than 5cm; for other positions, the spacing
shall not be larger than 10cm.
6 For round section, the stirrup may be arranged along section periphery; for
rectangular section, except for arranging stirrup along periphery, stirrup or transverse
reinforcement (lacing bar) shall be arranged according to the requirements of 7.3.2 in concrete
core scope of strengthening zone.
Table 7.3.2 Rectangular Section Stirrup or Transverse Reinforcement Arrangement
Fortification
intensity
Main reinforcement number between
stirrups or transverse reinforcement
(lacing bars)
Spacing of stirrup legs or transverse reinforcement (lacing bar)
spacing
7 4 No larger than 40cm
8 3 No larger than 25cm
9 2 Longitudinal/transverse horizontal restraint shall be provided for each longitudinal steel bar
Note. Rectangular part in the middle of round-ended section shall be arranged according to the requirements specified in
the table. Sections of other shape may be arranged according to the way of rectangular section.
7 The joint of circular stirrup must adopt welding; the weld length shall not be less than
10 times the diameter of stirrup; the end of rectangular stirrup shall be provided with 135°
hook; the straight reach length of hook shall not be less than 20cm.
7.3.3 Elastic-plastic deformation analysis of reinforced concrete bridge pier under the action
of high-level earthquake should adopt nonlinear time history response analysis method; the
ductility checking shall meet the requirements of the following formula.
][max u
u  
 (7.3.3)
Where,
μu——the ductility ratio of nonlinear displacement;
[μu]——the permitted displacement ductility ratio, taking 4.8;
Δmax——the maximum displacement of nonlinear response of pier;
Δy——the yielding displacement of pier.
The ductility design of simply-supported beam bridge pier may be calculated according
to the simplified method in Appendix F of this Code.
7.4 Support and Abutment
7.4.1A The seismic region shall adopt support of which the structure is simple and easy to
replace; the seismic capacity of main body of support shall be larger than its connected
components; the connection of support and beam shall be stronger than the connection of
support and bridge abutment; and vulnerable positions of support should adopt removable
members.
Where conditions in seismic region with strong intensity permit, design of seismic
reduction and isolation may be adopted; bridges which adopt seismic reduction and isolation
design shall meet the requirements of normal use.
7.4.1 For the checking of support components, connection between beam and support,
abutment anchor bolt and rubber support retaining facilities, the horizontal seismic force shall
be calculated according to the following formula.
1 Horizontal seismic force of along-bridge fixed end.
FhE=1.5Agꞏmd-∑μRa (7.4.1-1)
Where,
FhE——the horizontal seismic force of fixed end, (kN);
Ag——the seismic peak ground acceleration value (m/s2);
md——the mass of simply-supported beam when it is one hole beam and of bridge floor,
(t);
μ——the friction coefficient of movable support; for steel roll axle, rockshaft support
and basin rubber support, μ=0.05; for plate type curved support and plate rubber support,
μ=0.1~0.2;
Ra——the counterforce of movable support, (kN);
∑μRa——the sum of movable support friction resistance, (kN), and shall meet the
relevant requirements. ∑μRa≤0.75Agꞏmd.
2 The movable support and fixed support bears cross-bridge direction together.
Horizontal seismic force at one pier top point.
F′hE=1.5Agꞏmb (7.4.1-2)
Where,
F′hE——the horizontal seismic force at one pier top point, (kN);
Ag——the seismic peak ground acceleration value (m/s2);
mb——see Article 7.2.5 of this Code.
7.4.2 The seismic action of abutment is calculated according to design earthquake by
adopting static method, and shall meet the following requirements.
1 Horizontal seismic force of earth pillar and cone filling at front edge of foundation
shall not be counted in.
2 Seismic active soil pressure acted on abutment shall be calculated according to
Article 6.1.5 of this Code. The action point is located at 1/3 point of calculated height above
calculated section. Where seismic soil pressure in front of abutment is calculated, corrections
shall be carried out according to seism angle and the following formula.
φE=φ+θ (7.4.2-1)
Where,
φE——the internal friction angle of soil after correction (°);
φ——the internal friction angle of soil (°);
θ——the seismic angle, which shall be selected according to those specified in Table
6.1.5.
3 Where soil pressure produced by train live load on failure wedge is calculated, the
seism angle shall not be counted in.
4 The horizontal seismic force of abutment body shall be calculated according to the
requirements of Article 6.1.6 of this Code; therein H is the height between abutment top
surface and foundation top; the enhancement coefficient of foundation level seismic action
along abutment height ηi shall take 1.
Where seismic force caused by transverse live load is calculated, the enhancement
coefficient ηi value shall be the same as abutment top surface.
5 The horizontal seismic force of beam mass acted on abutment shall be calculated
according to the following formula.
FE=ηꞏAgꞏmd (7.4.2-2)
Where,
FE——the horizontal seismic force of beam acted on abutment, (kN);
η——the correction coefficient of horizontal seismic action; rock foundation shall take
0.20 and non-rock foundation shall take 0.25.
Where the beam is fixed support at abutment end, md shall be calculated by one hole
beam; where both ends of beam are same support, md shall be calculated by half hole beam.
md in cross-bridge direction shall be calculated by half hole beam.
The horizontal seismic force of beam mass along bridge shall act on the center of support;
in cross-bridge direction shall act on 1/2 point of beam depth.
6 Where seismic soil pressure of abutment crossing liquefied soil layer is calculated,
the reduction coefficient of internal friction angle shall meet the requirements of Appendix C
of this Code. Any soil layer with different dynamics parameters shall be calculated in layers.
7.5 Seismic Measures
7.5.1 The aperture of bridge should be arranged according to equal span; the pier shall avoid
bearing inclined direction soil pressure; the abutment should adopt T-shaped or U-shaped
7.5.13 Where hydrologic and geologic conditions of seismic area permit, bridge and culvert
arrangement should adopt culvert. The culvert exit and entrance shall adopt wing wall type.
7.5.14 Piers located in areas of Intensity 7 or above should arrange armor layer steel bars;
the diameter of vertical reinforcement should not be less than 16mm; the spacing should not
be larger than 20cm; the vertical reinforcement shall stretch into the bearing platform and
remain sufficient anchorage length. The stirrup arrangement shall not be lower than those
specified in Table 7.5.14; the joint of circular stirrup must adopt welding; the weld length
shall not be less than 10 times the diameter of stirrup; the end of rectangular stirrup shall be
provided with 135° hook; the straight reach length that the hook stretches into core concrete
shall not be less than 20cm.
Table 7.5.14 Pier Stirrup Arrangement
Fortification intensity 7 8 9
Circular
pier
Diameter of stirrup (mm) 12 12 12
Stirrup spacing (cm) 20 20 15
Rectangular
pier
Diameter of stirrup (mm) 10 10 12
Stirrup spacing (cm) 20 20 15
7.5.15 Stirrup arrangement shall be properly strengthened for bored pile foundation of areas
with fortification intensity of 7 or above within 2.5d~3.0d (d is the design pile diameter)
length range of pile top.
7.5.16 Where the fortification intensity is larger than Intensity 7, the slope of abutment cone
along route direction shall adopt the value specified in Table 7.5.16.
Table 7.5.16 Slope of Abutment Cone along Route Direction
Fortification intensity
Height of filling(m) 8 9
0~6 1.1.25 1.1.5
6~12 1.1.5 1.1.75
7.5.17 For Category B bridges and Category C bridges of rapid transit railway and
passenger dedicated line (including intercity railway), the following strengthening measures
shall be taken for the connection of pier and bearing platform, and of bearing platform and
piles.
1 Connection of pier body and bearing platform. the vertical steel bars of pier body
shall stretch sufficient anchorage length into the bearing platform, and be connected to the top
surface steel bars of bearing platform; where conditions permit, the vertical steel bars may be
connected to the steel bars of bearing platform bottom.
2 The bearing platform adopts six-surface reinforcement; the arrangement of bottom
surface steel bars shall be determined according to stress calculation; the diameter of top
surface steel bars shall not be less than 16mm; the spacing shall not be larger than 15cm; the
rest four sides shall be reinforced according to detailing requirements.
3 Connection of bearing platform and piles. within length range of 2.5~3.0 times the
pile diameter of bored (dig-hole) pile head, the stirrup shall be densified; the spacing shall not
be larger than 10cm; the diameter shall not be less than 10mm; the reinforcement ratio of
longitudinal steel bars of pile body should not be less than 0.5%.
Appendix B
Test Methods of Liquefied Soil Determination
B.1 Method of Standard Penetration Test
B.1.1 Where the measured standard penetration blow count N is less than the critical
liquefaction standard penetration blow count Ncr, it shall be evaluated as liquefied soil. The
Ncr value shall be calculated according to the following formulae.
Ncr=N0α1α2α3α4 (B.1.1-1)
α1=1-0.065 (dw-2) (B.1.1-2)
α2=0.52+0.175ds-0.005ds2 (B.1.1-3)
α3=1-0.05 (du-2) (B.1.1-4)
cP17.014  (B.1.1-5)
Where,
N0——the critical liquefaction standard penetration blow count of the soil layer when ds
is 3m, dw and du are 2m and α4 is 1, it shall take the value according to Table B.1.1-1.
α1——the correction coefficient of the ground water buried depth dw (m); and it shall be
calculated according to Formula B.1.1-2. When there is water on the ground surface all the
year round and hydraulic connection with the underground water, dw is zero;
α2——the correction coefficient of the depth ds (m) of the standard penetration test point,
shall be calculated in accordance with Formula B.1.1-3;
α3——the correction coefficient of the thickness of upper covered non-liquefied soil du
(m), shall be calculated in accordance with Formula B.1.1-4; for deep foundation, α3 shall
take 1;
α4——the correction coefficient of the sticky particle weight percentage Pc, shall be
calculated in accordance with Formula B.1.1-5 and may also take the value according to Table
B.1.1-2.
Table B.1.1-1 Critical Blow Count N0 Value
Seismic peak ground acceleration
Characteristic period zonation 0.1g 0.15g 0.2g 0.3g 0.4g
Zone 1 6 8 10 13 16
Zone 2 and zone 3 8 10 12 15 18
Table B.1.1-2 Correction Coefficient Value α4 of Pc
Soil category Sandy soil
Silty soil
Plasticity indexIp≤7 Plasticity index7α4 value 1.0 0.6 0.45
B.2 Cone Penetration Test Method of Single Bridge Head
B.2.1 Where the measured calculation penetration resistance Psca is less than the critical
liquefaction penetration resistance P's, it shall be evaluated as liquefied soil.1 P's value shall
Appendix D
Natural Vibration Performance Calculation of Beam Bridge Pier
D.1 Ordinary Calculation Method of Simply-supported Beam Bridge
D.1.1 The natural vibration performance of beam bridge pier with rock and non-rock
foundation shall be calculated according to the following formula.
1 Characteristic equation.([K]-ω2[M]){x}=0 (D.1.1-1)
Where,
[M]——the mass matrix of pier system;
ω——the natural vibration circular frequency;
[K]——the stiffness matrix of pier system;
{x}——the vibration mode functional vector.
2 Natural vibration period.
jT 
2 (D.1.1-2)
Where,
ωj——the j vibration mode natural vibration circular frequency of the pier system
(rad/s);
Tj——the j vibration mode natural vibration period of the pier system (s).
D.2 Simplified Calculation Method of Solid and Hollow Piers or Rigid Frame Pier
D.2.1 The base period of the pier system in Appendix E.1 and E.2 of this code may be
calculated according to following formula.
5.0
1*
]1)([2





ffbp
hHkmm
T (D.2.1)
Where,
mp*, kf1——may be adopted according to Appendix E.1 and E.2 of this code;
Kp*——the generalized stiffness of the pier body (kN/m) may be calculated according to
Table D.2.1.
Table D.2.1 Generalized Stiffness of Pier Body
Pier form Vibration direction Kp
Round
In length )006.0041.0117.0178.0149.0( 43222232423 CCcCcCccH
E  In width
Hollow In length
22223344E
Appendix F
Simplified Calculation Method for Ductility Design of Reinforced
Concrete Pier under High-level Earthquake
F.0.1 The nonlinear displacement ductility ratio of pier may be calculated according to
following formula.
μu=λm×μm (F.0.1-1)
Where,
μu——the ductility ratio of nonlinear displacement;
λm——the scale coefficient of nonlinear displacement ductility ratio to linear bending
moment ratio;
μm——the linear bending moment ratio may be calculated in accordance with Article
F.0.2.
m may be calculated according to the following formulae or take value according to
Figure F.0.1 in accordance with the linear natural vibration period of pier, site category and
basic acceleration α of horizontal earthquake.
When α≤0.32g, for site category Ⅰ.




)15.1(845.0
)15.17.0(33.59.3
)7.05.0(6.2
)5.00(0.12.3
TT
TT
m (F.0.1-2)
for site category Ⅳ.




)15.1(895.0
)15.17.0(23.49.2
)7.05.0(2.2
)5.00(0.14.2
TT
TT
m (F.0.1-3)
When α>0.32g, for site category Ⅰ.




)15.1(855.0
)15.17.0(27.31.2
)7.05.0(8.1
)5.00(0.16.1
TT
TT
m (F.0.1-4)
for site category Ⅳ.




)15.1(815.0
)15.17.0(15.49.2
)7.05.0(12.2
)5.00(0.124.2
TT
TT
m (F.0.1-5)
For site category Ⅱ and site category Ⅲ, λm2 and λm3 may be calculated according to
Explanation of Wording in This Code
1 Words used for different degrees of strictness are explained as follows in order to
mark the differences in executing the requirements in this code.
1) Wording used to represent very strict and must be done in this way.
"Must" is used for affirmation; "must not" for negation.
2) Words denoting a strict requirement under normal conditions.
"Shall" is used for affirmation; "shall not" for negation;
3) Words denoting a permission of a slight choice or an indication of the most suitable
choice when conditions permit.
"Should" is used for affirmation; "should not" for negation.
"May" is used as word denoting a permission of choice or an indication of the most
suitable choice when conditions permit.
2 "Shall comply with..." or "shall meet the requirements of..."is used in this code to
indicate that it is necessary to comply with the requirements stipulated in other relative
standards and codes.
Related standard: GB 50111-2006    GB 50117-2014
Related PDF sample: GB 50191-2012    GB 50011-2010