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GB 36581-2018 (GB36581-2018)

GB 36581-2018_English: PDF (GB36581-2018)
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GB 36581-2018English145 Add to Cart 0--9 seconds. Auto-delivery Safety performance requirements and test methods of automobile wheels Valid GB 36581-2018

BASIC DATA
Standard ID GB 36581-2018 (GB36581-2018)
Description (Translated English) Safety performance requirements and test methods of automobile wheels
Sector / Industry National Standard
Classification of Chinese Standard T22
Classification of International Standard 43.040.50
Word Count Estimation 14,111
Date of Issue 2018-09-17
Date of Implementation 2020-01-01
Drafting Organization China Automotive Technology and Research Center, CITIC Daika Co., Ltd., Dongfeng Motor Wheel Co., Ltd.
Administrative Organization Ministry of Industry and Information Technology of the People's Republic of China
Proposing organization Ministry of Industry and Information Technology of the People's Republic of China
Issuing agency(ies) State Administration of Markets and China National Standardization Administration

Standards related to: GB 36581-2018

GB 36581-2018
GB
NATIONAL STANDARD OF THE
PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF CHINA
ICS 43.040.50
T 22
Safety performance requirements and
test methods of automobile wheels
ISSUED ON. SEPTEMBER 17, 2018
IMPLEMENTED ON. JANUARY 1, 2020
Issued by. State Administration for Market Regulation;
Standardization Administration of the People's Republic of
China.
Table of Contents
Foreword ... 3
1 Scope ... 4
2 Normative references ... 4
3 Terms and definitions ... 4
4 Wheel marking ... 5
5 Technical requirements ... 5
6 Test methods ... 9
7 Transitional period requirements ... 17
Annex A (Informative) Supplementary instructions to impact tester
calibration ... 18
Safety performance requirements and
test methods of automobile wheels
1 Scope
This Standard specifies the marking safety performance requirements and test
methods for automobile wheels.
This Standard applies to automobile wheels which are sold on the market; it does not
apply to wheels supplied by the vehicle manufacturer.
2 Normative references
The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this
document. For dated references, only the edition dated applies to this document. For
undated references, the latest edition of the referenced documents (including all
amendments) applies to this document.
GB/T 2933-2009, Wheels and rims for pneumatic tyres - Vocabulary, designation
and marking
GB/T 2977, Size designation, dimensions, inflation pressure and load capacity for
truck tyres
GB/T 2978, Size designation, dimensions, inflation pressure and load capacity for
passenger car tyres
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions and those given
in GB/T 2933 apply.
3.1
wheels supplied by the vehicle manufacturer
wheels which are supplied by the vehicle manufacturer and marked with permanently
visible trademark and part number of the vehicle manufacturer.
determined.
a) wheels are incapable of continuing to bear loads;
b) original cracks occur, extends or new visible cracks occur (using the dye penetration
inspection or other acceptable methods, such as fluorescent nondestructive testing);
c) before the cycle index required, the offset increment of load points exceeds 10% of
the original load offset.
5.1.1.2.2 Failure criteria for light alloy wheels
Conduct test as specified in 6.2.1; during the test or after the minimum cycle index as
specified in table 1, in one of the following cases, the failure of test wheels is
determined.
a) wheels are incapable of continuing to bear loads;
b) original cracks occur, extends or new visible cracks occur (using the dye penetration
inspection or other acceptable methods, such as fluorescent nondestructive testing);
c) before the cycle index required, the offset increment of load points exceeds 20% of
the original load offset.
5.1.2 Dynamic radial fatigue performance requirements
5.1.2.1 Strengthening factor and minimum cycle index
For strengthening factor and minimum cycle index of dynamic radial fatigue test see
Table 2.
Table 2 – Requirements for strengthening factor and minimum cycle index of
dynamic radial fatigue test
Strengthening factor K Minimum cycle index
2.25a 500,000
2.00 1,000,000
a Strengthening factor of prior selection.
5.1.2.2 Failure criteria
Conduct test as specified in 6.2.2; during the test or after the minimum cycle index as
specified in table 2, in one of the following cases, the failure of test wheels is
determined.
a) wheels are incapable of continuing to bear loads;
b) original cracks occur, extends or new visible cracks occur (using the dye penetration
d – inner offset or outer offset of wheels (inner offset is positive; outer offset is negative),
in m;
Fv – wheels’ rated load as specified by the wheel manufacturer, in N;
S – strengthening factor (see Table 1).
6.2.1.3 Test procedure
6.2.1.3.1 Clamp wheels firmly on test fixture.
6.2.1.3.2 Connecting parts of test apparatus are connected to the mounting surface of
wheels using unlubricated studs and nuts (or bolts); the mounting shall be equivalent
to the actual working conditions when they are mounted onboard. Use the star
tightening method to tighten wheel nuts (or bolts) to the torque values as specified by
the wheel manufacturer. The mounting surface of test apparatus connecting parts and
the mounting surface of wheels shall be clean, smooth.
6.2.1.3.3 Under no load, jerk value of wheel loading points shall not exceed 0.15 mm.
6.2.1.3.4 Wheels’ bolts and nuts can be tightened once again during test.
6.2.1.3.5 Terminate test when the cycle index requirements of Table 1 are complied
with or after the failure of wheels.
6.2.2 Dynamic radial fatigue test method for passenger vehicles
6.2.2.1 Test apparatus
Tester shall be provided with a device with which a constant radial load can be applied
during the rotation of wheels. See Figure 2. A driven rotary drum shall be mounted,
which has a smooth surface wider than the cross section of tyres. The recommended
minimum rotary drum outer diameter is 1,700 mm. Test apparatus shall make loading
direction perpendicular to outer surface of rotary drum; and loading direction passes
the center lines of test wheels and rotary drum. The axes of rotary drum and test wheel
shall be parallel. Accuracy of loading system shall be controlled within the range of ±
2.5%.
6.2.3.3.1 During the whole process of test, ambient temperature shall be maintained
within the range of 10°C ~ 30°C.
6.2.3.3.2 Use tubeless radial tryes of minimum nominal sectional width applicable to
wheels as specified in GB/T 2978. The inflation pressure is 200 kPa ± 10 kPa.
6.2.3.3.3 Mount test wheel and tyre assembly to tester to ensure that impact loads can
be applied to wheels’ flange. Axes of wheels shall form an angle of 13°± 1° to the
vertical direction; the highest point of flange shall face directly to punch hammer.
6.2.3.3.4 The mounting of wheels on tester shall be equivalent to the actual working
conditions when they are mounted onboard; use the star tightening method to tighten
wheel nuts (or bolts) to the torque values as specified by the wheel manufacturer.
6.2.3.3.5 Because of the diversity of design of wheels’ central part, select sufficient
positions on wheels’ rim circumference to carry out impact test to ensure the integrity
of evaluation of central part, at least including the positions of window and spoke. Use
brand new wheels for each test.
6.2.3.3.6 Punch hammer shall be above tyres and overlap flange for 25 mm ± 1 mm.
Lift punch hammer to 230 mm ± 2 mm above the highest point of flange; then release
punch hammer; impact.
6.2.3.3.7 After finishing impact, carry out determination as specified in 5.1.3.
6.3 Safety performance test method for commercial vehicles
6.3.1 Dynamic bend fatigue performance test method
6.3.1.1 Test apparatus
Tester shall be provided with a driven rotary device; wheels can rotate under a
stationery bending moment or wheels stay stationery while they are subjected to one
rotary bending moment, see Figure 5. Loading arm of force shall have sufficient rigidity,
the length of which shall be between 0.76 m and 1.4 m. Measuring system is capable
of continuing measurement of the displacement of arm shaft. Accuracy of loading
system shall be controlled within ± 5%.
S – strengthening factor (see Table 3).
6.3.1.3 Test procedures
6.3.1.3.1 Clamp wheels firmly on the test fixture.
6.3.1.3.2 Connecting parts of test apparatus are connected to the mounting surface of
wheels using unlubricated studs and nuts (or bolts); the mounting shall be equivalent
to the actual working conditions when they are mounted onboard. Use the star
tightening method to tighten wheel nuts (or bolts) to the torque values as specified by
the wheel manufacturer. The mounting surface of test apparatus connecting parts and
the mounting surface of wheels shall be clean, smooth.
6.3.1.3.3 Under no load, jerk value of wheel loading points shall not exceed 0.3 mm.
6.3.1.3.4 Wheels’ bolts and nuts can be tightened once again during test.
6.3.1.3.5 Terminate test when the cycle index requirements of Table 3 are complied
with or after the failure of wheels.
6.3.2 Dynamic radial fatigue performance test method
6.3.2.1 Test apparatus
Tester shall be provided with a device with which a constant radial load can be applied
during the rotation of wheels. See Figure 2. A driven rotary drum shall be mounted,
which has a smooth surface wider than the cross section of tyres. The recommended
minimum rotary drum outer diameter is 1,700 mm. Test apparatus shall make loading
direction perpendicular to outer surface of rotary drum; and loading direction passes
the center lines of test wheels and rotary drum. The axes of rotary drum and test wheel
shall be parallel. Accuracy of loading system shall be controlled within the range of ±
5%.
6.3.2.2 Determination of radial load
Radial load Fr is determined in accordance with Equation (5), in N.
where.
Fv – wheels’ rated load as specified by the wheel manufacturer, in N;
K – strengthening factor (see Table 4).
6.3.2.3 Test procedures
6.3.2.3.1 Select test tryes as specified in GB/T 2977.
Annex A
(Informative)
Supplementary instructions to impact tester calibration
A.1 Calibration of punch hammer’s vertical drop velocity
Use a time measuring instrument passing metrological verification to measure the
actual time for punch hammer to drop for a certain distance; theoretical time for punch
hammer to drop for the distance is calculated in accordance with Equation (A.1);
difference between actual time and theoretical time for punch hammer to drop is
calculated in accordance with Equation (A.2), which shall not exceed 2.0% of
theoretical time.
where.
tc – theoretic time for punch hammer to pass the timing distance hb, in ms;
hd – distance between punch hammer releasing position and timing end point, in mm.
Timing end point is generally 1 mm ~ 2 mm above tyres;
hb – timing distance, in mm;
hd – hb – distance between punch hammer releasing position to timing start point;
g – gravitational acceleration, being 0.00981 mm/ms2.
where.
tp – actual time for punch hammer to pass the timing distance hb, in ms;
Δt – difference between actual time and theoretical time, in ms.
A.2 Calibration of punch hammer’s vertical drop acceleration
Install an acceleration sensor on punch hammer to measure drop acceleration; actual
measured acceleration shall not be less than 96% of gravitational acceleration.
A.3 Selection of calibration methods
...