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GB 3565.2-2022 (GB3565.2-2022)

GB 3565.2-2022_English: PDF (GB3565.2-2022)
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GB 3565.2-2022English680 Add to Cart 0--9 seconds. Auto-delivery Safety requirements for bicycles -- Part 2: Requirements for city and trekking, young adult, mountain and racing bicycles Valid GB 3565.2-2022

BASIC DATA
Standard ID GB 3565.2-2022 (GB3565.2-2022)
Description (Translated English) Safety requirements for bicycles -- Part 2: Requirements for city and trekking, young adult, mountain and racing bicycles
Sector / Industry National Standard
Classification of Chinese Standard Y14
Classification of International Standard 43.150
Word Count Estimation 42,417
Date of Issue 2022-12-29
Date of Implementation 2023-10-01
Older Standard (superseded by this standard) GB 3565-2005
Administrative Organization Ministry of Industry and Information Technology of the People's Republic of China
Proposing organization State Administration for Market Regulation, National Standardization Management Committee

Standards related to: GB 3565.2-2022

GB 3565.2-2022
GB
NATIONAL STANDARD OF THE
PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF CHINA
ICS 43.150
CCS Y 14
Replacing GB 3565-2005
Security requirements for bicycles - Part 2: Requirements
for city and trekking, young adult, mountain and racing
bicycles
(ISO 4210-2:2015, Cycles - Security requirements for bicycles - Part 2:
Requirements for city and trekking, young adult, mountain and racing bicycles,
MOD)
ISSUED ON: DECEMBER 29, 2022
IMPLEMENTED ON: OCTOBER 01, 2023
Issued by: State Administration for Market Regulation;
Standardization Administration of the People's Republic of China.
Table of Contents
Foreword ... 4
Introduction ... 7
1 Scope ... 9
2 Normative references ... 10
3 Terms and definitions ... 12
4 Requirements ... 12
4.1 Hazardous substances ... 12
4.2 Sharp edges ... 12
4.3 Security and strength of security-related fasteners ... 12
4.4 Crack inspection method ... 13
4.5 Protrusions ... 13
4.6 Brakes ... 13
4.7 Handlebar ... 19
4.8 Frame ... 24
4.9 Front fork ... 26
4.10 Wheels and wheel/tyre assembly ... 28
4.11 Rims, tyres and tubes ... 30
4.12 Front mudguard ... 32
4.13 Pedal and pedal/crank drive systems ... 32
4.14 Drive chain and drive belt ... 36
4.15 Chain-wheel and belt-drive protective device ... 36
4.16 Saddles and seat-posts... 39
4.17 Spoke protector ... 41
4.18 Luggage carriers ... 41
4.19 Road test of the fully assembled bicycle ... 42
4.20 Lighting systems and reflectors ... 42
4.21 Warning device ... 43
5 Manufacturer's instructions ... 44
6 Marks ... 46
6.1 Location and content ... 46
6.2 Durability test ... 47
Annex A (informative) Comparison on structural numbers between this document and
ISO 4210-2:2015 ... 48
Annex B (informative) Technical differences between this document and ISO4210-
2:2015 and their reasons ... 51
Security requirements for bicycles - Part 2: Requirements
for city and trekking, young adult, mountain and racing
bicycles
1 Scope
This document specifies the security and performance requirements for the design,
assembly and testing of bicycles and their components with various saddle heights (see
Table 1). It also provides technical guidelines for manufacturers to prepare operating
instructions for bicycle use and maintenance.
This document applies to youth bicycles with a maximum saddle height greater than or
equal to 635 mm and less than 750 mm, city and trekking bicycles, mountain bicycles
and racing bicycles with a maximum saddle height greater than or equal to 635 mm,
including folding bicycles (see Table 1 and Figure 1) and shared bicycles.
This document does not apply to special types of bicycles, such as: delivery bicycles,
recumbent bicycles, tandem bicycles, small-wheel competition bicycles and bicycles
designed and assembled for riding in demanding conditions, for example, approved
bicycles for competition, performance or stunt categories.
NOTE: For bicycles with a maximum saddle height less than or equal to 435 mm, see
GB 6675.2. For bicycles with a maximum saddle height greater than 435 mm and less
than 635 mm, see GB 14746.
ISO 14878, Cycles - Audible warning devices -Technical specifications and test
methods
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions defined in GB/T 3565.1-
2022 apply.
4 Requirements
4.1 Hazardous substances
Any parts that are in close contact with the rider, such as: paint and polymer coating on
the frame, saddle surface, handlebars and brake levers shall comply with the migratory
elements (other toy materials) and plasticization specified in GB 6675.1 limit
requirements for pharmaceutical products (all products including products that can be
placed in the mouth).
The limits of migrating elements in parts are measured according to the method
described in GB 6675.4. The plasticizer content is measured according to the method
described in GB/T 22048.
4.2 Sharp edges
During normal riding, transportation and maintenance, there shall be no exposed sharp
edges anywhere that the rider's hands, legs, etc. may touch. Such as burrs, sharp corners,
curling or similar processing.
NOTE: See GB/T 19096-2003.
4.3 Security and strength of security-related fasteners
4.3.1 Security of bolts
Any screws used in the assembly of suspension systems, brackets attached to electric
generators, brake mechanisms and mudguards to the frame or fork, and the saddle to
the seat-post shall be provided with suitable locking devices, e.g., lock-washers, lock-
nuts, thread locking compound, or stiff nuts. Fasteners used to assemble hub and disc
brakes shall have heat-resistant locking devices.
NOTE 1: The bolts used to attach the hub generator are not included.
NOTE 2: For example, the mechanical and physical properties of bolts are specified by GB/T
3098.1.
The brake skin shall not contain asbestos materials. Asbestos content is measured
according to the method described in GB/T 23263.
4.6.2 Hand-operated brakes
4.6.2.1 Brake lever position
The brake levers of the front and rear brakes shall be installed correctly. The left brake
lever operates the rear brake, and the right brake lever operates the front brake. The
manufacturer shall state this in the instructions [see Chapter 5 b)].
4.6.2.2 Brake lever grip dimensions
Different types of brake handles have different distances between the handlebar and the
outer surface of the brake handle. Specific requirements for each type of product are as
follows.
a) Type A or B brake lever
As shown in Figure 2a) and Figure 2b), the length of contact between the rider's
fingers and the handlebars or other coverings is not less than 40 mm. Measuring
the distance d between the handlebar and the outer surface of the brake handle
shall meet the following requirements:
- For bicycles with a minimum saddle height of 635 mm or higher, d shall not be
greater than 90 mm;
- For bicycles with a minimum saddle height of 635 mm or less, d shall not be
greater than 75 mm.
Measure according to the method described in 4.1.1 of GB/T 3565.4-2022. The brake
handle shall meet the above requirements within its adjustment range.
NOTE: See Chapter 5 c) for minimum saddle height.
b) Type C brake lever
It shall be possible to fit the dimension gauge shown in GB/T 3565.4-2022, Figure
3 over the brake lever (or a secondary brake lever) and the handlebar grip or any
other covering in at least one position between points B and C indicated in Figure
2 c), without causing any movement of the brake lever towards the handlebar. The
dimension d shall not exceed 100 mm.
Measure according to the method described in 4.1.2 of GB/T 3565.4-2022. The brake
handle shall meet the above requirements within its adjustment range.
4.6.5 Brake adjustment
Each brake shall be equipped with a manual or automatic adjustment mechanism.
Each brake shall be able to be adjusted to an effective operating position with or without
tools and used to the extent recommended by the manufacturer that the brake pads
require replacement due to wear. When the brakes are properly adjusted, the brake pads
shall not touch anything other than the intended braking surface.
For a bicycle equipped with ordinary front and rear brakes, when the handlebar angle
is 60°, the brake pads shall not collide with the wheel rim. When the handlebars return
to their neutral position, the front and rear stays shall neither bend nor twist.
4.6.6 Handbrake braking system - Strength test
Carry out the test according to the method described in 4.4 of GB/T 3565.4-2022. The
braking system and any of its components shall not break.
4.6.7 Footbrake braking system - Strength test
4.6.7.1 General
If a footbrake braking system is installed, braking shall be achieved by the rider's feet
exerting force on the pedals in a direction opposite to the driving direction. The braking
mechanism shall be independent and effective, independent of the position or
adjustment of the drive gear. The difference between the drive and brake positions of
the crank shall not be greater than 60°.
During the test, a pedal force of not less than 250 N shall be applied to each position of
the crank. The force applied at each position shall be maintained for 1 min.
4.6.7.2 Strength test
When tested according to the method described in 4.5 of GB/T 3565.4-2022, the
braking system and any of its components shall not fail.
4.6.8 Braking performance
4.6.8.1 General
There are two test methods to determine braking performance. Experience shows that
both methods are suitable and can be applied. One test method is a road test. The
braking distance is directly measured through the test, which directly proves the
reliability of the brake under test. Another testing method is testing by testing machine.
The braking force is measured through experiments. Then calculate the value of braking
performance. The reliable performance of the brakes is determined by linear
measurements. Finally, a simple road test is required to test its smooth, safe and
stopping characteristics.
of GB/T 3565.4-2022.
b) For the testing machine test, the characteristics of smooth and safe parking are
defined by compliance with the linearity requirements specified in GB/T 3565.4-
2022, 4.6.5.3 and the simple track test described in GB/T 3565.4-2022, 4.6.5.7
item h).
4.6.8.3 Ratio between wet and dry braking performance
For city and trekking, young adult, and mountain bicycles, in order to ensure the
security of wet and dry braking, the ratio of wet to dry braking performance shall be
greater than 4:10.
The method for calculating this ratio, road test is given by 4.6.3.11 c) in GB/T 3565.4-
2022. The testing machine test is given by 4.6.5.7 g) in GB/T 3565.4-2022.
NOTE: 4.6.8.3 is not applicable to racing bicycles.
4.6.9 Brake heat resistance test
4.6.9.1 General
This test applies to all disc brakes and hub brakes. However, for rim brakes, it is only
applicable to rim brakes whose brake skin is known or suspected to be made of or
containing thermoplastic materials.
Each brake on a bicycle shall be tested individually. If the front and rear brakes are
identical, only one brake needs to be tested.
4.6.9.2 Heat resistance test
Throughout the test described in 4.7 of GB/T 3565.4-2022, the brake handle and the
handlebar handle shall not touch, the brake holding force shall not be greater than 180N,
and the braking force shall be in the range of 60N~115N.
After passing the test described in 4.7 of GB/T 3565.4-2022, cool to room temperature.
The braking performance of the brake shall reach at least 60% of the braking
performance recorded in the maximum brake holding force used in 1) and 2)
performance test of 4.6.5.7c) in GB/T 3565.4-2022.
4.7 Handlebar
4.7.1 Dimensions of handlebar
The total width of the handlebar shall be between 350mm ~ 1000mm. Adjust the
handlebars to their highest normal riding position according to the manufacturer's
instructions. Adjust the saddle to the lowest normal riding position [see Chapter 5 c)].
b) Test requirements for the second stage: Conduct the test according to the method
described in 4.4.2 of GB/T 3565.5-2022. There shall be no visible cracks or
breaks in the stem.
4.7.6.4 Handlebar to handlebar stem - Fixing strength test
Carry out the test according to the method described in 4.5 of GB/T 3565.5-2022. The
handlebar shall not move relative to the stem.
NOTE: This requirement does not apply to racing cars or bicycles equipped with drop handlebars.
4.7.6.5 Handlebar stem to front fork stem - Torque reliability test
Carry out the test according to the method described in 4.6 of GB/T 3565.5-2022. The
stem shall not move relative to the fork stem.
4.7.6.6 Handlebar end to handlebar - Torque reliability test
Carry out the test according to the method described in 4.7 of GB/T 3565.5-2022. The
handlebar ends shall not move relative to the handlebar.
4.7.6.7 Extended handlebar to handle - Torque reliability test
When the handlebar is suitable for mounting an extension bar, the extension
handlebar/handlebar/handlebar tube assembly shall withstand the following security
tests.
Carry out the test according to the method described in 4.8 of GB/T 3565.5-2022. There
shall be no relative movement at the connection between the extension handlebar and
the handlebar, and between the handlebar and the handlebar stem.
4.7.7 Handlebar and handlebar stem assembly - Fatigue test
4.7.7.1 General
When testing the handlebar, the handlebar shall be mounted on the handlebar stem for
testing. However, when testing the stem, it is allowed to use a solid steel rod in place of
the handlebar and handlebar end, as long as its size is suitable for the stem.
If only the stem is subjected to fatigue testing, the stem manufacturer shall specify the
type and size of the appropriate stem. The test shall be the most severe combination.
The same component is tested in two stages.
4.7.7.2 Phase 1 and 2 test requirements
Carry out the test according to the method described in 4.9.1 or 4.9.2 of GB/T 3565.5-
2022. There shall be no visible cracks or breaks in any part of the handlebar and stem
assembly. No bolts shall be damaged.
4.9 Front fork
4.9.1 General
4.9.2, 4.9.4, 4.9.5 and 4.9.6 apply to all types of front forks.
In the strength tests of 4.9.4, 4.9.5, 4.9.6 and 4.9.7, the shock-absorbing front fork shall
be tested in its natural state without compression.
4.9.2 Axles and wheel alignment
When positioning the axle inside the fork using the fork tab notch or other means, the
front wheel shall remain centered in the fork when the axle or axle stop is against the
top of the fork tab notch.
The front fork and front wheel shall also comply with the requirements of 4.10.4 and
4.10.5.
4.9.3 Shock-absorbing front fork - Tyre clearance test
Carry out the test according to the method described in 5.1 of GB/T 3565.6-2022. The
tyre and front fork crown shall not touch. The fork components shall also not come
apart.
4.9.4 Front fork - Tensile test
4.9.4.1 Shock absorbing front fork
When testing according to the method described in 5.2.1 of GB/T 3565.6-2022, any
part of the front fork shall not detach or loosen.
4.9.4.2 Rigid non-welded front fork
When testing according to the method described in 5.2.2 of GB/T 3565.6-2022, any
part of the front fork shall not be separated or loose.
4.9.5 Front fork - Static bending test
Conduct the test according to the method described in 5.3 of GB/T 3565.6-2022. There
shall be no breaks or visible cracks in any part of the front fork. The permanent
deformation of the axis of the measuring wheel axle or the simulated axle relative to
the axis of the fork riser shall not be greater than 10 mm.
4.9.6 Front fork - Rearward impact test
4.9.6.1 Metal front fork
Carry out the test according to the method described in 5.4.1 of GB/T 3565.6-2022. If
any part of the front fork breaks or has visible cracks, and the measured permanent
deformation of the axle axis or simulated axis relative to the fork riser axis is greater
than 45 mm, the front fork will be judged to be unqualified.
If the front fork passes the first test, a second test shall be conducted according to the
method described in 5.4.2 of GB/T 3565.6-2022. The front fork shall not break after the
test. If the front fork passes the first and second tests, the third test shall be conducted
according to the method described in 5.4.3 of GB/T 3565.6-2022. Without considering
the amount of permanent deformation, there shall be no relative movement between the
front fork riser and the front fork crown after the test.
4.9.6.2 Front forks containing composite parts
Carry out the test according to the method described in 5.4.1 of GB/T 3565.6-2022. No
part of the fork shall break. The measured permanent deformation of the axis of the axle
or simulated axis relative to the axis of the front fork riser shall not be greater than 45
mm. If the front fork passes the first test, a second test shall be conducted according to
the method described in 5.4.3 of GB/T 3565.6-2022. Apply torque to the front fork.
Without considering the amount of permanent deformation, there shall be no relative
movement between the front fork stem and the front crown.
4.9.7 Front fork - Bending fatigue test plus rearward impact test
Carry out the test according to the method described in 5.5 of GB/T 3565.6-2022. No
part of the fork shall break. The measured permanent deformation of the axis of the axle
or simulated axis relative to the axis of the front fork riser shall not be greater than 45
mm.
For front forks made of composite materials, during the test, the operating displacement
(peak-peak) rigidity of the force application point of the front fork shall not be greater
than 20% of the initial value. The shock-absorbing front fork shall not be greater than
40% of the initial value (see 4.6 in GB/T 3565.3-2022).
4.9.8 Front forks for hub brakes or disc brakes
4.9.8.1 Static braking torque test
Carry out the test according to the method described in 5.6.2 of GB/T 3565.6-2022.
There shall be no breaks or visible cracks in any part of the fork.
4.9.8.2 Front fork of hub brake/disc brake - Brake fatigue test
Carry out the test according to the method described in 5.6.3 of GB/T 3565.6-2022.
There shall be no breaks or visible cracks in any part of the fork. For shock-absorbing
forks, no parts shall come apart.
the tyre manufacturer is permanently marked on the side of the tyre.
4.11.3 Overpressure test of tyre and rim combination
The casing, inner tube and lining shall match the design of the rim. Determine the lower
of the maximum inflation pressure marked on the rim or tyre. When the tyre is inflated
to 135% of the pressure value, maintain it for 60 min. The tyre shall still be completely
wrapped around the rim.
NOTE: GB/T 7377 provides tyre dimensions. GB/T 23657 provides the dimensions of the rim.
Until there is a corresponding international standard, tyre and rim fit requirements refer to other
relevant publications. See Bibliography [11] and [12].
4.11.4 Tubular tyres and rims
Tubular tyres shall conform to the design requirements of the rim. Instructions on
correct bonding techniques shall be given in the instructions provided by the
manufacturer in the instructions for assembling the bicycle or tyre [see Chapter 5 v)].
4.11.5 Rim wear
If the rim is used as an integral part of the braking system, wear of the rim can lead to
a risk of failure. The manufacturer shall clearly and permanently mark the warning on
the rim not covered by the tyre to remind cyclists to pay attention. [See Chapter 5 u)
and 6.2].
NOTE: The symbols mentioned in the installation manual serve as an indicator of rim wear.
For rims made of composite materials, the manufacturer shall warn the user in the
instructions of the danger of rim failure due to wear of the braking surface.
4.11.6 Heat resistance test of composite wheel
A fully assembled wheel made of composite material shall be fitted with appropriately
sized tyres. Inflate it to the lesser of the maximum inflation pressure marked on the tyre
or rim. The test is carried out according to the method described in 4.4.1 of GB/T
3565.7-2022, which shall be:
- No failure occurs in any component of the wheel;
- No separation between the rim and the tyre occurs during the test;
- The increase in rim width shall not be greater than 5% of the initial maximum width
value;
- The radial and axial accuracy meets the requirements of 4.10.1;
- The fit between the tyre and the rim meets the requirements of 4.11.3;
- Static load strength meets the requirements of 4.10.3.
NOTE: This requirement is to ensure that wheels made of composite materials do not suffer hidden
damage that may affect the security performance of the wheel in normal use under high temperature
environmental conditions (e.g., car trunk in direct sunlight, rim side wall in contact with rim brake
during braking).
4.11.7 Requirements for non-pneumatic tyres
4.11.7.1 Compatibility of non-pneumatic tyres and rims
After the non-pneumatic tyre/wheel is tested according to the method described in 4.5
of GB/T 3565.7-2022, the non-pneumatic tyre and the rim shall not be separated.
4.11.7.2 Durability of non-pneumatic tyres/wheels
After the non-pneumatic tyre/wheel is subjected to the durability test according to the
method described in 5.2 of GB/T 9749-2008, any part of the wheel shall not be broken,
detached or have visible cracks; the tyre shall be intactly wrapped on the rim.
4.12 Front mudguard
If equipped with a front mudguard, conduct the test in the two stages described in 4.2.1
(mudguard with sticks) or 4.2.2 (mudguard without sticks) in GB/T 3565.3-2022. The
front mudguard shall not interfere with wheel rotation or steering.
4.13 Pedal and pedal/crank drive systems
4.13.1 Pedal tread
4.13.1.1 Tread surface
In the pedal components, the tread surface of the pedal shall ensure that it does not
move.
4.13.1.2 Toe clips
For pedals without toe clips, or for pedals with toe clips, you shall:
a) There are footrests on both the upper and lower surfaces of the pedals; or
b) There is a recognized footrest that automatically flips over under the rider's feet.
4.13.1.3 Special pedals
Pedals designed to be used only with toe clips or shoe-retention devices shall have toe
clips or shoe-retention devices securely attached and need not comply with the
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