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GB 38031-2020

Chinese Standard: 'GB 38031-2020'
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BASIC DATA
Standard ID GB38031-2020 (GB38031-2020)
Description (Translated English) Electric vehicles traction battery safety requirements
Sector / Industry National Standard
Classification of Chinese Standard T47
Classification of International Standard 43.080
Word Count Estimation 34,392
Date of Issue 2020-05-12
Date of Implementation 2021-01-01
Older Standard (superseded by this standard) GB/T 31467.3-2015; GB/T 31485-2015
Drafting Organization Ningde Times New Energy Technology Co., Ltd., China Automotive Technology and Research Center Co., Ltd., Hefei Guoxuan High-tech Power Energy Co., Ltd., Wanxiang One Two Three Three Stock Company, Shanghai Carnegie New Energy Co., Ltd., China Electronics Technology Group Corporation No. 18 Research Institute, Ministry of Industry and Information Technology Equipment Industry Development Center, BYD Automobile Industry Co., Ltd., Tianjin Lishen Battery Co., Ltd., Hunan Keba Automotive Power Battery Co., Ltd., Beijing New Energy Automobile Co., Ltd., Shenzhen BYD Lithium Battery Co., Ltd. Company, Shanghai Weilai Automobile Co., Ltd., CITIC Guoan Mengli Power Technology Co., Ltd., Chery New Energy Automobile Technology Co., Ltd., Shanghai Automotive Group Co., Ltd. Technology Center, China First Automobile Group Co., Ltd., Guangzhou Automobile Group Co., Ltd. ,weight
Administrative Organization Ministry of Industry and Information Technology of the People's Republic of China
Regulation (derived from) National Standards Announcement No. 11 of 2020
Proposing organization Ministry of Industry and Information Technology of the People's Republic of China
Issuing agency(ies) State Administration of Market Supervision and Administration, National Standardization Management Committee

GB 38031-2020
NATIONAL STANDARD OF THE
PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF CHINA
ICS 43.080
T 47
Replacing GB/T 31485-2015, GB/T 31467.3-2015
Electric Vehicles Traction Battery Safety requirements
电动汽车用动力蓄电池安全要求
ISSUED ON: MAY 12, 2020
IMPLEMENTED ON: JANUARY 1, 2021
Issued by: State Administration for Market Regulation;
Standardization Administration of the People’s Republic of
China.
Table of Contents
Foreword ... 3 
Introduction ... 6 
1 Scope ... 7 
2 Normative References ... 7 
3 Terms and Definitions ... 7 
4 Abbreviations and Symbols ... 10 
4.1 Abbreviations ... 10 
4.2 Symbols ... 10 
5 Safety Requirements ... 10 
5.1 Safety Requirements of Secondary Cell ... 10 
5.2 Safety Requirements of Battery Pack or System ... 11 
6 Test Conditions ... 12 
6.1 General Conditions ... 12 
6.2 Accuracy of Measuring Instruments and Meters ... 14 
6.3 Test Process Error ... 14 
6.4 Data Recording and Recording Interval ... 14 
7 Test Preparation ... 14 
7.1 Test preparation of secondary cell ... 14 
7.2 Test Preparation of Battery Pack or System ... 15 
8 Test Methods ... 16 
8.1 Safety Test Method for Secondary Cell ... 16 
8.2 Safety Test Method for Battery Pack or System ... 19 
9 Implementation Date ... 36 
Appendix A (Informative) Typical Structure of Battery Pack or System ... 38 
Appendix B (Normative) Insulation Resistance Test Method of Battery Pack or
System ... 41 
Appendix C (Normative) Thermal Propagation Occupant Protection Analysis
and Verification Report ... 44 
Bibliography ... 50 
Electric Vehicles Traction Battery Safety
Requirements
1 Scope
This Standard specifies the safety requirements and test methods for secondary cells,
battery packs or systems of traction battery (hereinafter referred to as battery) for
electric vehicles.
This Standard is applicable to rechargeable energy storage devices for electric
vehicles, such as: li-ion battery and nickel-metal hydride battery.
2 Normative References
The following documents are indispensable to the application of this document. In
terms of references with a specified date, only versions with a specified date are
applicable to this document. In terms of references without a specified date, the latest
version (including all the modifications) is applicable to this document.
GB/T 2423.4 Environmental Testing for Electric and Electronic Products - Part 2: Test
Method - Test Db: Damp Heat, Cyclic (12 h + 12 h cycle)
GB/T 2423.17 Environmental Testing for Electric and Electronic Products - Part 2: Test
Method - Test Ka: Salt Mist
GB/T 2423.43 Environmental Testing for Electric and Electronic Products - Part 2: Test
Methods - Mounting of Specimens for Vibration Impact and Similar Dynamic Tests
GB/T 2423.56 Environmental Testing - Part 2: Test Methods - Test Fh: Vibration,
Broadband Random and Guidance
GB/T 4208-2017 Degrees of Protection Provided by Enclosure (IP code)
GB/T 19596 Terminology of Electric Vehicles
GB/T 28046.4-2011 Road Vehicles - Environmental Conditions and Testing for
Electrical and Electronic Equipment - Part 4: Climatic Loads
3 Terms and Definitions
What is defined in GB/T 19596, and the following terms and definitions are applicable
to this document.
NOTE: rated capacity is generally expressed in (Ah) or (mAh).
3.8 Practical Capacity
Practical capacity refers to the capacity value released from fully charged secondary
cell, module, battery pack or system under the conditions specified by the manufacturer.
3.9 State-of-charge
State-of-charge refers to the percentage of capacity in the current secondary cell,
module, battery pack or system that can be released in accordance with the discharge
conditions specified by the manufacturer to the practical capacity.
3.10 Explosion
Explosion refers to a sudden release of sufficient energy, which generates pressure
waves or sprays, and might cause structural or physical damage to the surrounding
area.
3.11 Fire
Fire refers to continuous combustion of secondary cell, module, battery pack or any
part of the system (the duration of single flame is greater than 1 s). Sparks and electric
arcs do not belong to combustion.
3.12 Housing Crack
Housing crack refers to mechanical damage to secondary cell, module, battery pack
or system housing due to internal and external factors, which can result in exposure or
spillage of internal substances.
3.13 Leakage
Leakage refers to the phenomenon that visible substances leak from secondary cell,
module, battery pack or system to the outside of the test object.
3.14 Thermal Runaway
Thermal runaway refers to the phenomenon of uncontrollable rise in battery
temperature caused by exothermic chain reaction of secondary cell.
3.15 Thermal Propagation
Thermal propagation refers to the phenomenon of successive thermal runaway of the
remaining secondary cells caused by thermal runaway of one secondary cell in the
battery pack or system.
3.16 End-of-charge Voltage
5.1.5 In accordance with 8.1.6, conduct temperature cycle test on secondary cell: there
shall be no fire or explosion.
5.1.6 In accordance with 8.1.7, conduct extrusion test on secondary cell: there shall be
no fire or explosion.
5.2 Safety Requirements of Battery Pack or System
5.2.1 In accordance with 8.2.1, conduct vibration test on battery pack or system: there
shall be no phenomenon of leakage, housing crack, fire or explosion. In addition,
abnormal termination conditions shall not be triggered. After the test, the insulation
resistance shall be not less than 100 /V.
5.2.2 In accordance with 8.2.2, conduct mechanical impact test on battery pack or
system: there shall be no phenomenon of leakage, housing crack, fire or explosion.
After the test, the insulation resistance shall be not less than 100 /V.
5.2.3 In accordance with 8.2.3, conduct simulated collision test on battery pack or
system: there shall be no phenomenon of leakage, housing crack, fire or explosion.
After the test, the insulation resistance shall be not less than 100 /V.
5.2.4 In accordance with 8.2.4, conduct extrusion test on battery pack or system: there
shall be no fire or explosion.
5.2.5 In accordance with 8.2.5, conduct damp heat cycle test on battery pack or system:
there shall be no phenomenon of leakage, housing crack, fire or explosion. Within 30
min after the test, the insulation resistance shall be not less than 100 /V.
5.2.6 In accordance with 8.2.6, conduct water immersion test on battery pack or system:
one of the following requirements shall be satisfies:
a) Comply with Mode 1: there shall be no fire or explosion;
b) Comply with Mode 2: after the test, IPX7 requirements must be satisfied: there
shall be no phenomenon of leakage, housing crack, fire or explosion. After the
test, the insulation resistance shall be not less than 100 /V.
5.2.7 In accordance with 8.2.7, conduct thermal stability test on battery pack or system,
excluding nickel-metal hydride battery or the system. It includes:
a) In accordance with 8.2.7.1, conduct external combustion test: there shall be
no explosion;
b) In accordance with 8.2.7.2, conduct thermal propagation occupant protection
analysis and verification. 5 min before a danger is caused in the passenger
compartment due to thermal propagation, as a result of thermal runaway of a
single battery, the battery pack or system shall provide a thermal event
independently, battery module may be adopted for testing, and the safety requirements
shall still comply with 5.1.
6.1.3 In terms of battery pack or system covered by car body and forms a battery pack
box, it may be tested along with the box or the car body.
6.1.4 Battery pack or system test delivery needs to include necessary operating
documents, as well as interface components required to connect with the test
equipment, such as: connectors and plugs, including cooling system interfaces. The
typical structure of battery pack or system is shown in Appendix A. The manufacturer
needs to provide safe operating limits for the battery pack or system.
6.1.5 Before all the tests, and after some tests, battery pack or system need to be
tested for insulation resistance. The test position is: between the two terminals and the
electric platform. It is required that the measured insulation resistance value divided by
the maximum working voltage of the battery pack or system is not less than 100 /V.
The specific test methods are shown in Appendix B.
6.1.6 If due to some reasons (for example: size or mass), battery pack or system is not
suitable for some tests, then, after reaching a consensus through negotiation, the
manufacturer and testing institution may use the subsystem of the battery pack or
system as the test object for all or some of the tests. However, the subsystem, which
serves as the test object, shall contain all the parts (for example: connecting parts or
protective parts, etc.) related to the requirements of the vehicle.
6.1.7 The method of adjusting SOC to n% of test target value: in accordance with the
charging mode provided by the manufacturer, fully charge the battery pack or system;
place it still for 1 h. Then, with 1 I3, at a constant current, discharge it for a duration of
T. T is obtained through the calculation in accordance with Formula (1). Or, adopt the
method provided by the manufacturer to adjust SOC. After each SOC adjustment,
before a new test starts, the test object shall be placed still for 30 min.
Where,
T---discharging time, expressed in (h);
n---percentage value of test target value.
6.1.8 The charging and discharging rate, method and cut-off conditions during the test
are provided by the manufacturer.
6.1.9 The rated capacity of secondary cell, battery pack or system shall comply with
the product technical conditions provided by the manufacturer.
Firstly, at the current specified by the manufacturer and not less than 1 I3, discharge
secondary cell to the discharge cut-off voltage specified by the manufacturer in the
technical conditions. Place it still for 1 h (or, the shelving time provided by the
manufacturer and not more than 1 h). Then, in accordance with the charging method
provided by the manufacturer, charge the secondary cell. After charging, place it still
for 1 h (or, the shelving time provided by the manufacturer and not more than 1 h).
If the manufacturer does not provide charging method, then, the testing institution and
the manufacturer shall negotiate and determine an appropriate charging method, or
charge in accordance with the following methods:
At a constant current specified by the manufacturer and not less than 1 I3, charge the
secondary cell, till it reaches the charge cut-off voltage specified by the manufacturer
in the technical conditions, then, transfer to constant-voltage charging, till the charging
current drops to 0.05 I1, then, stop charging. After charging, place it still for 1 h (or, the
shelving time provided by the manufacturer and not more than 1 h).
7.1.2 Pre-treatment
7.1.2.1 Before the official test starts, secondary cell needs to undergo a pre-treatment
cycle first, so as to ensure that the performance of the test object is activated and
stable. Proceed as follows:
a) In accordance with 7.1.1, conduct standard charging on the secondary cell;
b) At a current specified by the manufacturer and not less than 1 I3, discharge to
the discharge cut-off conditions specified by the manufacturer;
c) Place it still for 30 min, or the time specified by the manufacturer;
d) Repeat a) ~ c) for not more than 5 times.
7.1.2.2 If discharging capacity change of the secondary cell in consecutive two times
is not higher than 3% of the rated capacity, then, it is believed that the secondary cell
has completed the pre-treatment, and the pre-treatment cycle can be terminated.
7.2 Test Preparation of Battery Pack or System
7.2.1 Confirmation of working status
Before the official test starts, the electronic components or BCU of the battery pack or
system shall be in normal working status.
7.2.2 Pre-treatment
7.2.2.1 Before the official test starts, battery pack or system needs to undergo a pre-
treatment cycle first, so as to ensure that the performance of the test object is activated
and stable. Proceed as follows:
8.1.3 Over-charge
8.1.3.1 Test object is secondary cell.
8.1.3.2 In accordance with 7.1.1, charge the test object.
8.1.3.3 With a constant current specified by the manufacturer and not less than 1 I3,
charge to 1.1 times of the charge cut-off voltage specified by the manufacturer or 115%
SOC, then, stop charging.
8.1.3.4 After completing the above test procedures, at the ambient temperature of test,
observe for 1 h.
8.1.4 External short-circuit
8.1.4.1 Test object is secondary cell.
8.1.4.2 In accordance with 7.1.1, charge the test object.
8.1.4.3 Externally short-circuit the positive and negative terminals of the test object for
10 min: the electrical resistance of the external circuit shall be less than 5 m.
8.1.4.4 After completing the above test procedures, at the ambient temperature of test,
observe for 1 h.
8.1.5 Heating
8.1.5.1 Test object is secondary cell.
8.1.5.2 In accordance with 7.1.1, charge the test object.
8.1.5.3 Place the test object into a temperature box; use the following conditions for
heating:
a) Li-ion secondary cell: at the rate of 5 °C/min, raise the temperature box from
the ambient temperature of test to 130 °C ± 2 °C; maintain this temperature
for 30 min, then, stop heating;
b) Nickel-metal hydride battery: at the rate of 5 °C/min, raise the temperature
box from the ambient temperature of test to 85 °C ± 2 °C; maintain this
temperature for 2 h, then, stop heating.
8.1.5.4 After completing the above test procedures, at the ambient temperature of test,
observe for 1 h.
8.1.6 Temperature cycle
8.1.6.1 Test object is secondary cell.
8.1.7.3 In accordance with the following conditions, conduct the test:
a) Extrusion direction: apply pressure perpendicular to the direction of the
secondary cell plate, or, in the same direction where the secondary cell is
most easily extruded in the vehicle layout;
b) Form of extrusion plate: a half-cylinder with a radius of 75 mm; the length (L)
of the half-cylinder is larger than the size of the extruded secondary cell (as it
is shown in Figure 6);
c) Extrusion rate: not more than 2 mm/s;
d) Extrusion degree: when the voltage reaches 0 V, or the deformation reaches
15%, or the extrusion force reaches 100 kN or 1,000 times of the weight of
the test object, stop the extrusion;
e) Maintain for 10 min.
8.1.7.4 After completing the above test procedures, at the ambient temperature of test,
observe for 1 h.
8.2 Safety Test Method for Battery Pack or System
8.2.1 Vibration
8.2.1.1 Test object is battery pack or system.
8.2.1.2 In order to protect the safety of test operators and laboratories, the
manufacturer shall provide voltage sharpness limits as abnormal termination
conditions.
8.2.1.3 Before the test starts, adjust the SOC of the test object to not lower than 50%
of the normal SOC working range specified by the manufacturer.
8.2.1.4 In accordance with the installation location of the test object and the
requirements of GB/T 2423.43, install the test object on the vibration table.
Respectively apply random and constant-frequency vibration loads in each direction.
The sequence of loading should be: z-axis random, z-axis constant-frequency, y-axis
random, y-axis constant-frequency, x-axis random, x-axis constant-frequency (the
driving direction is x-axis direction, and the other horizontal direction perpendicular to
the driving direction is y-axis direction). The testing institution may also, on its own,
choose the sequence, so as to shorten the conversion time. The test process shall
comply with GB/T 2423.56.
8.2.1.5 In terms of battery packs or systems mounted on vehicles other than Type-M1
and Type-N1, vibration test parameters shall comply with Table 2 and Figure 2. When
the test object has multiple installation directions (x/y/z), conduct the test in accordance
X---time, h; c---recommended temperature and humidity value;
f---one cycle.
Figure 8 (continued from previous page)
8.2.6 Water immersion
8.2.6.1 Test object is battery pack or system that passes the vibration test in 8.2.1.
8.2.6.2 In accordance with the finished vehicle connection mode, properly connect
components (such as: wiring harness and connectors, etc.) of the test object. Select
one of the following modes for testing:
a) Mode 1: in the actual vehicle assembly direction, place the test object in 3.5%
(mass fraction) sodium chloride solution for 2 h; the water depth shall be
sufficient to submerge the test object;
b) Mode 2: in accordance with the method and the flow described in 14.2.7 in
GB/T 4208-2017 to test the test object. In accordance with the installation
state specified by the manufacturer, completely immerse the test object in
water. In terms of test object whose height is less than 850 mm, the lowest
power shall be 1,000 mm below the water surface. In terms of test object
whose height equals to, or is more than 850 mm, the highest point shall be
150 mm below the water surface. The test duration is 30 min. The temperature
difference between the water temperature and the test object is not more than
5 °C.
8.2.6.3 Take the battery pack out of the water. At the ambient temperature of test, place
it still and observe for 2 h.
8.2.7 Thermal stability
8.2.7.1 External combustion
8.2.7.1.1 Test object is battery pack or system. The body structure that protects the
battery pack or system can participate in the combustion test.
8.2.7.1.2 The ambient temperature of test is above 0 °C. The wind speed is not more
than 2.5 km/h.
8.2.7.1.3 During the test, the size of the flat plate containing gasoline exceeds the
horizontal protection size of the test object by 20 cm, and does not exceed 50 cm. The
height of the flat plate is not higher than 8 cm above the gasoline surface. The test
object shall be placed in the center. The distance between the gasoline liquid level and
the bottom of the test object is set to 50 cm, or, the ground clearance of the bottom
surface of the test object when the vehicle is under the no-load state. Fill the bottom of
the flat plate with water. The schematic diagram of the external combustion is shown
8.2.10.3 Test environment: the air pressure condition is 61.2 kPa (air pressure
condition when the simulated altitude is 4,000 m); the temperature is the ambient
temperature of test.
8.2.10.4 Maintain the test environment in 8.2.10.3. Place it still for 5 h.
8.2.10.5 After the resting time is completed, maintain the test environment in 8.2.10.3.
With a current specified by the manufacturer and not less than 1 I3, discharge the test
object to the discharge cut-off conditions specified by the manufacturer.
8.2.10.6 After completing the above test procedures, at the ambient temperature of
test, observe for 2 h.
8.2.11 Over-temperature protection
8.2.11.1 Test object is battery system.
8.2.11.2 In order to protect the safety of test operators and laboratories, the
manufacturer shall provide upper limit parameters as abnormal termination conditions.
8.2.11.3 When the test starts, all protection equipment that affects the functions of the
test object and is related to the test result shall be in normal operation, except for the
cooling system.
8.2.11.4 The test object shall be continuously charged and discharged by external
charging and discharging equipment, so that the current can rise as quickly as possible
within the normal operating range specified by the battery system manufacturer, till the
end of the test.
8.2.11.5 The temperature of the room or the temperature box shall gradually rise from
20 °C ± 10 °C, or a higher temperature (if it is requested by the battery system
manufacturer), till it reaches a temperature determined in accordance with a) or b) (if
applicable). Then, maintain at this temperature, or higher than this temperature, till the
end of the test:
a) When the battery system has internal over-temperature protection measures,
it shall be raised to the temperature defined by the battery system
manufacturer as the operating temperature threshold for such protection
measures, so as to ensure that the temperature of the test object will rise in
accordance with the stipulations of 8.2.11.4.
b) If the battery system is not equipped with any specific internal over-
temperature protection measures, then, raise the temperature to the
maximum operating temperature specified by the battery system
manufacturer.
8.2.11.6 When any of the following conditions are met, end the test:
b) The test object sends a signal to terminate the charging current;
c) The temperature of the test object is stable; within 2 h, temperature change is
less than 4 °C.
8.2.12.6 After completing the above test procedures, at the ambient temperature of
test, observe for 1 h.
8.2.13 External short-circuit protection
8.2.13.1 Test object is battery system.
8.2.13.2 Test conditions are as follows:
a) The test shall be conducted under the ambient temperature of 20 °C ± 10 °C,
or a higher temperature (if it is requested by the battery system manufacturer);
b) When the test starts, all protection equipment that affects the functions of the
test object and is related to the test result shall be in normal operation.
8.2.13.3 The external short-circuit process is as follows:
a) When the test starts, relevant main contactors used for charging and
discharging shall be closed (if relevant relays are included in the battery
system loop), so as to indicate the feasible driving mode and the mode that
allows external charging. If this cannot be completed in a single test, then,
conduct two or more tests.
b) Connect the positive and negative terminals of the test object. The short-
circuit resistance shall not exceed 5 m.
8.2.13.4 Maintain the short-circuit state, till any of the following conditions are met, then,
end the test:
a) The protection function of the test object works and terminates the short-
circuit current;
b) After the housing temperature of the test object becomes stable (within 2 h,
temperature change is less than 4 °C), short-circuit continues for at least 1 h.
8.2.13.5 After completing the above test procedures, at the ambient temperature of
test, observe for 1 h.
8.2.14 Over-charging protection
8.2.14.1 Test object is battery system.
8.2.14.2 In order to protect the safety of test operators and laboratories, the
8.2.15.1 Test object is battery system.
8.2.15.2 Test conditions are as follows:
a) The test shall be conducted under the ambient temperature of 20 °C ± 10 °C,
or a higher temperature (if it is requested by the battery system manufacturer).
b) In accordance with the normal operation (if external charging and discharging
equipment is used) recommended by the battery system manufacturer, adjust
the SOC of the test object to a lower level, but still within the normal operating
range. As long as the test object can normally operate, no precise adjustment
is required.
c) When the test starts, all protection equipment that affects the functions of the
test object and is related to the test result shall be in normal operation. All
relevant main contactors used for discharging shall be closed (if relevant
relays are included in the battery system loop).
8.2.15.3 The discharging process is as follows:
a) The external discharging equipment shall be connected to the main terminal
of the test object;
b) Negotiate with the battery system manufacturer to discharge at a stable
current within the specified normal operating range.
8.2.15.4 Discharging shall continuously proceed, till any of the following conditions are
met, then, end the test:
a) The test object automatically terminates the discharging current;
b) The test object sends a signal to terminate the discharging current;
c) When the test object’s automatic cut-off function does not work, or, if there is
no function described in 8.2.15.4 a), then, continue the discharging, till the test
object is discharged to 25% of its rated voltage;
d) The temperature of the test object becomes stable; within 2 h, temperature
change is less than 4 °C.
8.2.15.5 After completing the above test procedures, at the ambient temperature of
test, observe for 1 h.
9 Implementation Date
Models with newly applied type approval shall implement this Standard since the
implementation date of this Standard. Models which have obtained type approval shall
Appendix B
(Normative)
Insulation Resistance Test Method of Battery Pack or System
B.1 Objective
To clarify the test method for insulation resistance of battery pack or system.
B.2 Test Conditions
Battery pack or system shall all be tested in a fully charged state specified by the
manufacturer. The ambient temperature of the test is 22 °C ± 5 °C; the humidity is 15%
~ 90%.
The internal resistance of the voltage detection instrument is not less than 10 M.
During the measurement, if the insulation monitoring function will affect the insulation
resistance test of the battery pack or system, then, the insulation monitoring function
shall be turned off, or, the insulation resistance monitoring unit shall be disconnected
from Level-B voltage circuit, so as to avoid affecting the measured value. Otherwise,
the manufacturer may choose whether to tu......
Related standard:   GB 38032-2020
Related PDF sample:   GB 38032-2020
   
 
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