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GB 18352.5-2013

Chinese Standard: 'GB 18352.5-2013'
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BASIC DATA
Standard ID GB 18352.5-2013 (GB18352.5-2013)
Description (Translated English) Limits and measurement methods for emissions form light-duty vehicles (CHINA 5)
Sector / Industry National Standard
Classification of Chinese Standard Z64
Classification of International Standard 13.040.50
Word Count Estimation 181,166
Date of Issue 2013-09-17
Date of Implementation 2018-01-01
Older Standard (superseded by this standard) GB 18352.3-2005
Quoted Standard GB 1495; GB 3847-2005; GB 7258; GB/T 15089-2001; GB 17691-2005; GB 18285; GB/T 19001-2008; GB/T 19755; HJ/T 390; HJ 509; ISO 2575-1982; ISO 8422-1991; ISO 9141-2; ISO 14230-4; ISO 15031-3; ISO 15031-4; ISO 15031-5; ISO 15031-6; ISO 15031-7; ISO 15765-4; E
Adopted Standard (EC) No 715/2007, MOD; (EC) No 692/2008, MOD; ECE R83-2006(2011), MOD
Drafting Organization China Automotive Technology and Research Center
Administrative Organization Ministry of Environmental Protection
Regulation (derived from) Natural Resources Department Announcement No. 7 of 2019
Summary This standard specifies the emission limits and measurement methods of exhaust pollutants, double idle exhaust pollutants, crankcase pollutants, evaporative pollutants at normal temperature and low temperature, and durability of pollution control devices. Technical requirements and measurement methods for on-board diagnostic (OBD) systems (referred to as OBD systems). This standard specifies the emission limits of exhaust gas, free-accelerated smoke emission and measurement methods, durability of pollution control devices, technical requirements and measurement methods of OBD systems for light-duty vehicles equipped with compression-ignition engines. This standard specifies the requirements for light vehicle type approval, production consistency and compliance check and determination methods. This standard also specifies the special requirements for burning liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) or natural gas (NG) light vehicles. this

GB 18352.5-2013
NATIONAL STANDARD OF THE
PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF CHINA
ICS 13.040.50
Z 64
Replacing GB18352.3-2005
Limits and measurement methods for
emissions from light-duty vehicles
(CHINA 5)
轻型汽车污染物排放限值及测量方法
(中国第五阶段)
ISSUED ON: SEPTEMBER 17, 2013
IMPLEMENTED ON: JANUARY 01, 2018
Issued by: Ministry of Environmental Protection of the PRC;
General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection
and Quarantine of the PRC.
Table of Contents
Foreword ... 3 
1 Scope of application ... 7 
2 Normative references ... 8 
3 Terms and definitions ... 9 
4 Type-approval application and approval ... 15 
5 Specifications and tests ... 16 
6 Extensions to type approvals ... 27 
7 Conformity of production ... 31 
8 In-service conformity ... 36 
9 Implementation of the standard ... 37 
Annex A (Normative) Information on application for type approval ... 39 
Annex B (Informative) Format of type-approval certificate (Maximum size: A4
(210 × 297 mm)) ... 58 
Annex C (Normative) Test of exhaust emissions after a cold start at normal
temperature (Type I test) ... 65 
Annex D (Normative) Two-speed idle test or free acceleration smoke test
(Type II test) ... 143 
Annex E (Normative) Test of crankcase emissions (Type III test) ... 147 
Annex F (Normative) Test of evaporative emissions (Type IV test) ... 150 
Annex G (Normative) Durability test of pollution control devices (Type V test)
... 172 
Annex H (Normative) Emission test of CO and THC in the exhaust after a cold
start at low temperature (Type VI test) ... 187 
Annex I (Normative) Onboard diagnostic (OBD) system ... 194 
Annex J (Normative) Specifications of reference fuels ... 220 
Annex K (Normative) Special requirements for a vehicle fuelled by LPG or NG
... 226 
Annex L (Normative) Type-approval of replacement pollution control device as
separate technical unit ... 229 
Annex M (Normative) Requirements for ensuring conformity of production . 243 
Annex N (Normative) In-service conformity ... 250 
Annex O (Normative) Technical requirements for vehicles that use a reagent
for the exhaust after-treatment system ... 269 
Annex P (Normative) Emissions test procedure for a vehicle equipped with a
periodically regenerating system ... 274 
                                        
Foreword
For the purpose of implementing the Environmental Protection Law of the
People's Republic of China and the Law of the People's Republic of China on
the Prevention and Control of Atmospheric Pollution, this Standard is
established to prevent and control the environmental pollution by exhaust
pollutants from motor vehicles and to improve ambient air quality.
This Standard specifies the requirements for type approval of the emissions
from light-duty vehicles in the Stage V, check and verification methods of
conformity of production and in-service conformity.
This Standard is modified in relation to the technical content contained in the
REGULATION (EC) No 715/2007 OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND
OF THE COUNCIL on type approval of motor vehicles with respect to
emissions from light passenger and commercial vehicles (Euro 5 and Euro 6)
and on access to vehicle repair and maintenance information, COMMISSION
REGULATION (EC) No 692/2008 implementing and amending Regulation (EC)
No 715/2007 of the European Parliament and of the Council on type-approval
of motor vehicles with respect to emissions from light passenger and
commercial vehicles (Euro 5 and Euro 6) and on access to vehicle repair and
maintenance information, and ECE R83-06 (2011) Uniform provisions
concerning the approval of vehicles with regard to the emission of pollutants
according to engine fuel requirements as well as their amendments.
The following significant changes have been made in this Standard to the
above EU directives:
- The definition and category of light-duty vehicles follow the requirements in
GB 18352.3-2005;
- REVISE the previous Type II test and smoke test.
- ADD the test requirements for effective volume and initial working capacity
of canister;
- ADD the test requirements for substrate volume and precious metal
content of catalytic converter;
- REVISE and adopt the related requirements for access to the OBD system
and vehicle maintenance/repair information;
- REVISE the method of verifying the conformity of production; ADD the
requirements for checking conformity of production of carbon canister and
catalytic converter;
- ADD the requirements for checking evaporative emissions with regard to
in-service conformity;
- Exclude the test requirements for flexible fuel vehicles and biodiesel
vehicles, etc.;
- The technical requirements for test fuels.
This Standard specifies the requirements for type-approval of the emissions
from light-duty vehicles in the Stage V, check and verification methods of
conformity of production and in-service conformity.
Compared with the Stage IV, the significant changes are as follows:
- The application scope of the standard extends to the vehicles with
reference mass of not exceeding 2610 kg and specifies that the light-duty
hybrid electric vehicles shall comply with the requirements of this
Standard;
- Improve the emission control requirements of Type I test; REVISE the
measurement method of particulate matter mass and add the
measurement requirements of particle numbers;
- Categorize the two-speed idle test of positive ignition vehicles and free
acceleration smoke test of compression ignition vehicles as the Type II
test;
- Improve the distance requirements for durability in Type V test; ADD the
standard road cycle and bench ageing test method for positive ignition
engines;
- ADD the test requirements for effective volume and initial working capacity
of canister;
- ADD the test requirements for substrate volume and precious metal
content of catalytic converter;
- REVISE the requirements for monitoring items and limit values of the OBD
system and the onboard diagnostic techniques of bi-fuel vehicles;
- REVISE the related requirements for access to the OBD system and
vehicle maintenance/repair information;
- REVISE the method of verifying the conformity of production; ADD the
requirements for checking conformity of production of carbon canister and
catalytic converter;
- REVISE the related requirements for in-service conformity check; ADD the
requirements of checking OBD system and evaporative emissions;
- ADD the technical requirements for vehicles that use a reagent for the
exhaust after-treatment system;
- ADD the procedure for emission test of vehicles equipped with periodically
regenerating systems;
- REVISE the technical requirements for test fuels.
Annexes A, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K, L, M, N, O, and P in this Standard are
Normative Annexes, while Annex B is an Informative Annex.
This Standard was organized and formulated by the Department of Science,
Technology and Standards of Ministry of Environmental Protection.
This Standard was drafted by Chinese Automotive Technology and Research
Center and Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences.
This Standard was approved by the Ministry of Environmental Protection on
May 27, 2013.
From the issuance date of this Standard, this Standard can be deemed as the
basis for type approval. From the date of January 1, 2018, all light-duty
vehicles sold and registered shall comply with the requirements in the
Standard.
From the date of January 1, 2018, this Standard replaces Limits and
measurement methods for emissions from light-duty vehicles (CHINA III, IV)
(GB 18352.3-2005). Prior to January 1, 2023, the “In-service conformity check”
for light-duty vehicles of Stage III and IV shall follow the relevant requirements
stated in GB 18352.3-2005.
This Standard is interpreted by the Ministry of Environmental Protection.
Limits and measurement methods for
emissions from light-duty vehicles
(CHINA 5)
1 Scope of application
This Standard specifies the limits and measurement methods for exhaust
emissions at normal and low ambient temperature, exhaust emissions at
two-speed idle condition, crankcase emissions, and evaporative emissions,
and technical requirements and measurement methods for the durability of
pollution control devices and onboard diagnostic (OBD) systems of light-duty
vehicles equipped with positive-ignition engines.
This Standard specifies the limits and measurement methods for exhaust
emissions at normal ambient temperature and free acceleration smoke, and
technical requirements and measurement methods for the durability of
pollution control devices and OBD systems of light-duty vehicles equipped with
compression-ignition engines.
This Standard specifies the requirements for type-approval of light-duty
vehicles, check and verification methods of conformity of production and
in-service conformity.
This Standard also specifies the special requirements for light-duty vehicles
fueled by LPG or NG.
This Standard also specifies the type-approval procedure for replacement
pollution control devices as separate technical units intended to be fitted on
light-duty vehicles with respect to pollutant emissions.
This Standard also stipulates the technical requirements for vehicles that use a
reagent for the exhaust after-treatment system and the procedure for emission
test of vehicles equipped with periodically regenerating systems.
This Standard applies to light-duty vehicles, including hybrid electric vehicles,
powered by positive-ignition engines or compression-ignition engines, with the
maximum design speed of being greater than or equal to 50 km/h.
At the manufacturer's request, type approval may be performed for Category
M1, M2, and N2 vehicles with the maximum mass exceeding 3500 kg and a
reference mass not exceeding 2610 kg in accordance with this Standard; as
for the vehicles type approval granted under this Standard may be extended
from vehicles mentioned above to M1, M2, N1 and N2 vehicles with a reference
mass not exceeding 2840 kg and which meet the conditions laid down in this
Standard.
This Standard does not apply to the vehicles whose type had been approved in
accordance with GB 17691-2005 (China Stage V).
2 Normative references
The following documents or contained provisions which, through reference in
this Standard, constitute provisions of this Standard. For all undated
references, the valid edition applies to this Standard.
GB 1495 Limits and measurement methods for noise emitted by
accelerating motor vehicles
GB 3847-2005 Limits and measurement methods for exhaust smoke from
C.I.E. (Compression Ignition Engine) and vehicle equipped
with C.I.E.
GB 7258 Safety specifications for power-driven vehicles operating on
roads
GB/T
15089-2001
Classification of power-driven vehicles and trailers
GB
17691-2005
Limits and measurement methods for exhaust pollutants from
compression ignition and gas fuelled positive ignition engines
of vehicles (III, IV, V)
GB 18285 Limits and measurement methods for exhaust pollutants from
vehicles equipped ignition engine under two-speed idle
conditions and simple driving mode conditions
GB/T
19001-2008
Quality management systems - Requirements
GB/T 19755 Measurement methods for emissions from light-duty hybrid
electric vehicles
HJ/T 390 Technical Requirement for Environmental Protection Product
- Control System of Fuel Evaporative Pollutants from Vehicle
WITH Petrol Engine
HJ 509 Determination of Platinum, Palladium and Rhodium loading in
the vehicle-used ceramic catalytic converters Inductive
Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometry and
Inductive Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry
ISO
2575-1982
Road vehicles - Symbols for controls, indicators and tell-tales
ISO
8422-1991
Sequential sampling plans for inspection by attributes
ISO 9141-2 Road vehicles - Diagnostic systems - Part 2: CARB
requirements for interchange of digital information
ISO 14230-4 Road vehicles - Diagnostic systems - Keyword Protocol 2000
- Part 4: Requirements for emission-related systems
ISO 15031-3 Road vehicles - Communication between vehicle and
external equipment for emissions-related diagnostics - Part 3:
Diagnostic connector and related electrical circuits,
specification and use
ISO 15031-4 Road vehicles - Communication between vehicle and
external equipment for emissions-related diagnostics - Part 4:
External test equipment
ISO 15031-5 Road vehicles - Communication between vehicle and
external equipment for emissions-related diagnostics - Part 5:
Emissions-related diagnostic services
ISO 15031-6 Road vehicles - Communication between vehicle and
external equipment for emissions-related diagnostics - Part 6:
Diagnostic trouble code definitions
ISO 15031-7 Road vehicles - Communication between vehicle and
external equipment for emissions-related diagnostics - Part 7:
Data link security
ISO 15765-4 Road vehicles - Diagnostics on Controller Area Network
(CAN) - Part 4: Requirements for emissions-related systems
EN 1822 High efficiency air filters (EPA, HEPA and ULPA)
SAE J1850 Class B data communications network interface
SAE J2186 E/E data link security
3 Terms and definitions
For the purpose of this Standard, the following terms and definitions apply.
3.1
Light-duty vehicle
The category M1, M2, and N1 vehicles with the maximum mass of not
exceeding 3500 kg.
3.2
Vehicle of category M1, M2, N1 and N2
According to GB/T 15089-2001,
Vehicle of category M1 refers to the passenger vehicle with no more than 9
seats, including the driver's seat.
Vehicle of category M2 refers to the passenger vehicle with more than 9 seats
including the driver's seat and whose maximum design mass does not exceed
5000 kg.
Vehicle of category N1 refers to the goods vehicle with the maximum design
mass of not exceeding 3500 kg.
Vehicle of category N2 refers to the goods vehicle with the maximum design
mass of more than 3500 kg but not more than 12000 kg.
3.3
Vehicle of category I
The vehicle of category M1 with no more than 6 seats including the driver's
seat and whose maximum mass of not exceeding 2500 kg.
3.4
Vehicle of category II
All vehicles covered by this Standard except the vehicle of category I.
3.5
Vehicle type
Type of motor vehicle. The same type shall not differ in the following respects:
(1) The equivalent inertia determined in accordance with the reference
mass as prescribed in C.5.2.1; and
(2) The engine and vehicle characteristics as defined in Annex A.
3.6
Hybrid electric vehicle (HEV)
The vehicle that can be powered from at least the following two types of
on-vehicle stored energy:
- A consumable fuel;
- A rechargeable energy/power storage device.
3.7
Bi-fuel vehicle
The vehicle that can use both gasoline and one gaseous fuel, but not both
fuels.
3.8
Mono-fuel gas vehicle
The vehicle that can only use one type of gaseous fuel (LPG or NG), or the
vehicle that can use both gaseous fuel (LPG or NG) and petrol, but may also
have a petrol system for emergency purposes or starting only, where the petrol
tank does not contain more than 15 liters of petrol.
3.9
Reference mass (RM)
The "unladen mass" of the vehicle plus 100 kg.
3.10
Maximum mass
The technically permissible maximum mass declared by the vehicle
manufacturer.
3.11
Equivalent inertia (I)
Mass that is equivalent to the inertia which is recorded by the inertia simulator
equipped on the chassis dynamometer during vehicle driving and moving.
3.12
Gaseous pollutants
The exhaust emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), oxides of nitrogen (NOX)
expressed in nitrogen dioxide (NO2) equivalent and hydrocarbons (THC and
NMHC) assuming hydrocarbon ratio of:
(a) C1H1.85 for petrol,
(b) C1H1.86 for diesel,
(c) C1H2.525 for LPG,
(d) CH4 for NG.
3.13
Particulate matter (PM)
Components of the exhaust gas which are removed from the diluted exhaust
gas at a maximum temperature of 325 K (52 °C) by means of the filters
described in Attachment CE.
3.14
Particle numbers (PN)
The total number of particles of a diameter greater than 0.023 μm present in
the diluted exhaust gas after it has been conditioned to remove volatile
material, as described in Attachment CF.
3.15
Exhaust emissions
Gaseous pollutants and particulate matter emitted from vehicle exhaust pipes.
3.16
Evaporative emissions
The hydrocarbon vapors lost from the fuel (petrol) system of a motor vehicle
other than those from exhaust emissions, including:
(1) "Hot soak losses" are hydrocarbon emissions arising from the fuel
system of a stationary vehicle after a period of driving, expressed as
C1H2.20 equivalent.
(2) "Tank breathing losses" are hydrocarbon emissions caused by
temperature changes in the fuel tank, expressed as C1H2.33 equivalent.
3.17
Crankcase
The spaces in or external to an engine which are connected to the oil sump by
internal or external ducts through which gases and vapor can escape.
3.18
Cold start device
The device that temporarily enriches the air/fuel mixture of the engine thus
assisting the engine to start.
3.19
Starting aid
The device which assists engine start up without enrichment of the air/fuel
mixture of the engine, e.g. glow plug, injection timing change, etc.
3.20
Engine capacity
The nominal engine swept volume for reciprocating piston engines; twice the
nominal swept volume for rotary piston engines.
3.21
Pollution control devices
Components of a vehicle that control or limit exhaust or evaporative emissions.
3.22
Onboard diagnostic system
Onboard diagnostic (OBD) system for emission control, referred to as OBD
system. It shall have the function of identifying areas where a malfunction may
exist and storing this information in the memory of the electronic control unit by
means of malfunction code.
3.23
Access to information
The availability of all vehicle OBD and vehicle repair and maintenance
information, required for the inspection, diagnosis, servicing or repair of the
vehicle.
3.24
Malfunction indicator (MI)
A visible or audible indicator that clearly informs the driver of the vehicle in the
event of a malfunction of any emission-related component connected to the
OBD system, or of the OBD system itself.
3.25
Misfire
Lack of combustion in the cylinder of a positive ignition engine due to absence
of spark, poor fuel metering, poor compression or any other cause.
3.26
Defeat device
Any element of design which measures or senses vehicle speed, engine
rotational speed, transmission gear, temperature, air inlet manifold vacuum or
any other parameter for the purpose of activating, to activate, modulate, delay,
or deactivate the operation of any part or the function of the emission control
system, so that the effectiveness of the emission control system is reduced
under conditions which may reasonably be expected to be encountered in
normal vehicle operation and use.
Such an element of design may not be considered as a defeat device:
(1) The device required for protecting the engine against damage or
accident and for safe operation of the vehicle; or
(2) The device that functions only when the engine is started;
(3) The device that does work in Type I or IV tests.
3.27
Properly maintained and used
"Properly maintained and used" means, for the purpose of a test vehicle, that
such a vehicle satisfies the criteria for acceptance of a selected vehicle laid
down in NA.2.
3.28
Reagent
Any product other than fuel that is stored on the vehicle and is provided to the
exhaust after-treatment system upon request of the emission control system.
3.29
Periodically regenerating system
A pollution control device (e.g. catalytic converter, particulate trap) that
requires a periodical regeneration process in less than 4000 km of normal
vehicle operation.
During cycles where regeneration occurs, emission standards can be
exceeded. If a regeneration of a pollution control device occurs at least once
per Type I test and that has already regenerated at least once during vehicle
preparation cycle, it will be considered as a continuously regenerating system
and not suitable for the test procedures for periodically regenerating system
specified in Annex P.
If the manufacturer provides data to the type-approval authority that, during
cycles where regeneration occurs, emissions remain below the standards
given in 5.1.3.4, at the request of the manufacturer, after agreement of the
testing organization, the test procedure specific to periodically regenerating
systems will not apply to a regenerative system.
3.30
Fuel
The type of fuel normally used by the engine:
- Petrol,
- LPG (liquefied petroleum gas),
- NG (natural gas),
- Both petrol and LPG,
- Both petrol and NG,
- Diesel fuel.
Wherein, liquid fuel refers to petrol or diesel, while gaseous fuel refers to LPG
or NG.
4 Type-approval application and approval
4.1 Application for type-approval
4.1.1 Vehicle manufacturer engaged in manufacturing and selling vehicles
shall apply for and obtain type-approval of vehicle emission control in China.
The application for type-approval of a vehicle type with regard to exhaust
emissions, crankcase emissions, evaporative emissions, durability of pollution
control devices, as well as to its OBD system shall be submitted by the vehicle
manufacturer.
4.1.2 Technical documents for type-approval shall be submitted in accordance
with Annex A of this Standard. Documents of ensuring conformity of production
shall be submitted in accordance with Annex M of this Standard.
4.1.2.1 The application concerning an onboard diagnostic (OBD) system the
following information shall be attached.
(1) In the case of vehicles equipped with positive-ignition engines, in Type I
test as described in Annex C, the percentage of misfires that would
either result in emissions exceeding the limits given in Table I.1 of I.3.3.2,
or that could lead to an exhaust catalyst, or catalysts, overheating prior
to causing irreversible damage.
(2) Detailed written information fully describing the functional operation
characteristics of the OBD system, including a listing of all relevant parts
of the vehicle emission control system.
(3) A description of the malfunction indicator used by the OBD system.
(4) A declaration that the OBD system complies with the provisions of
paragraph IA.7 related to in-use performance under all reasonably
foreseeable driving conditions.
(5) A plan describing the detailed technical criteria and justification for
incrementing the numerator and denominator of each monitor that shall
fulfill the requirements of paragraphs IA.7.2 and IA.7.3, as well as for
disabling numerators, denominators and the general denominator under
the conditions outlined in paragraph IA.7.7.
(6) A description of the provisions taken to prevent tampering with and
modification of the emission control electronic control unit.
(7) If applicable, the particulars of the vehicle family as referred to in
Attachment IB.
(8) Where appropriate, copies of other type approvals accompanied by the
relevant data to enable extension of approvals.
4.1.2.2 For the tests described in paragraph I.3, a vehicle representative of the
vehicle type or vehicle family fitted with the OBD system to be approved shall
be submitted to the testing organization responsible for the type approval test.
If the testing organization determines that the submitted vehicle does not fully
represent the vehicle type or vehicle family described in Attachment IB, an
alternative and if necessary, an additional vehicle shall be submitted for test in
accordance with paragraph I.3.
4.1.3 Where appropriate, copies of other type approvals with the relevant data
to enable extensions of approvals and establishment of deterioration factors
shall be submitted.
4.1.4 For the tests described in Clause 5, a vehicle representative of the
vehicle type to be approved shall be submitted to the testing organization
responsible for the approval tests. For the type IV test, two sets of same
carbon canisters shall be provided. For the type V test, two sets of same
catalytic converters shall be provided.
4.2 Approval of type-approval
If the vehicle type submitted for approval meets the technical requirements
described in Clause 5, approval of that vehicle type shall be granted by the
approval authority, and a certificate will be issued as well. A format of
type-approval certificate is included in Annex B.
5 Specifications and tests
5.1 General
5.1.1 The components liable to affect the exhaust emissions, crankcase
emissions and evaporative emissions shall be so designed, constructed and
assembled as to enable the vehicle, in normal use, despite the vibration to
which they may be subjected, to comply with the provisions of this Standard.
5.1.2 The technical measures taken by the manufacturer shall be such as to
ensure that in conformity with the provisions of this Standard, exhaust
emissions, crankcase emissions, and evaporative emissions are effectively
limited throughout the normal life of the vehicle and under normal conditions of
use. This will include the security of those hoses and their joints and
connections, used within the emission control systems, which shall be so
constructed as to comply with the original design intent.
All vehicles shall be equipped with OBD systems. The design, production and
installation of such system shall ensure that the vehicle is able to recognize
and record the types of deterioration or malfunction during the life period of
vehicle.
These provisions are deemed to be met if the provisions of paragraph 5.3
(Type approval), Clause 7 (Conformity of production), and Clause 8 (In-service
conformity) respectively are complied with.
The use of a defeat device is prohibited.
During the normal life period, without the authorization of the type-approval
authority, any refit liable to affect emissions shall be prohibited for the technical
measures taken by the manufacturer and OBD system installed on the vehicle
5.1.3 Provisions shall be made to prevent excess evaporative emissions and
fuel spillage caused by a missing fuel filler cap. This may be achieved by using
one of the following:
(1) An automatically opening and closing, non-removable fuel filler cap;
(2) Design features which avoid excess evaporative emissions in the case
of a missing fuel filler cap;
(3) Any other provision which has the same effect. Examples may include,
but are not limited to, a tethered filler cap, or one utilizing the same
locking key for the filler cap as for the vehicle's ignition. In this case, the
key shall be removable from the filler cap only in the locked condition.
5.1.4 Provisions for electronic control system security
5.1.4.1 Any vehicle with an electronic control unit for emission shall include
features to deter modification, except as authorized by the manufacturer. The
manufacturer shall authorize modifications if these modifications are
necessary for the diagnosis, servicing, inspection, retrofitting or repair of the
vehicle. RECORD them in the in-service conformity materials in detail and
submit to the type-approval authority for filing. Any reprogrammable computer
codes or operating parameters shall be resistant to illegal tampering and afford
a level of protection at least as good as the provisions in ISO 15031-7, “Road
Vehicles - Communication Between Vehicle and External Equipment For
Emissions-related Diagnostics - Part 7: Data Link Security” dated October
1998 (SAE J2186 dated October 1996). Any removable calibration memory
chips shall be potted, encased in a sealed container or protected by electronic
algorithms and shall not be changeable without the use of specialized tools
and procedures. Only the functional requirements directly related to emission
calibration or vehicle security shall comply with such protection requirements.
5.1.4.2 Computer-coded engine operating parameters shall not be changeable
without the use of specialized tools and procedures (e.g. soldered or potted
computer components or sealed (or soldered) computer enclosures).
5.1.4.3 In the case of mechanical fuel-injection pumps fitted to
compression-ignition engines, manufacturers shall take adequate steps to
protect the maximum fuel delivery setting from illegal tampering while a vehicle
is in service.
5.1.4.4 Manufacturers may apply to the Approval Authority for an exemption to
one of these requirements for those vehicles which are unlikely to require
protection. The criteria that the Approval Authority will evaluate in considering
an exemption will include, but are not limited to, the current availability of
performance chips, the high-performance capability of the vehicle, and the
projected sales volume of the vehicle.
5.1.4.5 Manufacturers using programmable computer code systems (e.g.
Electrical Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory, EEPROM) shall deter
unauthorized reprogramming. Manufacturers shall include enhanced tamper
protection strategies and write protection features such as requiring electronic
access to an off-site computer maintained by the manufacturer. Methods
giving an adequate level of tamper protection will be approved by the authority.
5.2 Test items of type-approval
Test items of type-approval for different vehicle types are given in Table 1.
For light-duty hybrid electric vehicles, the relevant test shall be performed as
set out in GB/T 19755.
Table 1 -- Test items of type-approval
Type-approval test
type
Light-duty vehicles with positive-ignition
engine (including HEV) Light-duty vehicles with compression-ignition
engine (including HEV) Petrol-fuelled vehicle Bi-fuel vehicle
Mono-fuel gas
vehicle
Type I - gaseous
pollutants Yes
Yes (both
fuels) Yes Yes
Type I - particulate
matter mass [1] Yes
Yes (petrol
only) No Yes
Type I - particle
numbers No No No Yes
Type II - two-speed
idle Yes
Yes (both
fuels) Yes No
Type II - free
acceleration smoke No No No Yes
Type III Yes Yes (petrol only) Yes No
Type IV [2] Yes Yes (petrol only) No No
Type V [3] Yes Yes (petrol only) Yes Yes
Type VI Yes Yes (petrol only) No No [3]
OBD system Yes Yes Yes Yes
Note:
[1] For the light-duty vehicles with positive-ignition engine, the measurement of particulate
matter mass shall apply to the vehicles equipped with direct injection positive ignition
engine only.
[2] The carbon canister shall be tested in accordance with the requirements specified in
point 5.3.4.2 before Type IV.
[3] The catalytic converter shall be tested in accordance with the requirements specified in
point 5.3.5.1.1 before Type V.
[3] The relevant information required in point 5.3.6.5 shall be submitted.
Where,
Type I test: Emission test of exhaust emissions after a cold start at normal
temperature
Type II test: For vehicles equipped with positive-ignition engine, determine
CO, THC at two-speed idle and λ value (excess air coefficient) at high idling
speed; for vehicles equipped with compression-ignition engines, determine
the free acceleration smoke.
Type III test: Test of crankcase emissions
Type IV test: Test of evaporative emissions
Type V test: Durability test of pollution control devices
Type VI test: Emission test of CO and THC in the exhaust after a cold start
at low temperature
5.3 Test description and requirement
5.3.1 Type I test (Emission test of exhaust emissions after a cold start at
normal temperature)
5.3.1.1 This test shall be carried out on all vehicles.
5.3.1.2 The vehicle is placed on a chassis dynamometer equipped with a
means of load and inertia simulation. Refer to Annex C for operating cycle,
exhaust-gas sampling and analysis method, particulate matter sampling and
weighing method. Figure 1 illustrates the flow chart for Type I test approval.
5.3.1.2.1 A test lasting a total of 19 minutes and 40 seconds, made up of two
parts, 1 and 2, is performed without interruption. An unsampled period of not
more than 20 seconds may, with the agreement of the manufacturer, be
introduced between the end of Part 1 and the beginning of Part 2 in order to
facilitate adjustment of the test equipment.
5.3.1.2.2 Part 1 of the test is made up of 4 elementary urban cycles. Each
elementary urban cycle comprises 15 phases (idling, acceleration, steady
speed, deceleration, etc.).
5.3.1.2.3 Part 2 of the test is made up of 1 extra-urban cycle. The extra-urban
cycle comprises 13 phases (idling, acceleration, steady speed, deceleration,
etc.).
5.3.1.2.4 During the test, the exhaust gases are diluted and a proportional
sample collected in one or more bags. The exhaust gases are analyzed after
operating cycle completes and the total volume of the diluted exhaust is
measured.
5.3.1.3 Test results shall be recorded on the pollutant emissions specified in
Table 2 and CO2.
5.3.1.4 The test shall be repeated three times. The results are corrected by the
appropriate deterioration factors obtained from paragraph 5.3.5 and, in the
case of vehicles with periodically regenerating systems, also shall be multiplied
by the factors Ki obtained from Annex P. The resulting masses of exhaust
emissions obtained in each test shall be less than the limits shown in the Table
2 below:
Table 2 -- Emission limits for Type I test
5.3.1.4.1 Notwithstanding the requirements of paragraph 5.3.1.4, for each
pollutant, one of the three resulting masses obtained may exceed, by not more
than 1.1 times the limit prescribed, provided the arithmetical mean of the three
results is below the prescribed limit. Where the prescribed limits are exceeded
for more than one pollutant, it is immaterial whether this occurs in the same
test or in different tests.
5.3.1.5 The number of tests prescribed in paragraph 5.3.1.4 may be reduced in
the conditions (See Figure 1) hereinafter defined, where V1 is the result of the
first test and V2 the result of the second test.
5.3.1.5.1 Only one test is performed if the result obtained for each pollutant or
for the combined emission of two pollutants subject to limitation, is less than or
equal to 0.70 L (i.e. V1 ≤ 0.70 L).
5.3.1.5.2 If the requirement of paragraph 5.3.1.5.1 is not satisfied, only two
tests are performed if, for each pollutant or for the combined emission of two
pollutants subject to limitation, the following requirements are met:
V1≤0.85 L and V1+V2≤1.70 L and V2≤L
Limits Reference
mass (RM)
(piece/km)
Note: PI = Positive Ignition, CI = Compression Ignition
(1) Apply only to vehicles with direct injection engines.
Category Class
All Vehicle of category I
Vehicle
of
categor
y II
Figure 1 -- Flow chart for Type I test approval
5.3.2 Type II test (Two-speed idle test or free acceleration smoke test)
5.3.2.1 Two-speed idle test (determine CO, THC at two-speed idle and λ
value at high idling speed)
5.3.2.1.1 This test shall be carried out on all vehicles equipped with
positive-ignition engines.
5.3.2.1.1.1 Bi-fuel vehicles shall be tested on both fuels respectively.
5.3.2.1.1.2 Mono-fuel gas vehicle shall be tested on that gaseous fuel.
5.3.2.1.2 The manufacturer shall provide the emission values of CO, THC at
two-speed idle and the control limits of the λ value at high idling speed at the
0.70
1.10
0.85
1.70
1.10
1.10
time of type-approval.
5.3.2.1.3 Should the test results of CO, THC at two-speed idle and the λ value
at high idling speed are within the control limits provided by the manufacturer,
the manufacturer’s declared values shall be recorded, otherwise, the actual
test values shall be recorded.
5.3.2.1.4 This test shall be carried out immediately after the completion of
Type I test. The test method shall comply with Annex D.
5.3.2.2 Free acceleration smoke test
5.3.2.2.1 This test shall be carried out on all vehicles equipped with
compression-ignition engines.
5.3.2.2.2 This test shall be carried out immediately after the completion of Type
I test. The test method shall comply with Annex D.
5.3.2.2.3 The value obtained by the measured optical absorption coefficient
adding 0.5m-1 shall be considered as the type-approval value of free
acceleration smoke emissions of such vehicle type.
5.3.3 Type III test (Test of crankcase emissions)
5.3.3.1 This test shall be carried out on all vehicles, except those having
compression-ignition engines.
5.3.3.1.1 Bi-fuel vehicles shall be tested on petrol only.
5.3.3.1.2 Mono-fuel gas vehicle shall be tested on that gaseous fuel.
5.3.3.2 When tested in accordance with Annex E, the engine's crankcase
ventilation system shall not permit the emission of any of the crankcase
pollutants into the atmosphere.
5.3.4 Type IV test (Test of evaporative emissions)
5.3.4.1 All vehicles equipped with positive-ignition engines shall be subject to
the test, except for mono-fuel gas vehicles. Bi-fuel vehicles shall be tested on
petrol only.
5.3.4.2 The manufacturer shall provide two sets of identical carbon canisters,
prior to the test, for alternative selection of type-approval authority to conduct
Type IV test. Another set shall be tested on its effective volume and initial
working capacity in accordance with the specifications contained in point 7.5.1.
The measured values shall be no more than 1.1 times of the value declared by
the manufacturer.
5.3.4.3 When tested in accordance with Annex F, evaporative emissions shall
be less than 2.00 g per test.
5.3.5 Type V test (Durability test of pollution control devices)
5.3.5.1 This test shall be carried out on all vehicles.
5.3.5.1.1 The manufacturer shall provide two sets of identical catalytic
converters separately, prior to the test, for alternative selection of
type-approval authority to conduct durability test. Another set shall be tested
on its substrate volume and content of each precious metal in accordance with
the specifications contained in the HJ 509. The measured values shall be no
more than 1.1 times of the value declared by the manufacturer.
5.3.5.1.2 Complete vehicle durability test. In accordance with the procedure of
Annex G, the durability test with a distance of 160000 km shall be conducted
on a chassis dynamometer or on a test track.
5.3.5.1.3 For the positive-ignition vehicles, compared with the vehicle types
that have been subject to complete vehicle durability test in accordance with
point 5.3.5.1.2, in the event that only change of pollution control device of test
vehicle exceeds the extension conditions specified in point 6.3, the
manufacturer can adopt the Standard Bench Cycle (SBC) to conduct durability
test as described in G.3.2.
5.3.5.1.4 At the request of the manufacturer, before the Type V test has been
completed, the testing organization may carry out the Type I test using the
deterioration factors in Table 3. After the Type V test completes, the testing
organization shall amend the results recorded in the type-approval certificate in
Annex B by replacing the deterioration factors in Table 3 with those measured
in accordance with the method set out in G.2.5.
Table 3 -- Deterioration factor
Engine type Deterioration factor CO THC NMHC NOX THC+NOX PM PN
Positive-ignition engine 1.5 1.3 1.3 1.6 — 1.0 —
Compression-ignition engine 1.5 — — 1.1 1.1 1.0 1.0
5.3.5.2 The deterioration factors shall be determined by the test procedure
specified in 5.3.5.1.2 and 5.3.5.1.3. The deterioration factors are used to
establish compliance of vehicle emissions with the limit requirements in 5.3.1.4
and 7.1.
5.3.6 Type VI test (Emission test of CO and THC in the exhaust after a
cold start at low temperature)
5.3.6.1 This test shall be carried out on all vehicles with positive-ignition engine,
except for mono-fuel gas vehicles. Bi-fuel vehicles shall be tested on petrol
only. For the vehicles with compression-ignition engine, the information
required in 5.3.6.5 shall be submitted.
5.3.6.2 The vehicle is placed on a chassis dynamometer equipped with a
means of load and inertia simulation. Test shall be in accordance with Part 1
operating cycle, and the method for emission sampling and analysis of Annex
C.
5.3.6.2.1 The test consists of the four elementary urban driving cycles of Part 1
of the Type I test. The Part 1 test is described in Attachment CA and illustrated
in Figures CA.1 and CA.2 of such attachment. The test lasting a total of 780
seconds shall be carried out without interruption and start at engine cranking.
5.3.6.2.2 The test shall be carried out at an ambient test temperature of 266 K
(-7 °C). Before the test is carried out, the test vehicles shall be preconditioned
in a uniform manner to ensure that the test results may be reproducible. The
preconditioning and other test procedures are carried out as described in
Annex H.
5.3.6.2.3 During the test, the exhaust gases are diluted and a proportional
sample collected. The exhaust gases of the vehicle tested are diluted, sampled
and analyzed, following the procedure described in Annex H; the total volume
of the diluted exhaust is measured. The diluted exhaust gases are analyzed for
carbon monoxide (CO) and total hydrocarbons (THC).
5.3.6.3 The test shall be performed three times. The resulting mass of carbon
monoxide and hydrocarbon emission shall be less than the limits shown in the
Table 4.
5.3.6.3.1 Notwithstanding the requirements of paragraph 5.3.6.3, for each
pollutant, not more than one of the three results obtained may exceed the limit
prescribed by not more than 1.1 times, provided the arithmetical mean value of
the three results is below the prescribed limit. Where the prescribed limits are
exceeded for more than one pollutant, it is immaterial whether this occurs in
the same test or in different tests.
Table 4 -- Emission limits for Type VI test
Test temperature 266 K (-7 °C)
Vehicle
category Class
Reference mass
(RM) (kg)
CO
L1 (g/km)
THC
L2 (g/km)
Category I — All 15.0 1.80
Category II
I RM≤1305 15.0 1.80
II 1305III 17605.3.6.3.2 The number of tests prescribed in paragraph 5.3.6.3 may, at the
request of the manufacturer, be increased to 10 if the arithmetical mean of the
three results is lower than 1.1 times of the limit. In this case, the requirement
after testing is only that the arithmetical mean of all 10 results shall be less
than the limit value.
5.3.6.4 The number of tests prescribed in paragraph 5.3.6.3 may be reduced if
the following conditions are met.
5.3.6.4.1 Only one test is performed if the result obtained for each pollutant of
the first test is less than or equal to 0.70 L.
5.3.6.4.2 If the requirement of paragraph 5.3.6.4.1 is not satisfied, only two
tests are performed if for each pollutant the result can satisfy the following
requirements.
V1≤0.85 L and V1+V2≤1.70 L and V2≤L
5.3.6.5 However, for compression ignition vehicles when applying for type
approval, manufacturers shall present to the approval authority information
showing that the NOX after-treatment device reaches a sufficiently high
temperature for efficient operation within 400 seconds after a cold start at -7 °C
as described in Type VI test.
In addition, the manufacturer shall provide the approval authority with
information on the operating strategy of the exhaust gas recirculation system
(EGR), including its functioning at low temperatures.
This information shall also include a description of any effects on emissions.
The approval authority shall not grant type approval if it believes that the
information provided is insufficient to demonstrate that the after-treatment
device actually reaches a sufficiently high temperature for efficient operation
within the designated period of time.
5.3.7 OBD system test
5.3.7.1 This test shall be carried out on all vehicles.
5.3.7.2 While test is conducted in accordance with Attachment IA, the OBD
system shall satisfy the requirements described in Annex I.
5.3.8 Type-approval test of replacement pollution control device as
separate technical unit
5.3.8.1 The replacement pollution control device shall be tested in accordance
with Annex L.
5.3.8.2 In the event that the requirements specified in L.4.2.1 and L.4.2.2 are
met, the replacement pollution control device shall be not tested in accordance
with Annex L.
5.3.9 Type-approval test of vehicles fuelled by LPG or NG
The vehicles fuelled by LPG or NG shall be tested in accordance with Annex K.
5.3.10 Technical requirements for vehicles that use a reagent for the
exhaust after-treatment system
The vehicles that use a reagent for the exhaust after-treatment system to
reduce emissions shall meet the requirements in Annex O.
5.3.11 For the vehicles of category M1, M2 and N2 with the maximum mass
exceeding 3500 kg and a reference mass not exceeding 2610 kg, the limits in
relation to Category II shall apply.
5.4 Fuels for test
Among the type approval tests, except for Type V test, all tests shall adopt the
reference fuels as described in Annex J; while the Type V test shall adopt the
commercially available fuels complying with the relevant standard
requirements.
6 Extensions to type approvals
The extension of the vehicle types having been subject to type approval under
this Standard shall be performed by following the clauses below:
6.1 Extensions for exhaust emissions (Type I and Type VI tests)
6.1.1 Vehicle types with different reference masses
6.1.1.1 The type approval shall be extended only to vehicles with a reference
mass requiring the use of the neighboring larger secondary equivalent inertia
or any lower equivalent inertia.
6.1.1.2 For vehicles of category II, if the equivalent inertia required for the
reference mass of a vehicle type to be extended is less than the equivalent
inertia used in a type-approved vehicle, and the pollutant mass measured from
the type-approved vehicle is within the limits specified for the vehicle type for
which extension is requested, the extension may be approved.
6.1.2 Vehicle types with different overall transmission ratios
The type approval shall be extended to vehicles already approved with
different transmission ratios only under the following conditions.
6.1.2.1 For each of the transmission ratios used in the Type I and Type VI tests,
the proportion shall be determined:
Where, at an engine speed of 1000 r/min, V1 is the speed of the type of vehicle
approved and V2 is the speed of the vehicle type for which extension of the
approval is requested.
6.1.2.2 If, for each transmission ratio, E ≤ 8 percent, the extension shall be
granted without repeating the Type I and Type VI tests.
6.1.2.3 If, for at least one transmission ratio, E > 8 percent, and if, for each
gear ratio, E ≤ 13 percent, the Type I and Type VI tests shall be repeated. The
tests may be performed in a laboratory chosen by the manufacturer subject to
the approval of the testing organization. The report of the tests shall be sent to
the testing organization responsible for the type approval tests.
6.1.3 Vehicles types with different reference masses and transmission
ratios
The type approval shall be extended from a vehicle type already approved to
other types with different reference masses and transmission ratios, provided
that all the conditions prescribed in paragraphs 6.1.1 and 6.1.2 are fulfilled.
6.1.4 Vehicle types with periodically regenerating systems
The type approval of a vehicle type equipped with a periodically regenerating
system can be extended to other vehicle types with periodically regenerating
systems, whose parameters described below are identical, or within the
prescribed tolerances. The extension shall only relate to measurements
specific to the defined periodically regenerating system.
6.1.4.1 Identical parameters for extending approval are:
Engine:
- Combustion process;
Periodically regenerating system (i.e. catalytic converter, particulate trap):
- Construction (i.e. type of enclosure, type of precious metal, type of
substrate, cell density);
- Type and working principle;
- Reagent and additive system;
- Substrate volume ±10 percent;
- Location: Temperature variation of no more than ±50 K at the inlet of the
regenerating system, and such temperature variation shall be checked
under stabilized conditions at a speed of 120 km/h and the load setting
of Type I test; or, within ±5 percent difference of the maximum
temperature/pressure (running in Type I test).
6.1.4.2 Use of Ki factors for vehicles with different reference masses
The Ki factors are developed by the procedures in Annex P for type approval of
a vehicle type with a periodically regenerating system, which may be used by
other vehicles which meet the criteria referred to in paragraph 6.1.4.1 and have
a reference mass within the neighboring larger secondary equivalent inertia
class or any lower equivalent inertia.
6.2 Extensions for evaporative emissions (Type IV test)
6.2.1 The type approval can be extended to vehicle types equipped with a
control system for evaporative emissions which meets the following conditions:
- The basic principle of fuel/air metering (e.g. single point injection) is the
same.
- The shape of the fuel tank and the material of the fuel tank and liquid fuel
hoses are identical.
- The worst-case vehicle with regard to the cross-paragraph and
approximate hose length shall be tested. Whether non-identical oil-gas
separators are acceptable is decided by the testing organization
responsible for the type approval tests.
- The fuel tank’s volume difference is within a range of ±10 percent.
- The setting of the fuel tank relief valve is identical.
- The method of storage of the fuel vapor is identical, i.e. form and volume of
activated carbon canister, storage medium (activated carbon), air cleaner
(if used for evaporative emission control), etc.
- The method of purging the stored vapour is identical (e.g. air flow, start
point or purge volume over the operating cycle).
- The sealing and venting method of the fuel metering system is identical.
6.2.2 The following conditions may be different for vehicle types extended
according to 6.2.1:
- Engine size;
- Engine power;
- Automatic and manual gearboxes;
- Two and four wheel drive;
- Body style; and
- Wheel and tyre sizes.
6.3 Extensions for durability of pollution control devices (Type V test)
6.3.1 The type approval can be extended from a vehicle type already approved
to different vehicle types, provided that the vehicle, engine or pollution control
system parameters specified below are identical or remain within the
prescribed tolerances:
(a) Vehicle:
Equivalent inertia class:  the neighboring larger secondary or any lower
class.
(b) Engine:
- Number of cylinders;
- Engine capacity (±15 percent);
- Cylinder construction;
- Number and control of valves;
- Fuel system;
- Type of cooling system;
- Combustion process.
(c) Pollution control device:
(1) Catalytic converters and particulate traps:
- Number of catalytic converters, particulate traps and catalytic
elements;
- Size and shape of catalytic converters and particulate traps (volume
of substrate ±10 percent);
- Type of catalytic activity (oxidizing, three-way, lean NOx trap,
selective reduction catalyst, lean NOx catalyst or other) and catalyst
manufacturer;
- Precious metal load (identical or higher);
- Precious metal type and ratio (±15 percent);
- Substrate (structure, material and manufacturer);
- Cell density;
- Temperature variation of no more than 50 K at the inlet of the
catalytic converter or particulate trap. This temperature variation shall
be checked under stabilized conditions at a speed of 120 km/h and
the load setting of the Type I test.
(2) Air injection:
- With or without;
- Type (pulse, air pumps or others).
(3) EGR:
- With or without;
- Type (cooled or non-cooled, active or passive control, high pressure
or low pressure).
6.3.2 Type V test can be conducted on a vehicle that is different with the
vehicle type to be approved for environmental protection in the following
aspects:
- Vehicle body;
- Transmission (automatic or manual);
- Size of the wheels or tyres;
- Assembly plant of catalytic converters and particulate traps.
6.4 Extensions for OBD system
The type approval can be extended to the same vehicle-OBD family as
described in Attachment IB. The type approval shall be extended regardless of
the following vehicle characteristics:
- Engine accessories;
- Tyres;
- Equivalent inertia;
- Cooling system;
- Overall transmission ratio;
- Transmission type; and
- Type of bodywork.
6.5 Application of extensions to other vehicles
When an extension has been granted to a vehicle type in accordance with
paragraphs 6.1 to 6.4, such a type approval shall not be further extended to
other vehicles.
7 Conformity of production
Measures shall be taken to ensure the conformity of production in accordance
with Annex M. Conformity of production is checked on the basis of the
descriptions set out in Annex A and Annex B. Where necessary, part of or all
tests described in point 5.2 can be carried out.
7.1 Check of conformity of production for Type I test
7.1.1 When a Type I test is to be carried out for a vehicle type approval that
has one or several extensions, the test may be carried out either on the vehicle
type described in Annex A or on the vehicle type relating to the relevant
extension.
7.1.2 After selection by the approval authority, the manufacturer shall not
undertake any adjustment to the vehicles selected.
7.1.2.1 Three vehicles shall be selected at random from the same series of
batch products and subject to Type I test as described in Annex C. The test
result shall be corrected by using the deterioration factors described in
type-approval certificate (actually measured). The limit values are set out in
paragraph 5.3.1.4.
7.1.2.2 If the approval authority is satisfied with the production standard
deviation given by the manufacturer in accordance with Annex M, the test
results shall be determined according to MA.1.
7.1.2.3 If the approval authority is not satisfied with the production standard
deviation given by the manufacturer or the manufacturer fails to provide the
relevant record, the test results shall be determined according to MA.2.
7.1.2.4 According to the criteria specified in MA.1 or MA.2, on the basis of the
number of sampling test vehicles, the products of this series shall be deemed
to conform or not to conform to Type I test once a pass decision is reached for
all the pollutants or a fail decision is reached for one pollutant.
When a pass decision has been reached for one pollutant, the decision shall
not be changed by any additional tests carried out to reach a decision for the
other pollutants. If no pass decision is reached for all the pollutants and no fail
decision is reached for one pollutant, a test shall be carried out on another
vehicle (see Figure 2).
Figure 2 -- Flow chart for check of conformity of production for Type I
test
When conducting test on another vehicle, if the test statistic for one pollutant
does not satisfy with either the pass or the failure criteria, the manufacturer can
terminate the sampling test. If this situation occurs, the conformity of
production for Type I test shall be deemed as non-compliant.
7.1.2.5 Notwithstanding the requirements specified in 7.1.2.2 to 7.1.2.4, the
type-approval authority can adopt the following criteria for random inspection
of conformity of production:
- If the mass emission of each pollutant from the three vehicles does not
exceed 1.1 times of the limits respectively, and their mean value does not
exceed the limits, the conformity of production of Type I test shall be
determined as “Conformity”.
- If the mass emission of a pollutant from one of the three vehicles exceeds
1.1 times of the limits, or their mean value exceeds the limits, the
conformity of production of Type I test shall be determined as
“Non-conformity”.
7.1.3 Notwithstanding the requirements specified in C.2.2.1, the tests shall be
carried out on the qualified vehicles coming straight off the production line,
instead of any running-in operation.
7.1.3.1 At the request of the manufacturer, the tests may be carried out on
vehicles which have not completed:
- 3000 km for vehicles equipped with a positive ignition engine;
- 15000 km for vehicles equipped with a compression ignition engine.
In both cases, the running-in shall be carried out according to the running-in
specifications of the manufacturer, but no adjustment shall be made to these
vehicles.
7.1.3.2 If the manufacturer wishes to run in the vehicles, the sample vehicles
shall be subject to run-in operation. For the vehicles equipped with a positive
ignition engine, the run-in distance shall be less than 3000 km. For the vehicles
equipped with a compression ignition engine, the run-in distance shall be less
than 15000 km. For the vehicles equipped with periodically regenerating
system, within the run-in distance specified in 7.1.3.2, the vehicle shall have
completed more than one third (1/3) of the interval between neighboring
regenerating distances.
7.1.4 Tests shall be performed using commercially available vehicle fuels that
comply with the relevant standards. However, at the manufacturer's request,
the reference fuels described in Annex J may be used.
7.2 Check of conformity of production for Type II test
7.2.1 Check of the conformity of production for two-speed idle test of the
vehicles equipped with positive ignition engines
7.2.1.1 The manufacturer shall sample vehicles from those coming off the
production line to perform two-speed idle test.
7.2.1.2 The emission values of CO and THC at two-speed idle and λ value at
high idling speed shall be within the control range declared by the
manufacturer for type approval.
7.2.2 Check of the conformity of production for free acceleration smoke test of
the vehicles equipped with compression ignition engines
7.2.2.1 The manufacturer shall sample vehicles from those coming off the
production line to perform free acceleration smoke test.
7.2.2.2 The measured optical absorption coefficient shall not exceed the type
approval value, as set out in paragraph 5.3.2.2.3, plus 0.5m-1.
7.3 Check of conformity of production for Type III test
7.3.1 All vehicles sampled in 7.1 shall be subject to Type III test.
7.3.2 The measurement results shall comply with the requirements in 5.3.3.2
when performing test in accordance with Annex E.
7.4 Check of conformity of production for Type IV test
7.4.1 Check of the conformity of production shall be conducted in accordance
with Section F.7.
7.4.2 Where necessary, a vehicle shall be randomly taken from the batch
products and subjected to the complete vehicle evaporative emission test as
described in Annex F. If the measurement results meet the requirements of
5.3.4.3, the conformity of production for Type IV test is considered to meet the
requirements.
7.4.3 If the vehicle taken cannot satisfy the requirements of paragraph 7.4.2, a
further random sample of four vehicles shall be taken from the batch products
and subjected to the tests described in Annex F. The tests may be carried out
on vehicles which have been run in for no more than 15000 km.
7.4.4 The conformity of production of Type IV test shall be deemed to conform
if at least three vehicles meet the requirements of the tests described in Annex
F, otherwise the conformity of production shall be identified as non-conformity.
7.5 Check of conformity of production for carbon canister
7.5.1 Three vehicles or three sets of carbon canisters are sampled from that on
assembly line or series products at random to test the effective volume and
initial working capability of canisters. The test shall be carried out by using the
mixture of butane (n-butane, 50 percent volume) and nitrogen (50 percent
volume), at a butane inflation rate of 40 g/h, according to the requirements in
HJ/T390.
7.5.2 Criteria for conformity of production of canister:
- If the test result of the effective volume and initial working capability of the
three sets of canisters is not less than 0.85 times of the declared value and
their mean value is not less than 0.9 times of the declared value, the
conformity of production of canister is identified as conformity.
- If the test result of the effective volume or initial working capability of any of
the three sets of canisters is less than 0.85 times of the declared value or
their mean value is less than 0.9 times of the declared value, the
conformity of production of canister is identified as non-conformity
7.6 Check of conformity of production for catalytic converter
7.6.1 Three vehicles or three sets of catalytic converters are sampled from that
on assembly line or series products at random to test the substrate volume and
precious metal content, according to the requirements in HJ 509.
7.6.2 Criteria for conformity of production of catalytic converter:
- If the test result of the substrate volume and precious metal content of the
three sets of catalytic converters is not less than 0.85 times of the declared
value and their mean value is not less than 0.9 times of the declared value,
the conformity of production of catalytic converter is identified as
conformity.
- If the test result of the substrate volume or precious metal content of any of
the three sets of catalytic converters is less than 0.85 times of the declared
value or their mean value is less than 0.9 times of the declared value, the
conformity of production of catalytic converter is identified as
non-conformity.
7.7 Check of conformity of production for OBD system
7.7.1 When the approval authority determines that the quality of production
seems unsatisfactory, a vehicle shall be randomly taken from the series
products and subjected to the tests described in Attachment IA.
7.7.2 The conformity of production of the OBD system shall be deemed to
conform if this vehicle meets the requirements of the tests described in
Attachment IA.
7.7.3 If the vehicle taken from the series does not satisfy the requirements of
paragraph 7.7.2, a further random sample of four vehicles shall be taken from
the series and subjected to the tests described in Attachment IA. The tests
may be carried out on vehicles which have been run in for no more than 15000
km.
7.7.4 The conformity of production of the OBD system shall be deemed to
conform if at least three vehicles meet the requirements of the tests described
in Attachment IA, otherwise it shall be deemed to not conforming.
7.8 If a vehicle type fails to satisfy any one criterion for conformity of production
as described in 7.1 to 7.7, the manufacturer shall take all necessary measures
as soon as possible to re-build a guarantee system for conformity of production.
Otherwise, the type-approval for that type of vehicle may be suspended or
withdrawn by the related authority.
8 In-service conformity
8.1 For vehicles that have passed the pollutant emission type approval,
necessary measures shall be taken by the manufacturer to ensure in-service
conformity. The requirements for checking in-service conformity of exhaust
emissions, OBD system and evaporative emissions are as described in Annex
N.
8.2 The procedure for checking in-service conformity shall confirm the
functionality of the pollution control devices during the normal useful life of the
vehicles under normal conditions of use.
8.3 The in-service conformity shall be checked for the vehicles with the
duration of the period up to 5 years of age or 100000 km, whichever is earlier.
The in-service conformity check includes self-inspection by the manufacturer
and random inspection by the type-approval authority.
8.4 The manufacturer may not be obliged to carry out a self-inspection of
in-service conformity for a vehicle type if the manufacturer can demonstrate to
the type-approval authority that the annual sales of that vehicle type is less
than 5000 in the family. However, a report including the guarantee in relation to
all emissions, repair statement and OBD system failure shall be provided by
the manufacturer to the type-approval authority in accordance with N.2.3 of
Annex N. In addition, the type-approval authority may request random
inspection of in-service conformity to that vehicle type according to Annex N.
8.5 When additional vehicles are required for in-service conformity check, the
in-service conformity shall be deemed as unsatisfactory in the event that the
manufacturer requests terminating the sampling test.
8.6 Where the type-approval authority is not satisfied with the results of the
tests, the manufacturer shall take remedial measures described in NA.6. Such
remedial measures shall be extended to the vehicle types liable to be affected
with the same defects.
The remedial measures proposed by the manufacturer shall be approved by
the type-approval authority. The manufacturer shall be responsible for carrying
out such approved remedial measures.
The type-approval authority may suspend or withdraw the type approval of the
vehicle type on the basis of the status that the manufacturer carries out the
remedial measures.
9 Implementation of the standard
9.1 Type approval
From the date of issuance of this Standard, type approval may be performed in
accordance with this Standard.
9.2 Sales and registration
From January 1, 2018, all light-duty vehicles sold and registered shall meet the
requirements of this Standard.
For the purpose of improving air quality, the areas that are subjected to serious
pollution from motor vehicles and qualified for standard implementation are
encouraged to put the standard into effect in advance of other areas after
approval. With respect to such areas, before December 31, 2014, the
requirements for OBD system NOx monitoring and OBD in-use performance
ratio (IUPR) in this Standard may not be mandatory.
9.3 Check of conformity of production
Check of the conformity of production for the light-duty vehicles to which the
type approval is granted under this Standard is effective from the date of
granting such type approval.
9.4 Check of in-service conformity
The in-service conformity check for the light-duty vehicles manufactured, sold
and registered under this Standard shall comply with the requirements of this
Standard.
Annex A
(Normative)
Information on application for type approval
The following information, including a list of contents, shall be supplied as an
electronic document when applying for type approval.
Any drawings shall be supplied to the appropriate scale and in sufficient detail
on size A4 paper or in an A4-format folder. Photographs, if any, shall show
sufficient detail. If the systems, components or separate technical units are
controlled by a microprocessor, information concerning their performance shall
be supplied.
A.1 General
A.1.1 Make (product name of manufacturer): ...
A.1.2 Model and general commercial description: ...
A.1.3 Identification of vehicle type: ...
A.1.4 Category of vehicle: ...
A.1.5 Name and address of manufacturer: ...
A.1.6 Address of assembly plant(s): ...
A.2 General construction characteristics of vehicle
A.2.1 Photographs and/or drawings of a representative vehicle: ...
A.2.2 Powered axles (number, position, interconnection): ...
A.3 Masses and dimensions (in kg and mm) (refer to drawing where
applicable)
A.3.1 Mass of the vehicle with bodywork in running order, or mass of the
vehicle with cab chassis if the manufacturer does not fit the bodywork (with
standard facilities, including cooling liquid, engine oil, fuels, tools, spare wheel,
and driver) (maximum and minimum): ... …… ... …… ...
A.3.2 Technically permissible maximum laden mass as stated by the
manufacturer (maximum and minimum): ...
A.4 Power system (In the case of a vehicle that can run either on petrol,
diesel, etc., or also on another fuel, items shall be repeated)
A.4.1 Manufacturer: ...
A.4.1.1 Engine code (as marked on the engine, or other means of
identification): ...
A.4.2 Engine
A.4.2.1 Specific engine information
A.4.2.1.1 Working principle: positive-ignition/compression-ignition,
four-stroke/two-stroke (1)
A.4.2.1.2 Number, arrangement of cylinders: ... ……… ...
A.4.2.1.2.1 Bore: ... ………………………… mm
A.4.2.1.2.2
Stroke: ... ……………………………… mm
A.4.2.1.2.3 Firing order: ... ………………… ...
A.4.2.1.3 Engine capacity: ... ……………………………… . cm3
A.4.2.1.4 Volumetric compression ratio (2): ...
A.4.2.1.5 Drawings of combustion chamber and piston crown and, in the case
of positive ignition engine, piston rings: ... ……...
A.4.2.1.6 Normal engine idling speed and high idle engine speed (including
tolerance): ... ……………... … r/min
A.4.2.1.7 Exhaust CO and THC content by volume(2) with the engine at normal
idling and high idling speed stated by the
manufacturer: ... ……... … ... …………………………...
A.4.2.1.8 Control range (2) of λ value with the engine at high idling speed stated
by the manufacturer: ... …...
A.4.2.1.9 Maximum net power: ... … kW at... …… ... r/min
(manufacturer's declared value)
A.4.2.1.10 Maximum permitted engine speed as prescribed by the
manufacturer: ……………………….…………………………………………..r/min
A.4.2.1.11 Maximum net torque……………Nm at……………………r/min
(manufacturer's declared value)
A.4.2.2 Fuel: diesel/petrol/LPG/NG (1)
(1) Cross out those that do not apply.
(2) Indicate tolerances.
A.4.2.2.1 Research octane number (RON), unleaded: ...
A.4.2.3 Vehicle fuel type: Mono-fuel/Bi-fuel (1)
A.4.2.4 Fuel feed
A.4.2.4.1 Fuel injection (compression-ignition only): yes/no (1)
A.4.2.4.1.1 System description: ... ……...
A.4.2.4.1.2 Working principle: direct-injection/pre-chamber/swirl chamber (1)
A.4.2.4.1.3 Injection pump
A.4.2.4.1.3.1 Make(s): ... …… .
A.4.2.4.1.3.2 Type(s): ... ……
A.4.2.4.1.3.3 Maximum fuel delivery (1) (2): at a pump speed of... … ...
r/min, ... … mm3/stroke or cycle, or a supply characteristic
diagram:...
A.4.2.4.1.3.4 Injection advance curve (2): ...
A.4.2.4.1.4 Governor
A.4.2.4.1.4.1 Type(s): ... ……...
A.4.2.4.1.4.2 Rotation speed with fuel supply closed
A.4.2.4.1.4.2.1 Initial rotation speed under full load with fuel supply
closed: ... r/min
A.4.2.4.1.4.2.2 Maximum rotation speed when unloaded: ...r/min
A.4.2.4.1.4.3 Idle speed: ... ………… ... r/min
A.4.2.4.1.5 Injector
A.4.2.4.1.5.1 Make(s): ...
A.4.2.4.1.5.2 Type(s): ...
A.4.2.4.1.6 Cold start system
A.4.2.4.1.6.1 Make(s): ...
A.4.2.4.1.6.2 Type(s): ...
A.4.2.4.1.6.3 Description: ...
A.4.2.4.1.7 Starting aid
A.4.2.4.1.7.1 Make(s): ...
A.4.2.4.1.7.2 Type(s): ...
A.4.2.4.1.7.3 System description: ...
A.4.2.4.1.8 Electronic controlled injection: yes/no (1)
A.4.2.4.1.8.1 Make(s): ……………………………………………………………….
A.4.2.4.1.8.2 Type(s): ………………………………………………………………..
A.4.2.4.1.8.3 Description of the system, in the case of systems other than
continuous injection, give equivalent details: ……………………………………...
A.4.2.4.1.8.3.1 Make and type of the control unit:...
A.4.2.4.1.8.3.2 Make and type of the fuel regulator:...
A.4.2.4.1.8.3.3 Make and type of air-flow sensor:...
A.4.2.4.1.8.3.4 Make and type of fuel distributor: …………………………………
A.4.2.4.1.8.3.5 Make and type of throttle housing: ………………………………..
A.4.2.4.1.8.3.6 Make and type of water temperature sensor: ……………………
A.4.2.4.1.8.3.7 Make and type of air temperature sensor: .………………………
A.4.2.4.1.8.3.8 Make and type of air pressure sensor: …………………………...
A.4.2.4.2 Fuel injection (positive-ignition only): yes/no (1)
A.4.2.4.2.1 Operating principle: intake manifold (single/multi-point(1)/direct
injection/other (specify) (1): ... ……... ……………………………………………
A.4.2.4.2.2 Make(s): ...
A.4.2.4.2.3 Type(s): ...
A.4.2.4.2.4 System description, for non-continuous injection systems,
equivalent details shall be provided:
A.4.2.4.2.4.1 Make and type of the control unit: ... …………………..
A.4.2.4.2.4.2 Make and type of air-flow sensor: ... ………………………..
A.4.2.4.2.4.3 Make and type of micro switch: ... …………………….
A.4.2.4.2.4.4 Make and type of throttle housing: ... ……………
A.4.2.4.2.4.5 Make and type of water temperature sensor: ... …
A.4.2.4.2.4.6 Make and type of air temperature sensor: ... ………………
A.4.2.4.2.4.7 Make and type of air pressure sensor: ... ………………
A.4.2.4.2.5 Injectors: opening pressure (2): ... kPa or
characteristic curve (2): ... ………………………………………
A.4.2.4.2.5.1 Make(s)…………………………………………………………………
A.4.2.4.2.5.2 Type(s)…………………………………………………………………
A.4.2.4.2.6 Injection timing: ... ;...
A.4.2.4.2.7 Cold start system
A.4.2.4.2.7.1 Operating principle: ... …
A.4.2.4.2.7.2 Operating limits/settings (1) (2): ...
A.4.2.4.3 Fuel supply pump
A.4.2.4.3.1 Pressure (2): ... kPa or characteristic curve (2): ...
A.4.2.5 Ignition system
A.4.2.5.1 Make(s): ... …… ...
A.4.2.5.2 Type(s): ... …… ...
A.4.2.5.3 Working principle: ... …… ...
A.4.2.5.4 Ignition advance curve (2): ... …… ...
A.4.2.5.5 Static ignition timing (2):... degrees before TDC
A.4.2.6 Cooling system (liquid/air) (1)
A.4.2.6.1 Nominal setting of engine temperature controller……………………...
A.4.2.6.2 Liquid cooling
A.4.2.6.2.1 Nature of liquid cooling: ……………………………………………...
A.4.2.6.2.2 Circulating pump: yes/no (1)
A.4.2.6.2.3 Characteristics…………………………………………………………...
A.4.2.6.2.3.1 Make(s): ………………………………………………...
A.4.2.6.2.3.2 Type(s): …………………………………………………...
A.4.2.6.2.4 Transmission ratio: ……………………………………………………..
A.4.2.6.2.5 Description of the fan and its drive mechanism: ……………………
A.4.2.6.3 Air cooling
A.4.2.6.3.1 Blower: yes/no (1)
A.4.2.6.3.2 Characteristics: …………………………………………...
A.4.2.6.3.2.1 Make(s): …………………………………………...
A.4.2.6.3.2.2 Type(s): ……………………………………………...
A.4.2.6.3.3 Transmission ratio: ……………………………………………...
A.4.2.7 Air intake system
A.4.2.7.1 Pressure charger: yes/no (1)
A.4.2.7.1.1 Make(s): ...
A.4.2.7.1.2 Type(s): ...
A.4.2.7.1.3 Description of the system (e.g. maximum charge pressure: ...
kPa, outlet (if applicable)): ... …………………………………………...
A.4.2.7.2 Intercooler: yes/no (1)
A.4.2.7.2.1 Type: air-air/air-water (1)
A.4.2.7.3 Vacuum degree of air intake system (compression ignition engines
only) at the rated engine speed and full load, minimum permissible
value………………….….kPa, maximum permissible value… ...kPa
A.4.2.7.4 Description and drawings of the inlet pipes and their accessories
(plenum chamber, heating device, additional air intakes,
etc.): ... ……. …...
A.4.2.7.4.1 Intake manifold description (include drawings and/or
photos): ...…...
A.4.2.7.4.2 Air filter, drawings: ..., or
A.4.2.7.4.2.1 Make(s): ...
A.4.2.7.4.2.2 Type(s): ...
A.4.2.7.4.3 Intake silencer, drawings: ... , or
A.4.2.7.4.3.1 Make(s): ...
A.4.2.7.4.3.2 Type(s): ...
A.4.2.8 Exhaust system
A.4.2.8.1 Description and/or drawings of the exhaust manifold: ………………..
A.4.2.8.2 Description and/or drawings of the exhaust system:...
A.4.2.8.3 Maximum permissible exhaust back pressure at rated engine speed
and full load (compression ignition engine only)………….…………………...kPa
A.4.2.9 Minimum cross sectional area of inlet and outlet ports: ………………..
A.4.2.10 Valve timing or equivalent data
A.4.2.10.1 Maximum lift of valve, opening and closing angles, or timing details
of air supply system in relation to top dead centers. For variable valve timing
system, the Minimum and Maximum timing: ……………………………………...
A.4.2.10.2 Reference values and/or setting ranges (1): ... …
A.4.2.11 Control devices for pollutant emissions
A.4.2.11.1 Device for recycling crankcase gases (description and
drawings): ... ……………………………………... …………………………….
A.4.2.11.2 Additional pollution control devices (if any, and if not covered by
another heading)
A.4.2.11.2.1 Catalytic converter: yes/no (1) Type(s): ...
A.4.2.11.2.1.1 Number of catalytic converters and elements: ...
A.4.2.11.2.1.2 Dimensions, shape and substrate volume of the catalytic
converter: ... …………………………………………………………………...
A.4.2.11.2.1.3 Type of catalytic converter action: ...
A.4.2.11.2.1.4 Total charge of precious metals (Declared value and value
described in test report): ... ……………………………………………(g)
A.4.2.11.2.1.5 Ratio of precious metals: ...(Pt: Pd: Rh)
A.4.2.11.2.1.6 Substrate (structure, material and manufacturer): ...
A.4.2.11.2.1.7 Cell density: ...
A.4.2.11.2.1.8 Type of casing for the catalytic converter: ...
A.4.2.11.2.1.9 Location of the catalytic converter(s) (position and reference
distance in the exhaust system): ...
A.4.2.11.2.1.10 Heat shield: yes/no (1)
A.4.2.11.2.1.11 Regenerating system/exhaust after-treatment system
measures, description: ……………………………………………………………….
A.4.2.11.2.1.11.1 The number of Type I operating cycles or equivalent engine
test bench cycles, between two regenerative phases under the conditions
equivalent to Type I test (Distance "D" in Annex P): …….……………………….
A.4.2.11.2.1.11.2 Description of method employed to determine the number of
cycles between two regenerative phases:...……………………
A.4.2.11.2.1.11.3 Parameters to determine the level of loading required before
regeneration occurs (i.e. temperature, pressure etc.): ...
A.4.2.11.2.1.11.4 Description of method used to load system in the test
procedure described in Annex P: …………………………………………………..
A.4.2.11.2.1.11.5 Normal operating temperature range (K): ……………………
A.4.2.11.2.1.11.6 Consumable reagents (where appropriate): …………………
A.4.2.11.2.1.11.7 Type and concentration of reagent needed for catalytic
action (where appropriate): …………………………………………………………
A.4.2.11.2.1.11.8 Normal operational temperature range of reagent (where
appropriate): ………………………………………………………………………….
A.4.2.11.2.1.11.9 International standard (where appropriate): …………………
A.4.2.11.2.1.11.10 Frequency of reagent refill: continuous/maintenance (1)
(where appropriate): …………………………………………………………………
A.4.2.11.2.1.12 Make of catalytic converter: ……………………………………..
A.4.2.11.2.1.13 Identifying part number:
A.4.2.11.2.2 Oxygen sensor: yes/no (1)
A.4.2.11.2.2.1 Type(s): ... …… ...
A.4.2.11.2.2.2 Location: ... …… ...
A.4.2.11.2.2.3 Control range:... ……...
A.3.2.13.2.2.4 Make of oxygen sensor:
A.3.2.13.2.2.5 Identifying part number:
A.4.2.11.2.3 Air injection system: yes/no (1)
A.4.2.11.2.3.1 Type (pulse air, air pump, etc.): (1): ...
A.4.2.11.2.4 Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR): yes/no (1) Type(s): ...
A.4.2.11.2.4.1 Characteristics (flow rate, etc.): ...
A.3.2.13.2.4.2 Water cooling system: yes/no (1)
A.4.2.11.2.5 Evaporation control system: yes/no (1)
A.4.2.11.2.5.1 Detailed description of the devices and their state of tune:...
A.4.2.11.2.5.2 Drawing of the evaporation control system: ...
A.4.2.11.2.5.3 Drawing of the carbon canister: ...
A.4.2.11.2.5.4 Make and type of activated carbon: ……………………………….
A.4.2.11.2.5.5 Effective volume of carbon canister and mass of dry
charcoal ...L, …... g
A.4.2.11.2.5.6 Initial working capacity of carbon canister (BWC declared value
and value described in test report): ...… ... …… ...g/100mL
A.4.2.11.2.5.7 Schematic drawing of the fuel tank with indication of capacity
and material: ... … ...
A.4.2.11.2.5.8 Drawing of the heat shield between tank and exhaust
system: ... ……...
A.4.2.11.2.6 Particulate trap: yes/no (1) Type(s): ...
A.4.2.11.2.6.1 Dimensions, shape and capacity of the particulate
trap: ...
A.4.2.11.2.6.2 Type and design of particulate trap: ...
A.4.2.11.2.6.3 Location (reference distances in the exhaust line): ...
A.4.2.11.2.6.4 Regenerating system/method. Description and/or drawing: ...
A.4.2.11.2.6.4.1 The number of Type I operating cycles or equivalent engine
test bench cycles, between two regeneration phases under the conditions
equivalent to Type I test (Distance “D” in Annex P): ……………………………..
A.4.2.11.2.6.4.2 Description of method employed to determine the number of
cycles between two regenerative phases: ………………………………………...
A.4.2.11.2.6.4.3 Parameters to determine the level of loading required before
regeneration occurs (i.e. temperature, pressure, etc.): …. ……………………...
A.4.2.11.2.6.4.4 Description of method used to load system in the test
procedure described in Annex P: ….………. ……………………...
A.4.2.11.2.6.5 Make of particulate trap:………………………….…………………
A.4.2.11.2.6.6 Identifying part number: ………………………….…………………
A.4.2.11.2.7 OBD system
A.4.2.11.2.7.1 Written description and/or drawing of the malfunction indicator
(MI): ...
A.4.2.11.2.7.2 List and purpose of all components monitored by the OBD
system: ...
A.4.2.11.2.7.3 Written description for the followings:
A.4.2.11.2.7.3.1 Positive-ignition engines (1)
A.4.2.11.2.7.3.1.1 Catalytic converter monitoring (1): ... ……...
A.4.2.11.2.7.3.1.2 Misfire detection (1): ...
A.4.2.11.2.7.3.1.3 Oxygen sensor monitoring (1): ...
A.4.2.11.2.7.3.1.4 Other components monitored by the OBD system (1): ...
A.4.2.11.2.7.3.2 Compression-ignition engines (1)
A.4.2.11.2.7.3.2.1 Catalytic converter monitoring (1): ...
A.4.2.11.2.7.3.2.2 Particulate trap monitoring (1): ...
A.4.2.11.2.7.3.2.3 Electronic fuelling system monitoring (1): ...
A.4.2.11.2.7.3.2.4 Other components monitored by the OBD system (1): ...
A.4.2.11.2.7.4 Criteria for MI activation (fixed number of driving cycles or
statistical method): ...
A.4.2.11.2.7.5 List of all OBD output codes and formats used (with explanation
of each): ... ………...
A.4.2.11.2.7.6 The following additional information shall be provided by the
vehicle manufacturer for the purposes of enabling the compatibility of OBD
system with accessories, service parts, diagnostic tools, and test equipment,
unless such information is covered by intellectual property rights or constitutes
specific know-how of the manufacturer or the OEM supplier(s).
A.4.2.11.2.7.6.1 A description of the test type and number of the
pre-conditioning cycles used for the initial type-approval of the vehicle.
A.4.2.11.2.7.6.2 A description of the type of the OBD demonstration cycle
used for the initial type-approval of the vehicle for the component monitored by
the OBD system.
A.4.2.11.2.7.6.3 A comprehensive document describing all sensed
components with the strategy for fault detection and MI activation (fixed
number of driving cycles or statistical method), including a list of relevant
secondary sensed parameters for each component monitored by the OBD
system. A list of all OBD output codes and format used (with an explanation of
each) associated with individual emission related power-train components and
individual non-emission related components, where monitoring of the
component is used to determine MI activation. In particular, a comprehensive
explanation for the data $05 Test ID $21 to FF and the data given in service
$06 shall be provided. In the case of vehicle types that use a communication
link in accordance with ISO 15765-4 "Road vehicles - Diagnostics on
Controller Area Network (CAN) - Part 4: Requirements for emissions-related
systems", a comprehensive explanation for the data $06 Test ID $00 to FF, for
each OBD monitor ID supported, shall be provided.
A.4.2.11.2.7.6.4 The required information may be defined by completing a
table as follows, which shall be attached to this annex:
Component
name
Fault
code
Monitoring
strategy
Fault
detection
criteria
MI
activation
criteria
Relevant
parameters
Preconditi
oning
cycle
Demonstration
test
Catalytic
converter P0420
Signals of
oxygen
sensor 1
and 2
Signal
differenc
between
two
oxygen
sensors
3rd cycle
Engine
speed,
engine load,
A/F mode,
catalytic
converter
temperature
2 Type I
test cycles Type I test
A.4.2.11.2.8 Other systems (description and operation principle): ……………
A.4.2.12 LPG fuelling system: yes/no (1)
A.4.2.12.1 Approval number: ...
A.4.2.12.2 Electronic control management unit of engine for LPG fuelling
A.4.2.12.2.1 Make(s): ...
A.4.2.12.2.2 Type(s): ...
A.4.2.12.2.3 Emission-related adjustment possibilities: ...
A.4.2.12.3 Further information
A.4.2.12.3.1 Description of the safeguarding of the catalytic converter at
switch-over from petrol to LPG or back: ...
A.4.2.12.3.2 System layout (electrical connections, vacuum connection
compensation hoses, etc.): ...
A.4.2.12.3.3 Drawing of the symbol: ...
A.4.2.13 NG fuelling system: yes/no (1)
A.4.2.13.1 Approval number: ...
A.4.2.13.2 Electronic control management unit of engine for NG fuelling
A.4.2.13.2.1 Make(s): ...
A.4.2.13.2.2 Type(s): ...
A.4.2.11.2.3 Emission-related adjustment possibilities: ...
A.4.2.13.3 Further information:
A.4.2.13.3.1 Description of the safeguarding of the catalytic converter at
switch-over from petrol to NG or back: ...
A.4.2.13.3.2 System layout (electrical connections, vacuum connection
compensation hoses, etc.): ...
A.4.2.13.3.3 Drawing of the symbol: ...
A.4.3 Temperature allowed by the manufacturer
A.4.3.1 Cooling system
A.4.3.1.1 Liquid cooling
Maximum temperature at outlet: …………………………………………………..K
A.4.3.1.2 Air cooling
A.4.3.1.2.1 Reference point: ………………………………………………………...
A.4.3.1.2.2 Maximum temperature at reference point: ………………………….K
A.4.3.2 Maximum outlet temperature of the inlet intercooler: …………………..K
A.4.3.3 Maximum exhaust temperature at the reference point in the exhaust
pipe(s) adjacent to the outer flange(s) of the exhaust manifold………………...K
A.4.3.4 Fuel temperature
Minimum temperature………………………………………………………………K
Maximum temperature……………………………………………………………...K
A.4.3.5 Lubricant temperature
Minimum temperature………………………………………………………………K
Maximum temperature……………………………………………………………...K
A.4.4 Lubrication system
A.4.4.1 Description of the system
A.4.4.1.1 Position of the lubricant reservoir: ………………………………………
A.4.4.1.2 Feed system (by pump/injection into intake/mixing with fuel, etc.)
(1)……………….……... ………..……………………………………………………..
A.4.4.2 Lubricating pump
A.4.4.2.1 Make(s): …………………………………………………………………...
A.4.4.2.2 Type(s): ……………………………………………………………………
A.4.4.3 Mixture with fuel
A.4.4.3.1 Percentage: ……….………………………………………………………
A.4.4.4 Oil cooler: yes/no (1)…………………………………………………………
A.4.4.4.1 Drawing(s): …………………….………………………………………, or
A.4.4.4.1.1 Make(s): …………………………………………………………………
A.4.4.4.1.2 Type(s): …………………………………………………………………
A.5 Transmission system
A.5.1 Moment of inertia of engine flywheel: ………………………………………
A.5.1.1 Additional moment of inertia with no gear engaged: …………………...
A.5.2 Clutch (type): ...
A.5.2.1 Maximum torque transmitted: ...
A.5.3 Gearbox
A.5.3.1 Type (manual/automatic/CVT(1)): ...
A.5.4 Gear ratios
Gear
Internal gearbox ratios
(ratio of engine to gearbox
output shaft revolutions)
Main transmission ratio
(ratio of gearbox output shaft to
driving wheel revolutions)
Total gear
ratios
Maximum for CVT
Gear 1
Gear 2
Gear 3
...
Minimum for CVT
Reverse
A.6 Suspension system
A.6.1 Tyres and wheels
A.6.1.1 Tyre/wheel combination(s)
(a) For all tyre options indicate size designation, maximum load-capacity
index, maximum-speed category symbol;
(b) For tyres of category Z intended to be fitted on vehicles whose maximum
speed exceeds 300 km/h equivalent information shall be provided; for
wheels indicate rim size(s) and off-set(s).
A.6.1.1.1 Axles
A.6.1.1.1.1 Axle 1: ... ……………………………………….
A.6.1.1.1.2 Axle 2: ... ………………………………..
Others (If applicable)
A.6.1.2 Upper and lower limit of rolling radius
A.6.1.2.1 Axle 1: ... ………………………………………
A.6.1.2.2 Axle 2: ... ………………………………………………………
Others (If applicable)
A.6.1.3 Tyre pressure(s) recommended by the manufacturer: …………… kPa
A.7 Bodywork
A.7.1 Type of bodywork:
A.7.2 Seats
A.7.2.1 Number: ... ………………………….…………………………..
Date, file
Attachment AA
(Informative)
Test conditions
AA.1 Spark plug
AA.1.1 Make: …………...……………………………………………………………
AA.1.2 Type: …………………………………………………………………………
AA.1.3 Spark plug-gap setting: …………………………………………………….
AA.2 Ignition coil
AA.2.1 Make: …………………………………………………………………………
AA.2.2 Type: …………………………………………………………………………
AA.3 Lubricant used
AA.3.1 Make: …………………………………………….……... ………………….
AA.3.2 Type: …………………………………………….……..……………………
(State percentage of oil in mixture if lubricant and fuel
mixed) …………………………………………….………..…………………………
AA.4 Dynamometer load setting information (repeat information for each
dynamometer test)
AA.4.1 Vehicle bodywork type (variant/original)
AA.4.2 Gearbox type (manual/automatic/CVT)
AA.4.3 Fixed load curve dynamometer setting information (if used)……………
AA.4.3.1 Alternative dynamometer load setting method used (yes/no)
AA.4.3.2 Inertia (kg): ………………………………………….…….. ………………
AA.4.3.3 Effective power absorbed at 80 km/h including running losses of the
vehicle on the dynamometer (kW) ………………………………………………….
AA.4.3.4 Effective power absorbed at 50 km/h including running losses of the
vehicle on the dynamometer (kW) ………………………………………………….
AA.4.4 Adjustable load curve dynamometer setting information (if used)………
AA.4.4.1 Coast down information from the test track……………………………..
AA.4.4.2 Tyre make and type: ……………………. ……………………. ………...
AA.4.4.3 Tyre dimensions (front/rear): ……………………. ………………………
AA.4.4.4 Tyre pressure (front/rear) (kPa): ……………………. …………………..
AA.4.4.5 Vehicle test mass including driver (kg): ……………………. …………..
AA.4.4.6 Road coast down data (if used)
V (km/h) V2 (km/h) V1 (km/h) Mean corrected coast down time
120
100
80
60
40
20
AA.4.4.7 Corrected road power (if used)
V (km/h) Corrected road power (kW)
120
100
80
60
40
20
Attachment AB
(Informative)
Vehicle OBD - Related information
AB.1 The information in this attachment shall be provided by the vehicle
manufacturer for the purposes of enabling the manufacture of OBD-compatible
replacement or service parts and diagnostic tools and test equipment.
AB.2 Upon request, the following information shall be made available to any
interested component, diagnostic tools or test equipment manufacturer, on a
non-discriminatory basis.
AB.2.1 A description of the type and number of the pre-conditioning cycles
used for the initial type approval of the vehicle.
AB.2.2 A description of the type of the OBD demonstration cycle used for the
initial type approval of the vehicle for the component monitored by the OBD
system.
AB.2.3 A comprehensive document describing all sensed components with the
strategy for fault detection and MI activation (fixed number of driving cycles or
statistical method), including a list of relevant secondary sensed parameters
for each component monitored by the OBD system and a list of all OBD output
codes and format used (with an explanation of each) associated with individual
emission related power-train components and individual non-emission related
components, where monitoring of the component is used to determine MI
activation. In particular, a comprehensive explanation for the data $05 Test ID
$21 to FF and the data given in service $06 shall be provided. In the case of
vehicle types that use a communication link in accordance with ISO 15765-4
“Road vehicles - Diagnostics on Controller Area Network (CAN) - Part 4:
Requirements for emissions-related systems”, a comprehensive explanation
for the data $06 Test ID $00 to FF, for each OBD monitor ID supported, shall
be provided.
The required information may be provided in the form of Table AB.1, as
follows:
Table AB.1
Component
name
Fault
code
Monitoring
strategy
Fault
detection
criteria
MI
activation
criteria
Relevant
parameters
Preconditio
ning cycle
Demons
tration
test
Catalytic
converter P0420
Signals of
oxygen
sensor 1
and 2
Signal
difference
between
two oxygen
sensors
3rd cycle
Engine speed,
engine load,
A/F mode,
catalytic
converter
temperature
2 Type I
test cycles
Type I
test
AB.3 Information required for the manufacture of diagnostic tools
In order to facilitate the provision of generic diagnostic tools for multi-make
repairers, vehicle manufacturers shall make available the information referred
to in the points AB.3.1 to AB.3.3 through their repair information web-sites.
This information shall include all diagnostic tool functions and all the links to
repair information and troubleshooting instructions. The access to this
information may be subject to the payment of a reasonable fee.
AB.3.1 Communication protocol information
The following information shall be required and indexed against vehicle make,
model and variant, or other workable definition such as VIN or vehicle and
systems identification:
- Any additional protocol information system necessary to enable complete
diagnostics in addition to the standards prescribed in I.5 of Annex I,
including any additional hardware or software protocol information,
parameter identification, transfer functions, “keep alive” requirements, or
error conditions;
- Details of how to obtain and interpret all fault codes not in compliance with
the standards prescribed in I.5 of Annex I;
- A list of all available live data parameters including decoding and access
information;
- A list of all available functional tests including device activation or control
and the means to implement them;
- Details of how to obtain all component and status information, time stamps,
pending DTC and freeze frames;
- Resetting adaptive learning parameters, variant coding and replacement
component setup, and customer preferences;
- ECU identification and variant coding;
- Details of how to reset service lights;
- Location of diagnostic connector;
- Engine code identification.
AB.3.2 Test and diagnosis of OBD monitored components
The following information shall be required:
- A description of tests to confirm its functionality, at the component or in the
harness;
- Test procedure including test parameters and component information;
- Connection details including minimum and maximum input and output and
driving and loading values;
- Values expected under certain driving conditions including idling;
- Signal values for the component in its static and dynamic states;
- Failure mode for each of the above scenarios;
- Failure mode diagnostic sequences including fault trees and diagnostics
elimination guidance.
AB.3.3 Data required to perform the repair
The following information shall be required:
- ECU and component initialization (in the event of replacements being
fitted);
- Initialization of new or replacement ECU using relevant pass-through (re-)
programming techniques.
Annex B
(Informative)
Format of type-approval certificate
(Maximum size: A4 (210 × 297 mm))
In accordance with the standard GB18352.X-20XX, the following items shall be
notified as to the vehicle/parts/separate technical units of a certain type:
Approval of type-approval (1)
Extension of type-approval (1)
Refusal of type-approval (1)
Withdrawal of type-approval (1)
Type-approval number (1): ... ……………………. …………...
Type-approval extension number (1): ...
Reason for extension: ...
B.1 SECTION I
B.1.1 Make (trade name of manufacturer):... ……………...
B.1.2 Type: ...
B.1.2.1 Commercial name(s) (if applicable):
B.1.3 Means of identification of type and position, if marked on the vehicle
(2): ... …
B.1.3.1 Location of that marking: …………………………………………………..
B.1.4 Category of vehicle: ...
B.1.5 Name and address of manufacturer: ... ……...
B.1.6 Name(s) and address(es) of assembly plant(s): ...
(1) Cross out those that do not apply.
(2) If the means of identification of type contains characters not relevant to describing the
vehicle, component or separate technical unit types covered by this information, such
characters shall be represented in the documentation by the symbol “?” (e.g.
ABC??123??). 
B.1.7 Representative of the manufacturer:
B.2 SECTION II
B.2.1 Testing organization responsible for carrying out the type-approval
tests: ...
B.2.2 Date of test report: ...
B.2.3 Number of test report:...
B.2.4 Date of issuance of certificate:...
B.2.5 Signature and seal (Type-approval authority): ...
B.2.6 Remarks:...
Attachments: Information package.
Test report.
Attachment BA
(Informative)
Addendum to type-approval certificate
BA.1 Vehicle parameters and test conditions
BA.1.1 Unladen mass of vehicle: ... ……
BA.1.2 Maximum mass of vehicle: ...
BA.1.3 Reference mass of vehicle: ...
BA.1.4 Number of seats (including driver's seat): ...
BA.1.5 Type of bodywork:
BA.1.5.1 For Category M vehicles: saloon, hatchback, station wagon, coupé,
convertible, multipurpose vehicle (1)
BA.1.5.2 For Category N vehicles: lorry, van (1)
BA.1.6 Drive wheels: front, rear, 4 × 4 (1)
BA.1.7 Engine identification number ... ………...
BA.1.7.1 Engine displacement:
BA.1.7.2 Fuel supply system: direct injection/indirect injection (1)
BA.1.7.3 Fuel recommended by the manufacturer:
BA.1.7.4 Pressure charging device: yes/no (1)
BA.1.7.5 Maximum power:... kW; Rotate speed:... r/min
BA.1.7.6 Ignition system: compression ignition/positive ignition (1)
BA.1.8 Lubricating oil used by the engine
BA.1.8.1 Make(s): ... ………...
BA.1.8.2 Type(s): ...
BA.1.9 Transmission
BA.1.9.1 Type of gearbox: manual/automatic/variable transmission (1)
(1) Cross out those that do not apply.
BA.1.9.2 Number of gears: ...
BA.1.9.3 Total gear ratios (including the rolling circumferences of the tyres
under load): road speeds per 1000 r/min (km/h)
First gear: ………………………………… Sixth gear: .……………………………
Second gear: …………………………….. Seventh gear: ………………………...
Third gear: ………………………… ……...Eighth gear: …………….…………….
Fourth gear: ………………………………. Overdrive: …………….……………...
Fifth gear:
BA.1.9.4 Final drive ratio:
BA.1.10 Tyres: …………….…………………………………………………………
Type(s): …………………………….….. Dimensions: ……………. …….…………
Rolling circumference under load: ... ……. ……. ………...
Rolling circumference of tyres used for the Type I test: ... ……. …………
BA.2 Test results
BA.2.1 Type I test
Type I test
result Test
CO
(g/km)
THC
(g/km)
NMHC
(g/km)
NOX
(g/km)
THC+
NOX
(g/km)
PM
(g/km)
PN
(#/km)
CO2
(g/km)
Measured
value (i) (iv)
Mean value
(M) (i) (iv)
Ki (i) (v) (ii) (ii) (ii)
Mean value
multiplied by
Ki (M.Ki) (iv)
(iii) (ii) (ii)
DF (i) (v) (ii)
Mean value
multiplied by
Ki and DF (M.
Ki.DF) (vi)
(ii)
Limit value (ii)
(i) Where applicable.
(ii) Not applicable.
(iii) THC and NOX mean values are multiplied by Ki (M.Ki) respectively and added.
(iv) Round to 2 decimal places.
(v) Round to 4 decimal places.
(vi) Round to 1 decimal place more than limit value.
Position of engine cooling fan in test:
Height of the lowest point above ground: ……………………………. ……. … cm
Horizontal position of the fan center line: …………………. ……. ……. ……..cm
At the left/right side of vehicle center line (1)
Information about regeneration strategy:
D-Number of cycles between two regenerative phases: …………………………
d-Number of cycles required for regeneration phase: …………………………….
BA.2.2 Type II test
BA.2.2.1 Two-speed idle test for positive-ignition vehicles (1)
Test content CO (% volume)
THC
(ppm)
Air-fuel
ratio (λ)
Engine
speed
(r/min)
Engine oil
temperature
(°C)
Normal
idle test
Combination with the
highest CO value --
Combination with the
highest THC value --
High idle test
BA.2.2.2 Free acceleration smoke test of compression-ignition vehicles
(1)
BA.2.2.2.1 Measured value of optical absorption coefficient…………………m-1
BA.2.3 Type III test: …………………………………………………………………
BA.2.4 Type IV test: …………………………………………………………..g/test
BA.2.5 Type V test:
- Durability test: whole vehicle test/engine bench ageing test/ (1)
- Deterioration factor DF: actually-measured value (AMA/SRC/SBC (1))
- Specify the values: ……………………………………………………………….
BA.2.6 Type VI test
Type VI test CO (g/km) THC (g/km)
Measured value
BA.2.7 For vehicles fuelled with LPG or NG
Repeat the above table. For mono-fuel gas vehicles, the results of using all
LPG or NG reference fuels and the final results shall be listed. In case of a
bi-fuel gas vehicle, results and final results for petrol and all LPG or NG
reference fuels shall be listed. Meanwhile, it shall be made known whether
such results are measured or calculated.
BA.2.8 OBD system
BA.2.8.1 Written description or drawing of the MI:...
BA.2.8.2 List and function of all components monitored by the OBD system: ...
BA.2.8.3 Written description (general working principles):
BA.2.8.3.1 Positive-ignition vehicles
BA.2.8.3.1.1 Misfire detection: ...
BA.2.8.3.1.2 Catalytic converter monitoring: ...
BA.2.8.3.1.3 Oxygen sensor monitoring: ... … ...
BA.2.8.3.1.4 Other components monitored by the OBD system: ...
BA.2.8.3.2 Compression-ignition vehicles
BA.2.8.3.2.1 Catalytic converter monitoring: ... …...
BA.2.8.3.2.2 Particulate trap monitoring: ...
BA.2.8.3.2.3 Electronic control fuelling system actuator monitoring: ...
BA.2.8.3.2.4 Other components monitored by the OBD system: ...
BA.2.8.4 Criteria for MI activation (fixed number of driving cycles or statistical
method):...
BA.2.8.5 List of all OBD output codes and formats used (with explanation of
each):...
BA.3 Pollution control device
BA.3.1 Catalytic converter
BA.3.1.1 Original catalytic converter tested to all relevant requirements
of this Standard: yes/no (1)
BA.3.1.1.2 Make and type of the original catalytic converters listed in
A.4.2.11.2.1: ...
BA.3.1.1.3 Substrate volume: ……………………………………………………..L
BA.3.1.1.4 Total content of precious metals: ……………………………………g
BA.3.1.1.5 Ratio of precious metals: ………………………………… (Pt: Pd: Rh)
BA.3.2 Original particulate trap tested to all relevant requirements of this
Standard: yes/no (1)
BA.3.2.1 Make and type of the original particulate trap listed in
A.4.2.11.2.6: ...
BA.3.3 Original carbon canister tested to all relevant requirements of this
Standard: yes/no (1)
BA.3.3.1 Make and type of the original carbon canister:...
BA.3.3.2 Effective volume of carbon canister: …………………………………...L
BA.3.3.3 Initial working capacity (BWC) of carbon canister: …...…….. g/100mL
Annex C
(Normative)
Test of exhaust emissions after a cold start at normal temperature (Type I
test)
C.1 Introduction
This annex describes the procedure for the type I test specified in 5.3.1. For
vehicles fuelled with LPG or NG, the provisions in Annex K also apply.
C.2 Test conditions
C.2.1 Ambient conditions
During the test, the test cell temperature shall be between 293 K and 303 K
(20 °C and 30 °C). The absolute humidity H(water/dry air) (g/kg) of either the air in
the test cell or the intake air of the engine shall be such that:
5.5≤H(water/dry air)≤12.2
The absolute humidity (H) shall be measured. The following temperatures shall
be measured: Test cell ambient air; dilution and sampling system temperatures
as required for emissions measurement systems defined in Attachments CC to
CF of this annex. The atmospheric pressure shall be measured.
C.2.2 Test vehicle
C.2.2.1 The vehicle shall be presented in good mechanical condition. It shall
have been run-in and driven at least 3000 km before the test.
C.2.2.2 The exhaust system shall not exhibit any leak likely to reduce the
quantity of gas collected, which quantity shall be that emerging from the
engine.
C.2.2.3 The tightness of the intake system may be checked to ensure that
carburetion is not affected by an accidental intake of air.
C.2.2.4 The settings of the engine and of the vehicle's controls shall be those
prescribed by the manufacturer. This requirement also applies, in particular, to
the settings for two-speed idling (engine speed and content of CO and THC in
the exhaust gases), for the cold start device and for the exhaust emissions
control system.
C.2.2.5 The vehicle to be tested, or an equivalent vehicle, shall be fitted, if
necessary, with a device to permit the measurement of the characteristic
parameters necessary for chassis dynamometer setting, in conformity with
paragraph C.4.
C.2.2.6 The testing organization responsible for the tests may verify that the
vehicle's performance conforms to that stated by the manufacturer, that it can
be used for normal driving and, more particularly, that it is capable of starting
when cold and when hot.
C.2.3 Test fuel
The appropriate reference fuel as defined in Annex J shall be used for type
approval test.
Vehicles that are fuelled either with LPG or NG shall be tested according to
Annex K with the appropriate reference fuel(s) as defined in Annex J.
C.2.4 Vehicle placement
C.2.4.1 The vehicle shall be approximately horizontal during the test so as to
avoid any abnormal distribution of the fuel.
C.2.4.2 A current of air of variable speed shall be blown over the vehicle. The
blower speed shall be, within the operating range of 10 km/h to at least 50
km/h, or as an alternative, within the operating range of 10 km/h to at least the
maximum speed of the test cycle being used. The linear velocity of the air at
the blower outlet shall be within ±5 km/h of the corresponding roller speed
within the range of 10 km/h to 50 km/h. At the range over 50 km/h, the linear
velocity of the air shall be within ±10 km/h of the corresponding roller speed. At
roller speeds of less than 10 km/h, air velocity may be zero.
The air velocity of blower shall be determined as an averaged value of a
number of measuring points which:
- For blowers with rectangular outlets are located at the centre of each
rectangle dividing the whole of the blower outlet into 9 areas (dividing both
horizontal and vertical sides of the blower outlet into 3 equal parts), but the
rectangle in the middle is free from measurement (See Figure C.1);
Figure C.1 -- Schematic diagram for measurement points of rectangular
blower outlet
- For circular blower outlets, the outlet shall be divided into 8 equal arcs by
vertical, horizontal and 45° lines. The measurement points lie on the radial
centre line of each arc (22.5°) at a radius of two thirds of the total (as
shown in Figure C.2).
Figure C.2 -- Schematic diagram for measurement points of circular
blower outlet
It shall be no vehicle or other barriers in front of the blower when measuring.
The device used to measure the linear velocity of the air shall be located at
between 0 and 0.2 m from the air outlet.
The final selection of the blower shall have the following characteristics:
- Area: at least 0.2 m2;
- Height of the lower edge above ground: approximately 0.2 m;
- Distance from the front of the vehicle: approximately 0.3 m.
The height and lateral position of the cooling blower can also be modified at
the request of the manufacturer and approved by the testing organization. In
addition, the location and configuration of the blower shall be recorded in the
test report. The same requirements shall be employed for checking conformity
of production and in-service conformity.
C.3 Test equipment
C.3.1 Chassis dynamometer
The chassis dynamometer requirements are given in Attachment CB.
C.3.2 Exhaust dilution system
The exhaust dilution system requirements are given in Attachment CC.
C.3.3 Gaseous emissions sampling and analysis system
The gaseous emissions sampling and analysis equipment requirements are
given in Attachment CD.
C.3.4 Particulate matter mass measurement equipment
The particulate matter mass sampling and measurement equipment
requirements are given in Attachment CE.
C.3.5 Particle numbers measurement equipment
The particle numbers sampling and measurement equipment requirements are
given in Attachment CF.
C.3.5 General test equipment
The following temperatures shall be measured with an accuracy of ±1.5 K:
- Test cell ambient air;
- Intake air to the engine;
- Dilution and sampling system temperatures as required for emissions
measurement systems defined in Attachments CC to CF of this annex.
The atmospheric pressure shall be measurable to within ±0.1 kPa.
The absolute humidity shall be measurable to within ±5 percent.
C.4 Determination of vehicle road load
C.4.1 The test procedure for measuring the vehicle road load is described in
Attachment CH.
C.4.2 This procedure is not required if the chassis dynamometer load is to be
set according to the reference mass of the vehicle.
C.5 Emissions test procedure
C.5.1 Test cycle
The operating cycle on the chassis dynamometer, made up of a Part 1 (urban
cycle) and Part 2 (extra-urban cycle), is illustrated in Attachment CA. During
the complete test the elementary urban cycle is run 4 times followed by 1
extra-urban cycle.
C.5.1.1 Use of the gearbox
C.5.1.1.1 If the maximum speed which can be attained in first gear is below 15
km/h, the second, third and fourth gears shall be used for the urban cycle (Part
1) and the second, third, fourth and fifth gears for the extra-urban cycle (Part 2).
When the manufacturer's instructions recommend starting in second gear on
level ground, or when first gear is therein defined as a gear reserved for
cross-country driving, crawling or towing, the second, third and fourth gears
may also be used for the urban cycle (Part 1) and the second, third, fourth and
fifth gears for the extra-urban cycle (Part 2).
Vehicles which do not attain the acceleration and maximum speed values
required in the operating cycle shall be operated with the accelerator control
fully depressed until they once again reach the required operating curve.
Deviations from the operating cycle shall be recorded in the test report.
Vehicles equipped with semi-automatic-shift gearboxes shall be tested by
using the gears normally employed for driving. The gear shift is used in
accordance with the manufacturer's instructions.
C.5.1.1.2 Vehicles equipped with automatic-shift gearboxes shall be tested
with the highest gear ("Drive") engaged. The accelerator shall be used in such
a way as to obtain the steadiest acceleration possible, enabling the various
gears to be engaged in the normal order. Furthermore, the gear-change points
shown in Attachment CA shall not apply; acceleration shall continue
throughout the period represented by the straight line connecting the end of
each period of idling with the beginning of the next following period of steady
speed. The tolerances given in paragraph C.5.1.2 shall apply.
C.5.1.1.3 Vehicles equipped with an overdrive that the driver can actuate shall
be tested with the overdrive out of action for the urban cycle (Part 1) and with
the overdrive in action for the extra-urban cycle (Part 2).
C.5.1.1.4 At the request of the manufacturer, for a vehicle type where the idle
speed of the engine is higher than the engine speed that would occur during
operations 5, 12 and 24 of the elementary urban cycle (Part 1), the clutch may
be disengaged during the previous operation.
C.5.1.2 Tolerances
C.5.1.2.1 A tolerance of ±2 km/h shall be allowed between the indicated speed
and the theoretical speed during acceleration, during steady speed, and during
deceleration when the vehicle's brakes are used. If the vehicle decelerates
more rapidly without the use of the brakes, only the provisions of paragraph
C.5.4.4.3 below shall apply. Speed tolerances greater than those prescribed
shall be accepted during phase changes provided that the tolerances are
never exceeded for more than 0.5 s on any one occasion.
C.5.1.2.2 The time tolerances shall be ±1 s. The above tolerances shall apply
equally at the beginning and at the end of each gear-changing period for the
urban cycle (Part 1) and for the operations Nos. 3, 5 and 7 of the extra-urban
cycle (Part 2). It should be noted that the time of 2 seconds allowed includes
the time for changing gear and, if necessary, a certain amount of latitude to
catch up with the theoretical cycle.
C.5.2 Test preparation
C.5.2.1 Load and inertia setting
C.5.2.1.1 Load determined with vehicle road test
The dynamometer shall be adjusted so that the total inertia of the rotating
masses will simulate the inertia and other road load forces acting on the
vehicle when driving on the road. The means by which this load is determined
is described in C.4.
Dynamometer with fixed load curve: The load simulator shall be adjusted to
absorb the power exerted on the driving wheels at a steady speed of 80 km/h
and the absorbed power at 50 km/h shall be noted.
Dynamometer with adjustable load curve: The load simulator shall be adjusted
in order to absorb the power exerted on the driving wheels at steady speeds of
120, 100, 80, 60, 40 and 20 km/h.
C.5.2.1.2 With the manufacturer's agreement the following method may be
used.
The dynamometer is adjusted so as to absorb the load exerted at the driving
wheels at a constant speed of 80 km/h, in accordance with Table C.1.
If the corresponding equivalent inertia is not available on the dynamometer,
the larger value closest to the vehicle reference mass will be used.
For full-time four-wheel drive vehicles (without the need to manually switch
between two-wheel drive and four-wheel drive), or vehicles of category N with
a reference mass greater than 1700 kg, when tested in the two-drive chassis
dynamometer mode, the power value given in Table C.1 shall be multiplied by
a factor of 1.3.
Table C.1
C.5.2.1.3 The method used and the values obtained (equivalent inertia -
characteristic adjustment parameter) shall be recorded in the test report.
C.5.2.2 Preliminary testing cycles shall be carried out if necessary, to
determine how best to actuate the accelerator and brake controls so as to
achieve a cycle approximating to the theoretical cycle within the prescribed
limits under which the cycle is carried out.
C.5.2.3 Tyre pressures
The tyre pressures shall be the same as that specified by the manufacturer
and used for the preliminary road test for dynamometer adjustment. The tyre
pressure may be increased by up to 50 percent from the manufacturer's
recommended setting in the case of a two-roller dynamometer. The actual
pressure used shall be recorded in the test report.
C.5.2.4 Background particulate matter mass measurement
The background particulate matter mass level may be determined by passing
Reference mass of vehicle Equivalent inertia
Power and load absorbed by the
dynamometer at 80 km/h
Factor
filtered dilution air through the particulate filter. This shall be drawn from the
same point as the particulate sample. One measurement may be performed
prior to or after the test. Particulate matter mass measurements may be
corrected by subtracting the background contribution from the dilution system.
The permissible background contribution shall be ≤ 1 mg/km (or equivalent
mass of particulate matter on the filter). If the background mass exceeds this
level, the default figure of 1 mg/km (or equivalent mass of particulate matter on
the filter) shall be employed. Where subtraction of the background contribution
gives a negative result, the particulate matter mass result shall be considered
to be zero.
C.5.2.5 Background particle number measurements
The background particle numbers may be determined by sampling dilution air
drawn from a point downstream of the particle and hydrocarbon filters into the
particle number measurement system. Background correction of particle
number measurements shall not be allowed for type approval test; but may be
used at the manufacturer's request for conformity of production and in-service
conformity where there are indications that tunnel contribution is significant.
C.5.2.6 Selection of filter required for particulate matter mass
measurement
A single particulate filter without back-up shall be employed for both urban and
extra-urban phases of the cycle combined.
Twin particulate filters, one for the urban, one for the extra-urban phase, may
be used without back-up filters, only where the pressure-drop increase across
the sample filter between the beginning and the end of the emissions test is
otherwise expected to exceed 25 kPa.
C.5.2.7 Preparation of filter required for particulate matter mass
measurement
C.5.2.7.1 Particulate mass sampling filters shall be conditioned (as regards
temperature and humidity) in an open dish that has been protected against
dust ingress for at least 2 and for not more than 80 hours before the test in a
weighing chamber. After this conditioning, the uncontaminated filters will be
weighed and stored until they are used. If the filters are not used within 1 hour
of their removal from the weighing chamber they shall be re-weighed.
C.5.2.7.2 The 1 hour limit may be replaced by an 8-hour limit if one or both of
the following conditions are met:
- A stabilized filter is placed and kept in a sealed filter holder assembly with
the ends plugged; or
- A stabilized filter is placed in a sealed filter holder assembly which is then
immediately placed in a sample line through which there is no flow.
C.5.2.7.3 The particulate sampling system shall be started and prepared for
sampling.
C.5.2.8 Particle number measurement preparation
C.5.2.8.1 The particle specific dilution system and measurement equipment
shall be started and readied for sampling.
C.5.2.8.2 Prior to the test(s) the correct function of the particle counter and
volatile particle remover elements of the particle sampling system shall be
confirmed according to CF.2.3.1 and CF.2.3.3.
The particle counter response shall be tested at zero prior to each test and, on
a daily basis, at high particle concentrations using ambient air.
When the inlet is equipped with a HEPA filter, it shall be demonstrated that the
entire particle sampling system is free from any leaks.
C.5.2.9 Check of gas analysers
Adjust the zero and span points of the gas analyser. The sample bags shall be
evacuated.
C.5.3 Pre-conditioning procedure
C.5.3.1 For the purpose of measuring particulates, at most 36 hours and at
least 6 hours before testing, the Part 2 cycle described in Attachment CA shall
be used. Three consecutive cycles shall be driven. The dynamometer setting
shall be indicated as in paragraph C.5.2.1.
At the request of the manufacturer, vehicles fitted with indirect injection
positive-ignition engines may be preconditioned with one Part 1 and two Part 2
driving cycles.
C.5.3.2 After this preconditioning, and before testing, vehicles shall be kept in
a room in which the temperature remains relatively constant between 293 and
303 K (20 °C and 30 °C). This conditioning shall be carried out for at least 6
hours and continue until the engine oil temperature and coolant, if any, are
within ±2 K of the temperature of the room.
If the manufacturer so requests, the test shall be carried out between 6 and 30
hours after the vehicle has been run at its normal temperature.
In a test facility in which there may be possible contamination of a low
particulate emitting vehicle test with residue from a previous test on a high
particulate emitting vehicle, it is recommended to conduct air extraction and
purge in the dilution tunnel for 20 minutes duration followed by emission test.
C.5.3.3 For bi-fuel vehicles fuelled with LPG or NG, or equipped with
positive-ignition engines, between the tests on the first gaseous reference fuel
and the second gaseous reference fuel, the vehicle shall be preconditioned
before the test on the second reference fuel. This preconditioning is done on
the second reference fuel by driving a preconditioning cycle consisting of one
Part 1 and two times Part 2 of the test cycle described in Attachment CA. On
the manufacturer's request and with the agreement of the testing organization
this preconditioning may be extended. The dynamometer setting shall be the
one indicated in paragraph C.5.2.1.
C.5.4 Test procedure
C.5.4.1 Starting-up of engine
C.5.4.1.1 The engine shall be started up by means of the devices provided for
this purpose according to the manufacturer's instructions.
C.5.4.1.2 The Part 1 cycle starts on the initiation of the engine start-up
procedure.
C.5.4.1.3 In cases where LPG or NG is used as a fuel it is permissible that the
engine is started on petrol and switched to LPG or NG after a predetermined
period of time which cannot be changed by the driver.
C.5.4.2 Idling
C.5.4.2.1 Manual-shift or semi-automatic gearbox
C.5.4.2.1.1 Idling, clutch engaged, transmission in neutral.
C.5.4.2.1.2 To enable the accelerations to be performed according to the
normal cycle the vehicle shall be put in first gear, with the clutch disengaged, 5
seconds before the acceleration following the latter part of the idling period of
the urban cycle (Part 1).
C.5.4.2.1.3 The first idling period at the beginning of the urban cycle (Part 1)
shall consist of 6 seconds of idling in neutral with the clutch engaged and 5
seconds in first gear with the clutch disengaged.
The aforementioned two periods of idling shall be continuous. The idling at the
start of the extra-urban cycle (Part 2) shall consist of 20 seconds of idling in
first gear with the clutch disengaged.
C.5.4.2.1.4 For the idling periods during each urban cycle (Part 1) the
corresponding times shall be 16 seconds in neutral with the clutch engaged
and 5 seconds in first gear with the clutch disengaged.
C.5.4.2.1.5 For the urban cycle (Part 1), the idling time between two cycles
shall consist of 13 seconds of idling in neutral with the clutch engaged and 5
seconds of idling in first gear with the clutch disengaged.
C.5.4.2.1.6 The idling period at the end of the deceleration period of the
extra-urban cycle (Part 2) (with the vehicle already stopped on the rollers) shall
consist of 20 seconds of idling in neutral with the clutch engaged.
C.5.4.2.2 Automatic-shift gearbox
After initial engagement the selector shall not be operated at any time during
the test except in the case specified in paragraph C.5.4.3.3 below or if the
selector can actuate the overdrive, if any.
C.5.4.3 Accelerations
C.5.4.3.1 Accelerations shall be so performed that the rate of acceleration is as
constant as possible throughout the operation.
C.5.4.3.2 If an acceleration cannot be carried out in the prescribed time, the
extra time required shall be deducted from the time allowed for changing gear,
if possible, but otherwise from the subsequent steady-speed period.
C.5.4.3.3 Automatic-shift gearboxes
If acceleration cannot be carried out in the prescribed time, the gear selector
shall operate in accordance with requirements for manual-shift gearboxes.
C.5.4.4 Decelerations
C.5.4.4.1 All decelerations of the elementary urban cycle (Part 1) shall be
conducted by removing the foot completely from the accelerator with the clutch
remaining engaged. The clutch shall be disengaged, without use of the gear
lever, at a speed of 10 km/h.
All decelerations of the extra-urban cycle (Part 2) shall be conducted by
removing the foot completely from the accelerator, the clutch remaining
engaged. The clutch shall be disengaged, without use of the gear lever, at a
speed of 50 km/h for the last deceleration.
C.5.4.4.2 If the period of deceleration is longer than that prescribed for the
corresponding phase, the vehicle's brakes shall be used.
C.5.4.4.3 If the period of deceleration is shorter than that prescribed for the
corresponding phase, the timing of the theoretical cycle shall be restored by
constant speed or an idling period merging into the following operation.
C.5.4.4.4 At the end of the deceleration period (the vehicle on the rollers) of the
elementary urban cycle (Part 1), the gears shall be placed in neutral and the
clutch engaged.
C.5.4.5 Steady speeds
C.5.4.5.1 "Pumping" or the closing of the throttle shall be avoided when
passing from acceleration to the following steady speed.
C.5.4.5.2 Periods of constant speed shall be achieved by keeping the
accelerator position fixed.
C.5.4.6 Sampling
Sampling shall begin (BS) before or at the initiation of the engine start up
procedure and end on conclusion of the final idling period in the extra-urban
cycle (Part 2, end of sampling (ES)) or, in the case of test Type VI, on
conclusion of the final idling period of the last elementary urban cycle (Part 1).
C.5.4.7 During the test the speed is recorded against time or collected by the
data acquisition system so that the correctness of the cycles performed can be
assessed.
C.5.4.8 Particle emissions shall be measured continuously in the particle
sampling system. The average concentrations shall be determined by
integrating the analyser signals over the test cycle.
C.5.5 Post-test procedures
C.5.5.1 Gas analyser check
Zero and span gas reading of the analysers used for continuous measurement
shall be checked using standard gas. The test shall be considered acceptable
if the difference between the pre-test and post-test results is less than 2
percent of the span gas value.
C.5.5.2 Filter weighing
Reference filters shall be weighed within 8 hours after the weighing of test filter.
The particulate matter test filter shall be taken to the weighing chamber within
1 hour following the analyses of the exhaust gases. The test filter shall be
conditioned for at least 2 hours and not more than 80 hours and then weighed.
C.5.5.3 Sampling bag analysis
C.5.5.3.1 The exhaust gases contained in the bag shall be analysed as soon
as possible and in any event not later than 20 minutes after the end of the test
cycle.
C.5.5.3.2 Prior to each sample gas analysis, the analyser range to be used for
each pollutant shall be set to zero with the appropriate zero gas.
C.5.5.3.3 The analysers shall then be set to the calibration curves by means of
span gases of nominal concentrations of 70 to 100 percent of the range.
C.5.5.3.4 The analysers' zero settings shall then be rechecked: If any reading
differs by more than 2 percent of the range from that set in paragraph C.5.5.3.2
above, the procedure shall be repeated for that analyser.
C.5.5.3.5 The samples shall then be analysed.
C.5.5.3.6 After the analysis, zero and span points shall be rechecked using
the same gases. If these rechecks are within ±2 percent of those in paragraph
C.5.5.3.3 above, the analysis shall be considered acceptable.
C.5.5.3.7 At all points in this section, the flow-rates and pressures of the
various gases shall be the same as those used during calibration of the
analysers.
C.5.5.3.8 The figure adopted for the content of the gases in each of the
pollutants measured shall be that read off after stabilisation of the measuring
device. Total hydrocarbon emission mass of compression-ignition engines
shall be calculated from the integrated HFID reading, corrected for varying flow
if necessary, as shown in paragraph C.5.6.6 below.
C.5.6 Calculation of emissions
C.5.6.1 Determination of volume
C.5.6.1.1 Calculation of the volume when a variable dilution device with
constant flow control by orifice or venturi is used. Record continuously the
parameters showing the volumetric flow and calculate the total volume for the
duration of the test.
C.5.6.1.2 The volume of diluted exhaust gas measured in systems comprising
a positive displacement pump is calculated with the following formula:
V=V0×N
Where:
V - Volume of the diluted gas expressed in litres per test (prior to correction);
V0 - Volume of gas delivered by the positive displacement pump in testing
conditions in litres per revolution;
N - Number of revolutions per test.
C.5.6.1.3 Correction of Volume to Standard Conditions. The diluted
exhaust-gas volume is corrected by means of the following formula:
Where:
Where:
PB - barometric pressure in the test room in kPa;
P1 - vacuum at the inlet to the positive displacement pump in kPa relative to
the ambient barometric pressure, kPa;
Tp - average temperature of the diluted exhaust gas entering the positive
displacement pump during the test, K.
C.5.6.2 Total mass of gaseous pollutants emitted
The mass m of each pollutant emitted by the vehicle during the test shall be
determined by obtaining the product of the volumetric concentration and the
volume of the gas in question, with due regard for the following densities under
above-mentioned reference conditions:
- In the case of carbon monoxide (CO): d = 1.25g/L,
- In the case of hydrocarbons:
For petrol (C1H1.85): d = 0.619g/L
For diesel (C1H1.86): d = 0.619g/L
For LPG (C1H2.525): d = 0.649g/L
For NG (CH4): d = 0.714g/L
- For nitrogen oxides (NO2): d = 2.05g/L
- For carbon dioxide (CO2): d = 1.964g/L
C.5.6.3 Mass emissions of gaseous pollutants shall be calculated by means of
the following formula:
Where:
Mi - mass emission of the pollutant i in g/km;
Vmix - volume of the diluted exhaust gas expressed in litres per test and
corrected to standard conditions (273.2 K and 101.33 kPa);
Qi - density of the pollutant i in g/L at normal temperature and pressure (273.2
K and 101.33 kPa);
KH - humidity correction factor used for the calculation of the mass emissions
of oxides of nitrogen. There is no humidity correction for THC, CH4 and CO;
Ci - concentration of the pollutant i in the diluted exhaust gas expressed in ppm
and corrected by the amount of the pollutant i contained in the dilution air;
d - actual distance corresponding to the operating cycle in km.
C.5.6.4 Correction for dilution air concentration
The concentration of pollutant in the diluted exhaust gas shall be corrected by
the amount of the pollutant in the dilution air as follows:
Where:
Ci - concentration of the pollutant i in the diluted exhaust gas, expressed in
ppm and corrected by the amount of i contained in the dilution air;
Ce - measured concentration of pollutant i in the diluted exhaust gas,
expressed in ppm;
Cd - concentration of pollutant i in the air used for dilution, expressed in ppm;
Df - dilution factor.
For each kind of reference fuel, the dilution factor is calculated as follows:
For fuels with ingredient of CXHYOZ, the general formula for ‘X’ is calculated as
follows:
For reference fuels contained in Annex J, ‘X’ values refer to Table C.2.
Table C.2
Fuel X
Petrol 13.4
Diesel 13.4
LPG 11.9
NG 9.5
Where:
CCO2 - concentration of CO2 in the diluted exhaust gas contained in the
sampling bag, expressed in percent volume (%);
CTHC - concentration of THC in the diluted exhaust gas contained in the
sampling bag, expressed in ppm carbon equivalent (ppmC);
CCO - concentration of CO in the diluted exhaust gas contained in the sampling
bag, expressed in ppm.
Non-methane hydrocarbon concentration is calculated as follows:
Where:
CNMHC - corrected concentration of NMHC in the diluted exhaust gas,
expressed in ppm carbon equivalent;
CTHC - concentration of THC in the diluted exhaust gas, expressed in ppm
carbon equivalent and corrected by the amount of THC contained in the
dilution air;
CCH4 - concentration of CH4 in the diluted exhaust gas, expressed in ppm
carbon equivalent and corrected by the amount of CH4 contained in the dilution
air;
RfCH4 - the FID response factor to methane as defined in paragraph CD.2.3 of
Attachment CD.
C.5.6.5 Calculation of the NOx humidity correction factor
In order to correct the influence of humidity on the results of oxides of nitrogen,
the following calculations are applied:
Where:
H - absolute humidity expressed in grams of water per kilogram of dry air
(g/kg);
Ra - relative humidity of the ambient air expressed as a percentage (%);
Pd - saturation vapour pressure at ambient temperature expressed in kPa;
PB - atmospheric pressure in the room, expressed in kPa.
C.5.6.6 Determination of THC for compression-ignition engines
To calculate THC-mass emission for compression-ignition engines, the
average THC concentration is calculated as follows:
Where:
- Integral of the recording curve of the heated FID over the test
(t2-t1);
Ce - Concentration of THC measured in the diluted exhaust in ppmC;
Ci - Ci is substituted for CTHC in all relevant equations.
C.5.6.7 Determination of particulate matter
Particulate matter emission Mp (g/km) is calculated by means of the following
equation:
Where exhaust gases are vented outside tunnel;
Where exhaust gases are returned to the tunnel;
Where:
Vmix - volume of diluted exhaust gases (see paragraph C.5.6.1), under
standard conditions, expressed in m3;
Vep - volume of exhaust gas flowing through particulate filter under standard
conditions, expressed in m3;
Pe - particulate matter mass collected by filter(s), expressed in g;
d - actual distance corresponding to the operating cycle in km;
Mp - particulate mass emission in g/km.
Where the particulate matter background level from the dilution system is
determined in accordance with paragraph C.5.2.4, the particulate matter mass
may be subjected to background correction.
Where correction for the particulate background level from the dilution system
has been used, this shall be determined in accordance with paragraph C.5.2.4.
In this case, the particulate matter mass (g/km) shall be calculated as follows:
Where exhaust gases are vented outside tunnel;
Where exhaust gases are returned to the tunnel;
Where:
Vap - volume of tunnel air flowing through the background particulate filter
under standard conditions, expressed in m3;
Pa - particulate matter mass collected by background filter, expressed in g;
Df - dilution factor as determined in paragraph C.5.6.4.
Where application of a background correction results in a negative particulate
mass (in g/km) the result shall be considered to be 0 g/km particulate mass.
C.5.6.8 Determination of particle numbers
Number emission of particles shall be calculated by means of the following
equation:
N - particle number emission expressed in particles per kilometer;
V - volume of the diluted exhaust gas expressed in liters per test and corrected
to standard conditions (273.2 K and 101.33 kPa);
k - calibration factor to correct the particle number counter measurements to
the level of the reference instrument where this is not applied internally within
the particle number counter. Where the calibration factor is applied internally
within the particle number counter a value of 1 shall be used for k in the above
equation;
C s - corrected concentration of particles from the diluted exhaust gas
expressed as the average particles per cubic centimeter figure from the
emissions test including the full duration of the drive cycle. If the volumetric
mean concentration results ( C ) from the particle number counter are not
output at standard conditions (273.2 K and 101.33 kPa), then the
concentrations shall be corrected to those conditions (C s);
- mean particle concentration reduction factor of the volatile particle remover
at the dilution setting used for the test;
d - distance corresponding to the operating cycle expressed in km.
C shall be calculated from the following equation:
Where:
Ci - a discrete measurement of particle concentration in the diluted gas
exhaust from the particle counter expressed in particles per cubic centimeter
and corrected for coincidence;
n - total number of discrete particle concentration measurements made during
the operating cycle; it shall be calculated from the following equation:
n = T.f
Where:
T - time duration of the operating cycle expressed in seconds, s;
f - data logging frequency of the particle counter expressed in Hz.
C.5.6.9 Supplementary requirements for measurement of particulate
matter mass from vehicles equipped with periodically regenerating
systems
C.5.6.9.1 The provisions of Annex P shall apply for the purposes of particulate
mass measurements only and not particle number measurements.
C.5.6.9.2 For particulate mass sampling during a test in which the vehicle
undergoes a scheduled regeneration, the filter face temperature shall not
exceed 192 °C.
C.5.6.9.3 For particulate mass sampling during a test when the regenerating
device is in a stabilized loading condition (i.e. the vehicle is not undergoing a
regeneration), it is recommended that the vehicle has completed > 1/3 of the
mileage between scheduled regenerations or that the periodically regenerating
device has undergone equivalent loading off the vehicle.
Attachment CA
(Normative)
Breakdown of the operating cycle used for the Type I test
CA.1 Operating cycle
CA.1.1 The operating cycle, made up of a Part 1 (urban cycle) and Part 2
(extra-urban cycle), is illustrated at Figure CA.1.
Figure CA.1 -- Operating cycle for the Type I test
CA.2 Cycle unit of elementary urban cycle (Part 1)
See Figure CA.2 and Table CA.1.
Figure CA.2 -- Schematic diagram for cycle unit of elementary urban cycle (Part 1) for the Type I test
2 4 6 8
Table CA.1 -- Elementary urban operating cycle (Part 1) on the chassis
dynamometer
Operatio
n No. Operation
Phas
Acceleratio
(m/s2)
Spee
(km/h)
Duration of each Cumulativ
e time
(s)
Gear to be
used in the
case of a
manual
gearbox
Operatio
(s)
Phase(s
1 Idling 1 11 11 11 6sꞏPM+5sꞏK1[*]
2 Acceleration 2 1.04 0-15 4 4 15 1
3 Steady speed 3 15 8 8 23 1
4 Deceleration
-0.69 15-10 2
25 1
5 Deceleration/clutch disengaged -0.92 10-0 3 28 K1
6 Idling 5 21 21 49 16sꞏPM+5sꞏK1
7 Acceleration
0.83 0-15 5
12
54 1
8 Gear change 2 56
9 Acceleration 0.94 15-32 5 61 2
10 Steady speed 7 32 24 24 85 2
11 Deceleration
-0.75 32-10 8
11
93 2
12 Deceleration/clutch disengaged -0.92 10-0 3 96 K2
13 Idling 9 21 21 117 16sꞏPM+5sꞏK1
14 Acceleration
10
0.83 0-15 5
26
122 1
15 Gear change 2 124
16 Acceleration 0.62 15-35 9 133 2
17 Gear change 2 135
18 Acceleration 0.52 35-50 8 143 3
19 Steady speed 11 50 12 12 155 3
20 Deceleration 12 -0.52 50-35 8 8 163 3
21 Steady speed 13 35 13 13 176 3
22 Gear change
14
12
178
23 Deceleration -0.86 35-10 7 185 2
24 Deceleration/clutch disengaged -0.92 10-0 3 188 K2
25 Idling 15 7 7 195 7sPM
[*] PM...Gearbox in neutral, clutch engaged.
K1, K2 ...First or second gear engaged, clutch disengaged.
CA.2.1 Breakdown by phases
Table CA.2
Time (s) %
Idling 60 30.8 35.4 Idling, vehicle decelerating, clutch disengaged 9 4.6
Gear change 8 4.1
Acceleration 36 18.5
Steady speed 57 29.2
Deceleration 25 12.8
195 100
CA.2.2 Breakdown by use of gears
Table CA.3
Time (s) %
Idling 60 30.8 35.4 Idling, vehicle decelerating, clutch disengaged 9 4.6
Gear change 8 4.1
First gear 24 12.3
Second gear 53 27.2
Third gear 41 21
195 100
CA.2.3 General information
Average speed during test: 19km/h
Effective running time: 195s
Theoretical distance covered per cycle: 1.013km
Equivalent distance for the 4 cycles: 4.052km
CA.3 Extra-urban cycle (Part 2)
See Figure CA.3 and Table CA.4.
Figure CA.3 -- Extra-urban cycle (Part 2) for the Type I test
Speed (km/h)
Operation number
Time (s)
Table CA.4 -- Extra-urban cycle (Part 2) for the Type I test
Operation
No. Operation Phase
Acceleration
(m/s2)
Speed
(km/h)
Duration of each
Cumulative
time
(s)
Gear to be
used in
the case
of a
manual
gearbox
Operation
(s) Phase(s)
1 Idling 1 20 20 20 K1(1)
2 Acceleration
0.83 0-15 5
41
25 1
3 Gear change 2 27 -
4 Acceleration 0.62 15-35 9 36 2
5 Gear change 2 38 -
6 Acceleration 0.52 35-50 8 46 3
7 Gear change 2 48 -
8 Acceleration 0.43 50-70 13 61 4
9 Steady speed 3 70 50 50 111 5
10 Deceleration 4 -0.69 70-50 8 8 119 4s.5+4s.4
11 Steady speed 5 50 69 69 188 4
12 Acceleration 6 0.43 50-70 13 13 201 4
13 Steady speed 7 70 50 50 251 5
14 Acceleration 8 0.24 70-100 35 35 286 5
15 Steady speed 9 100 30 30 316 5 (2)
16 Acceleration 10 0.28 100-120 20 20 336 5 (2)
17 Steady speed 11 120 10 10 346 5 (2)
18 Deceleration
12
-0.69 120-80 16
34
362 5 (2)
19 Deceleration -1.04 80-50 8 370 5 (2)
20 Deceleration/clutch disengaged -1.39 50-0 10 380 K5(1)
21 Idling 13 20 20 400 PM (1)
(1) PM - gearbox in neutral, clutch engaged. K1, K5 - first or fifth gear engaged, clutch disengaged.
(2) Additional gears can be used according to manufacturer recommendations if the vehicle is equipped
with a transmission with more than five gears.
CA.3.1 Breakdown by phases
Table CA.5
Time (s) %
Idling: 40 10.0
Vehicle deceleration, clutch disengaged: 10 2.5
Gear change: 6 1.5
Acceleration: 103 25.8
Steady speed: 209 52.2
Deceleration: 32 8.0
400 100
CA.3.2 Breakdown by use of gears
Table CA.6
Time (s) %
Idling: 40 10.0
Vehicle deceleration, clutch disengaged: 10 2.5
Gear change: 6 1.5
First gear: 5 1.3
Second gear: 9 2.2
Third gear: 8 2.0
Fourth gear: 99 24.8
Fifth gear: 223 55.7
400 100
CA.3.3 General Information
Average speed during test: 62.6km/h
Effective running time: 400s
Theoretical distance covered per cycle: 6.955km
Maximal speed: 120km/h
Maximal acceleration: 0.833m/s2
Maximal deceleration: -1.389m/s2
Attachment CB
(Normative)
Chassis dynamometer
CB.1 Specification
CB.1.1 General requirements
CB.1.1.1 The dynamometer shall be capable of simulating road load within
one of the following classifications:
(a) Dynamometer with fixed load curve, i.e. a dynamometer whose physical
characteristics provide a fixed load curve shape;
(b) Dynamometer with adjustable load curve, i.e. a dynamometer with at
least two road load parameters that can be adjusted to shape the load
curve.
CB.1.1.2 Dynamometers with electric inertia simulation shall be demonstrated
to be equivalent to mechanical inertia systems. The means by which
equivalence is established are described in Attachment CG to this annex.
CB.1.1.3 In the event that the total resistance to progress on the road cannot
be reproduced on the chassis dynamometer between speeds of 10 km/h and
120 km/h, it is recommended that a chassis dynamometer having the
characteristics defined below shall be used.
The load absorbed by the brake and the chassis dynamometer internal
frictional effects between the speeds of 0 and 120 km/h is as follows:
F= (a+bV2) ±0.1F80 (without being negative)
Where:
F - total load absorbed by the chassis dynamometer (N);
a - value equivalent to rolling resistance (N);
b - value equivalent to coefficient of air resistance (N/(km/h)2);
V - speed (km/h);
F80 - load at 80 km/h (N).
CB.1.2 Specific requirements
CB.1.2.1 The setting of the dynamometer shall not be affected by the lapse of
time. It shall not produce any vibrations perceptible to the vehicle and likely to
impair the vehicle's normal operations.
CB.1.2.2 The chassis dynamometer may have one or two rollers. The front
roller shall drive, directly or indirectly, the inertial masses and the power
absorption device.
CB.1.2.3 It shall be possible to measure and read the indicated load to an
accuracy of ±5 percent.
CB.1.2.4 In the case of a dynamometer with a fixed load curve, the accuracy of
the load setting at 80 km/h shall be ±5 percent. In the case of a dynamometer
with adjustable load curve, the accuracy of matching dynamometer load to
road load shall be ±5 percent at 120, 100, 80, 60, and 40 km/h and ±10 percent
at 20 km/h. Below this, dynamometer absorption shall be positive.
CB.1.2.5 The total inertia of the rotating parts (including the simulated inertia
where applicable) shall be known and shall be within ±20 kg of the inertia class
for the test.
CB.1.2.6 The speed of the vehicle shall be measured by the speed of rotation
of the roller (the front roller in the case of a two-roller dynamometer). It shall be
measured with an accuracy of ±1 km/h at speeds above 10 km/h.
The distance actually driven by the vehicle shall be measured by the
movement of rotation of the roller (the front roller in the case of a two-roller
dynamometer).
CB.2 Dynamometer calibration procedure
CB.2.1 Introduction
This section describes the method to be used to determine the load absorbed
by a dynamometer brake. The load absorbed comprises the load absorbed by
frictional effects and the load absorbed by the power-absorption device.
The dynamometer is brought into operation beyond the range of test speeds.
The device used for starting up the dynamometer is then disconnected: the
rotational speed of the driven roller decreases.
The kinetic energy of the rollers is dissipated by the power-absorption unit and
by the frictional effects. This method disregards variations in the roller's
internal frictional effects caused by rollers with or without the vehicle. The
frictional effects of the rear roller shall be disregarded when the roller is free.
CB.2.2 Calibration of the load indicator at 80 km/h
The following procedure shall be used for calibration of the load indicator to 80
km/h as a function of the load absorbed (see Figure CB.1):
Figure CB.1 -- Diagram illustrating the load of chassis dynamometer
CB.2.2.1 Measure the rotational speed of the roller if this has not already been
done. A fifth wheel, a revolution counter or some other method may be used.
CB.2.2.2 Place the vehicle on the dynamometer or devise some other method
of starting-up the dynamometer.
CB.2.2.3 Use the flywheel or any other system of inertia simulation for the
particular inertia class to be used.
CB.2.2.4 Bring the dynamometer to a speed of 80 km/h.
CB.2.2.5 Note the load indicated Fi (N).
CB.2.2.6 Bring the dynamometer to a speed of 90 km/h.
CB.2.2.7 Disconnect the device used to start-up the dynamometer.
CB.2.2.8 Note the time taken by the dynamometer to pass from a speed of 85
km/h to a speed of 75 km/h.
CB.2.2.9 Set the power-absorption device at a different level.
CB.2.2.10 The requirements of paragraphs CB2.2.4 to CB2.2.9 shall be
repeated sufficiently often to cover the range of loads used.
CB.2.2.11 Calculate the load absorbed using the formula:
Where:
F - load absorbed (N);
Load
Speed
Mi - equivalent inertia in kg (excluding the inertial effects of the free rear roller);
ΔV - speed deviation in m/s (10 km/h = 2.775 m/s);
t - time taken by the roller to pass from 85 km/h to 75 km/h (s).
CB.2.2.12 Figure CB.2 shows the load indicated at 80 km/h in terms of load
absorbed at 80 km/h.
Figure CB.2 -- Load indicated at 80 km/h in terms of load absorbed at 80
km/h
CB.2.2.13 The requirements of paragraphs CB.2.2.3 to CB.2.2.12 shall be
repeated for all inertia classes to be used.
CB.2.3 Calibration of the load indicator by a function of absorbed load at
other speeds
The procedures described in paragraph CB.2.2 shall be repeated as often as
necessary for the chosen speeds.
CB.2.4 Calibration of force or torque
The same procedure shall be used for force or torque calibration.
CB.3 Verification of the load curve
The load-absorption curve of the dynamometer from a reference setting at a
speed of 80 km/h shall be verified as follows:
CB.3.1 Place the vehicle on the dynamometer or devise some other method of
starting-up the dynamometer.
CB.3.2 Adjust the dynamometer to the absorbed load (Pa) at 80 km/h.
CB.3.3 Record the load absorbed at 120, 100, 80, 60, 40 and 20 km/h.
Load
indicated
Load absorbed
CB.3.4 Draw the curve F (V) and verify that it corresponds to the requirements
of paragraph CB.1.1.3.
CB.3.5 Repeat the procedure set out in paragraphs CB.3.1 to CB.3.4 above for
other load values at 80 km/h and for other values of inertias.
Attachment CC
(Normative)
Exhaust dilution system
CC.1 System specification
CC.1.1 System overview
A full-flow exhaust dilution system shall be used. This requires that the vehicle
exhaust be continuously diluted with ambient air under controlled conditions.
The total volume of the mixture of exhaust and dilution air shall be measured
and a continuously proportional sample of the volume shall be collected for
analysis. The quantities of exhaust emissions are determined from the sample
concentrations. The sample concentrations are corrected according to the
pollutant content of the ambient air and the totalised flow over the test period.
The exhaust dilution system shall consist of a transfer tube, a mixing chamber
and dilution tunnel, a dilution air conditioning, a suction device and a flow
measurement device. Sampling probes shall be fitted in the dilution tunnel as
specified in Attachments CD, CE and CF.
The mixing chamber described above will be a vessel, such as those illustrated
in Figures CC.1 and CC.2, in which vehicle exhaust gases and the dilution air
are combined so as to produce a homogeneous mixture at the chamber outlet.
CC.1.2 General requirements
CC.1.2.1 The vehicle exhaust gases shall be diluted with a sufficient amount of
ambient air to prevent any water condensation in the sampling and measuring
system at all conditions which may occur during a test.
CC.1.2.2 The mixture of air and exhaust gases shall be homogeneous at the
point where the sampling probe is located (see CC.1.3.3). The sampling probe
shall extract a representative sample of the diluted exhaust gas.
CC.1.2.3 The system shall enable the total volume of the diluted exhaust
gases to be measured.
CC.1.2.4 The sampling system shall be gas-tight. The design of the
variable-dilution sampling system and the materials that go to make it up shall
be such that they do not affect the pollutant concentration in the diluted
exhaust gases. Should any component in the system (heat exchanger, cyclone
separator, blower, etc.) change the concentration of any of the pollutants in the
diluted exhaust gases and the fault cannot be corrected, then sampling for that
pollutant shall be carried out upstream from that component.
CC.1.2.5 All parts of the dilution system that are in contact with raw and diluted
exhaust gas, shall be designed to minimize deposition or alteration of the
particulate matter. All parts shall be made of electrically conductive materials
that do not react with exhaust gas components. In addition, the system shall be
electrically grounded to prevent electrostatic effects.
CC.1.2.6 If the vehicle being tested is equipped with an exhaust pipe
comprising several branches, the connecting tubes shall be connected as near
as possible to the vehicle without adversely affecting its operation.
CC.1.2.7 The variable-dilution system shall be so designed as to enable the
exhaust gases to be sampled without appreciably changing the back-pressure
at the exhaust pipe outlet.
CC.12.2.8 The connecting tube between the vehicle and dilution system shall
be designed so as to minimize heat loss.
CC.1.3 Specific requirements
CC.1.3.1 Connection to vehicle exhaust
The connecting tube between the vehicle exhaust outlets and the dilution
system shall be as short as possible; and satisfy the following requirements:
- Be less than 3.6 m long, or less than 6.1 m long if heat insulated. Its
internal diameter shall not exceed 105 mm;
- Shall not cause the static pressure at the exhaust outlets on the vehicle
being tested to differ by more than ±0.75 kPa at 50 km/h, or more than
±1.25 kPa for the whole duration of the test from the static pressures
recorded when nothing is connected to the vehicle exhaust outlets. The
pressure shall be measured in the exhaust outlet or in an extension having
the same diameter, as near as possible to the end of the pipe. Sampling
systems capable of maintaining the static pressure to within ±0.25 kPa
may be used if a written request from a manufacturer to the testing
organization substantiates the need for the closer tolerance;
- Shall not change the nature of the exhaust gas;
- Any elastomer connectors employed shall be as thermally stable as
possible and have minimum exposure to the exhaust gases.
CC.1.3.2 Dilution air conditioning
The air used for the dilution of the exhaust in the CVS tunnel shall be passed
through a medium capable of reducing particles in the most penetrating
particle size of the filter material by ≥ 99.95 percent, or through a filter of at
least class H13 of EN 1822. This represents the specification of High Efficiency
Particulate Air (HEPA) filters. The dilution air may optionally be charcoal
scrubbed before being passed to the HEPA filter. It is recommended that an
additional coarse particle filter is situated before the HEPA filter and after the
charcoal scrubber, if used.
At the vehicle manufacturer's request, the dilution air may be sampled
according to good engineering practice to determine the tunnel contribution to
background particulate mass levels, which can then be subtracted from the
values measured in the diluted exhaust.
CC.1.3.3 Dilution tunnel
Provision shall be made for the vehicle exhaust gases and the dilution air to be
mixed. A mixing orifice may be used.
In order to minimize the effects on the conditions at the exhaust outlet and to
limit the drop in pressure inside the dilution-air conditioning device, if any, the
pressure at the mixing point shall not differ by more than ±0.25 kPa from
atmospheric pressure.
The homogeneity of the mixture in any cross-section at the location of the
sampling probe shall not vary by more than 2 percent from the average of the
values obtained for at least 5 points located at equal intervals on the diameter
of the gas stream.
For particulate and particle emissions sampling, a dilution tunnel shall be used
which:
- Shall consist of a straight tube of electrically-conductive material, which
shall be earthed;
- Shall be small enough in diameter to cause turbulent flow (Reynolds
number ≥ 4000) and of sufficient length to cause complete mixing of the
exhaust and dilution air;
- Shall be at least 200 mm in diameter;
- May be insulated.
CC.1.3.4 Suction device
This device may have a range of fixed speeds to ensure sufficient flow to
prevent any water condensation. This result is generally obtained if the flow is
either:
- Twice as high as the maximum flow of exhaust gas produced by
accelerations of the driving cycle; or
- Sufficient to ensure that the CO2 concentration in the dilute exhaust
sample bag is less than 3 percent by volume for petrol and diesel, less
than 2.2 percent by volume for LPG and less than 1.5 percent by volume
for NG.
CC.1.3.5 Volume measurement in the primary dilution system
The method of measuring total dilute exhaust volume incorporated in the
constant volume sampler shall be such that measurement is accurate to ±2
percent under all operating conditions. If the device cannot compensate for
variations in the temperature of the mixture of exhaust gases and dilution air at
the measuring point, a heat exchanger shall be used to maintain the
temperature to within ±6 K of the specified operating temperature.
If necessary, some form of protection for the volume measuring device may be
used e.g. a cyclone separator, etc.
A temperature sensor shall be installed immediately before the volume
measuring device. This temperature sensor shall have an accuracy of ±1 K
and a response time of 0.1 s at 62 percent of a given temperature variation
(value measured in silicone oil).
The pressure measurements shall have a precision and an accuracy of ±0.4
kPa during the test.
CC.1.4 Descriptions of recommended system
Figure CC.1 and Figure CC.2 are schematic drawings of two types of
recommended exhaust dilution systems that meet the requirements of this
attachment.
Since various configurations can produce accurate results, exact conformity
with these figures is not essential. Additional components such as instruments,
valves, solenoids and switches may be used to provide additional information
and co-ordinate the functions of the component system.
CC.1.4.1 Full flow dilution system with positive displacement pump (Figure
CC.1)
Figure CC.1 -- Full flow dilution system with positive displacement pump
Ambient air
Ambient air
sampling
Vehicle exhaust
To gas analysers and
sampling bag
To particulate matter
sampling system
Vent
The positive displacement pump (PDP) full flow dilution system satisfies the
requirements of this attachment by metering the flow of gas through the pump
at constant temperature and pressure.
The total volume is measured by counting the revolutions made by the
calibrated positive displacement pump. The proportional sample is achieved
by sampling with pump, flowmeter and flow control valve at a constant flow
rate. The collecting equipment consists of:
CC.1.4.1.1 A filter (DAF) for the dilution air, which can be preheated if
necessary. This filter shall consist of the following filters in sequence: an
optional activated charcoal filter (inlet side), a high efficiency particulate air
(HEPA) filter (outlet side). It is recommended that an additional coarse particle
filter is situated before the HEPA filter and after the charcoal filter, if used. The
purpose of the charcoal filter is to reduce and stabilize the hydrocarbon
concentrations of ambient emissions in the dilution air;
CC.1.4.1.2 A transfer tube (TT) by which vehicle exhaust is admitted into a
dilution tunnel (DT) in which the exhaust gas and dilution air are mixed
homogeneously;
CC.1.4.1.3 The positive displacement pump (PDP), producing a
constant-volume flow of the air/exhaust-gas mixture. The PDP revolutions,
together with associated temperature and pressure measurement are used to
determine the flowrate;
CC.1.4.1.4 A heat exchanger (HE) of a capacity sufficient to ensure that
throughout the test the temperature of the air/exhaust-gas mixture measured
at a point immediately upstream of the positive displacement pump is within ±6
K of the set operating temperature during the test. This device shall not affect
the pollutant concentrations of diluted gases taken off after for analysis;
CC.1.4.1.5 A mixing chamber (MC) in which exhaust gas and air are mixed
homogeneously, and which may be located close to the vehicle exhaust pipe
so that the length of the transfer tube (TT) is minimized.
CC.1.4.2 Full flow dilution system with critical flow Venturi tube (Figure CC.2)
Figure CC.2 -- Full flow dilution system with critical flow Venturi tube
The use of a critical-flow venturi (CFV) for the full-flow dilution system is based
on the principles of flow mechanics for critical flow. The variable mixture flow
rate of dilution air and exhaust gas is maintained at sonic velocity which is
directly proportional to the square root of the gas temperature. Flow is
continually monitored, computed and integrated throughout the test.
The use of an additional critical-flow sampling venturi ensures the
proportionality of the gas samples taken from the dilution tunnel. As both
pressure and temperature are equal at the two venturi inlets the volume of the
gas flow diverted for sampling is proportional to the total volume of diluted
exhaust-gas mixture produced, thus the requirements of this attachment are
met. The collecting equipment consists of:
CC.1.4.2.1 A filter (DAF) for the dilution air, which can be preheated if
necessary. This filter shall consist of the following filters in sequence: an
optional activated charcoal filter (inlet side), a high efficiency particulate air
(HEPA) filter (outlet side). It is recommended that an additional coarse particle
filter is situated before the HEPA filter and after the charcoal filter, if used. The
purpose of the charcoal filter is to reduce and stabilize the hydrocarbon
concentrations of ambient emissions in the dilution air;
CC.1.4.2.2 A mixing chamber (MC) in which exhaust gas and air are mixed
homogeneously, and which may be located close to the vehicle exhaust pipe
so that the length of the transfer tube (TT) is minimized;
CC.1.4.2.3 A dilution tunnel (DT) from which diluted exhaust gas, particulate
matter, and particles are sampled;
CC.1.4.2.4 Where necessary, some form of protection for the measurement
system may be used e.g. a cyclone separator, etc.;
Ambient air
Ambient air
sampling
To gas analysers and
sampling bag
To particulate matter
sampling system
CC.1.4.2.5 A measuring critical-flow venturi tube (CFV), to measure the flow
volume of the diluted exhaust gas;
CC.1.4.2.6 A blower (BL), of sufficient capacity to handle the total volume of
diluted exhaust gas.
CC.2 CVS calibration procedure
CC.2.1 General requirements
The CVS system shall be calibrated by using an accurate flow-meter and a
restricting device. At various pressure readings, the flow through the system
and the control parameters related to the flows of the system measured shall
be measured. The flow-metering device shall be dynamic and suitable for the
high flow-rate encountered in constant volume sampler testing. The device
shall be of certified accuracy traceable to an approved national or international
standard.
CC.2.1.1 Various types of flow-meter may be used, e.g. calibrated venturi,
laminar flow-meter, calibrated turbine-meter, provided that they are dynamic
measurement systems and can meet the requirements of paragraph CC.1.3.5.
CC.2.1.2 The following paragraphs give details of methods of calibrating PDP
and CFV units, using a laminar flow-meter, which gives the required accuracy,
together with a statistical check on the calibration validity.
CC.2.2 Calibration of the positive displacement pump (PDP)
CC.2.2.1 The following calibration procedure outlines the equipment, the test
configuration and the various parameters that are measured to establish the
flow-rate of the CVS pump. All the parameters related to the pump are
simultaneously measured with the parameters related to the flowmeter which
is connected in series with the pump. The calculated flowrate (given in m3/min
at pump inlet, absolute pressure and temperature) can then be plotted versus
a correlation function that is the value of a specific combination of pump
parameters. The linear equation that relates the pump flow and the correlation
function is then determined. In the event that a PDP has a multiple speed drive,
a calibration for each range used shall be performed.
CC.2.2.2 This calibration procedure is based on the measurement of the
absolute values of the pump and flow-meter parameters that relate the flow
rate at each point. Three conditions shall be maintained to ensure the accuracy
and integrity of the calibration curve:
CC.2.2.2.1 The pump pressures shall be measured at tapping on the pump
rather than at the external piping on the pump inlet and outlet. Pressure taps
that are mounted at the top centre and bottom centre of the pump drive
headplate are exposed to the actual pump cavity pressures, and therefore
reflect the absolute pressure differentials;
CC.2.2.2.2 Temperature stability shall be maintained during the calibration.
The laminar flow-meter is sensitive to inlet temperature oscillations which
cause the data points to be scattered. Gradual changes of ±1 K in temperature
are acceptable as long as they occur over a period of several minutes;
CC.2.2.2.3 All connections between the flow-meter and the CVS pump shall
be free of any leakage.
CC.2.2.3 During an exhaust emission test, the measurement of these same
pump parameters enables the user to calculate the flow rate from the
calibration equation.
CC.2.2.4 Figure CC.3 shows one possible test set-up. Variations are
permissible, provided that the type-approval authority approves them as being
of comparable accuracy. If the set-up shown in Figure CC.3 is used, the
following data shall be found within the limits of precision given:
Barometric pressure (corrected) (PB): ±0.03kPa
Ambient temperature (T): ±0.2K
Air temperature at LFE (ETI): ±0.15K
Pressure depression upstream of LFE (EPI): ±0.01kPa
Pressure drop across the LFE matrix (EDP): ±0.0015kPa
Air temperature at PDP inlet (PTI): ±0.2K
Air temperature at PDP outlet (PTO): ±0.2K
Pressure depression at PDP inlet (PPI): ±0.22kPa
Pressure head at PDP outlet (PPO): ±0.22kPa
Pump revolutions during test period (n): ±1 revolution
Elapsed time for period (minimum 250 s) (t): ±0.1s
Figure CC.3 -- PDP-CVS calibration configuration
CC.2.2.5 After the system has been connected as shown in Figure CC.3, set
the variable-flow restrictor in the wide-open position and run the positive
displacement pump for 20 minutes before starting the calibration.
CC.2.2.6 Reset the restrictor valve to a more restricted condition in an
increment of pump inlet depression (about 1 kPa) that will yield a minimum of 6
data points for the total calibration. Allow the system to stabilize for 3 minutes
and repeat the data acquisition.
CC.2.2.7 The air flow rate (Qs) at each test point is calculated in standard
m3/min from the flow-meter data using the manufacturer's prescribed method.
CC.2.2.8 The air flow-rate is then converted to pump flow (V0) in m3/rev at
absolute pump inlet temperature and pressure.
Where:
V0 - pump flow rate at Tp and Pp (m3/rev);
Qs - air flow at 101.33 kPa and 273.2 K (m3/min);
Tp - pump inlet temperature (K);
Filter
LFE
Variable-flow
restrictor
Temperature indicator
Surge control valve
(snubber)
Manometer
Time
Revolutions
Pp - absolute pump inlet pressure (kPa);
n - pump speed (r/min).
CC.2.2.9 To compensate for the interaction of pump speed pressure variations
at the pump and the pump slip rate, the correlation function (X0) between the
pump speed (n), the pressure differential from pump inlet to pump outlet and
the absolute pump outlet pressure is then calculated as follows:
Where:
X0 - correlation function;
ΔPp - pressure differential from pump inlet to pump outlet (kPa);
Pe - absolute outlet pressure (PPO + PB ) (kPa).
A linear least-square fit is performed to generate the calibration equations
which have the formula:
V0=D0-M (X0)
n=A-B (ΔPp)
D0, M, A and B are the slope-intercept constants describing the lines.
CC.2.2.10 A CVS system that has multiple speeds shall be calibrated on each
speed used. The calibration curves generated for the ranges shall be
approximately parallel and the intercept values (D0) shall increase as the pump
flow range decreases.
CC.2.2.11 If the calibration has been performed carefully, the calculated
values from the equation will be within ±0.5 percent of the measured value of
V0. Values of M will vary from one pump to another. Calibration is performed at
pump start-up and after major maintenance.
CC.2.3 Calibration of the critical-flow venturi (CFV)
CC.2.3.1 Calibration of the CFV is based upon the flow equation for a critical
venturi:
Where:
Qs - flow;
Kv - calibration coefficient;
P - absolute pressure (kPa);
T - absolute temperature (K).
Gas flow is a function of inlet pressure and temperature.
The calibration procedure described below establishes the value of the
calibration coefficient at measured values of pressure, temperature and air
flow.
CC.2.3.2 The manufacturer's recommended procedure shall be followed for
calibrating electronic portions of the CFV.
CC.2.3.3 Measurements for flow calibration of the critical flow venturi are
required and the following data shall be found within the limits of precision
given:
Barometric pressure (corrected) (PB): ±0.03kPa
LFE air temperature, flow-meter (ETI): ±0.15K
Pressure depression upstream of LFE (EPI): ±0.01kPa
Pressure drop across (EDP) LFE matrix: ±0.0015kPa
Air flow (Qs): ±0.5%
CFV inlet depression (PPI): ±0.02kPa
Temperature at venturi inlet (Tv): ±0.2K
CC.2.3.4 The equipment shall be set up as shown in Figure CC.4 and checked
for leaks. Any leaks between the flow-measuring device and the CFV-CVS
system will seriously affect the accuracy of the calibration.
Figure CC.4 -- CFV-CVS calibration configuration
CC.2.3.5 The variable-flow restrictor shall be set to the open position. The
blower shall be started and the system stabilized. Data from all instruments
shall be recorded.
CC.2.3.6 The flow restrictor shall be varied and at least 8 readings across the
critical flow range of the venturi shall be made.
CC.2.3.7 The data recorded during the calibration shall be used in the
following calculations. The air flow-rate (Qs) at each test point is calculated
from the flow-meter data using the manufacturer's prescribed method.
Calculate values of the calibration coefficient for each test point:
Where:
Qs - flow-rate in m3/min at 273.2 K and 101.33 kPa;
Tv - temperature at the venturi inlet (K);
Pv - absolute pressure at the venturi inlet (kPa).
Surge control valve
Manometer
Vacuum
gauge
Variable-flow
restrictor
LFE
Filter
Thermometer
Plot Kv as a function of venturi inlet pressure. For sonic flow, Kv will have a
relatively constant value. As pressure decreases (vacuum increases) the
venturi becomes unchoked and Kv decreases. The resultant Kv changes are
not permissible.
For a minimum of 8 points in the critical region, calculate an average Kv and
the standard deviation.
If the ratio of the standard deviation to the average Kv exceeds 0.3%, the
cause shall be found and corrective action taken.
CC.3 Verification of total accuracy of system
CC.3.1 General requirements
The total accuracy of the CVS sampling system and analytical system shall be
determined by introducing a known mass of a pollutant gas into the system
whilst it is being operated as if during a normal test and then analysing and
calculating the pollutant mass according to the formula in paragraph C.5.6
except that the density of propane shall be taken as 1.967 grams per litre at
standard conditions. The following two techniques are known to give sufficient
accuracy.
The maximum permissible deviation between the quantity of gas introduced
and the quantity of gas measured is 5 percent.
CC.3.2 Critical flow orifice (CFO) flowmeter method
CC.3.2.1 Metering a constant flow of pure gas (CO or C3H8) using a critical
flow orifice device. This method is based on the operating characteristics of the
CFO, i.e. If the inlet pressure is high enough (critical flow), the flow-rate (q),
which is adjusted by means of the critical flow orifice, is independent of orifice
outlet pressure.
CC.3.2.2 The CVS system is operated as in an exhaust emission test for about
5 to 10 minutes. A known quantity of pure gas (CO or C3H8) is fed into the CVS
system through the calibrated critical orifice. The gas collected in the sampling
bag is analysed by the usual equipment and the results compared to the
concentration of the gas samples which was known beforehand. If deviations
exceeding 5 percent occur, the cause of the deviation shall be found and
determined.
CC.3.3 Gravimetric method
CC.3.3.1 Metering a limited quantity of pure gas (CO or C3H8) by means of a
gravimetric technique.
CC.3.3.2 The following gravimetric procedure may be used to verify the CVS
system. The weight of a small cylinder filled with either carbon monoxide (CO)
or propane (C3H8) is determined with a balance with a precision of ±0.01 g. For
about 5 to 10 minutes, the CVS system is operated as in a normal exhaust
emission test, while CO or C3H8 is injected into the system. The quantity of
pure gas involved is determined by means of differential weighing of the
cylinder. The gas accumulated in the bag is then analysed by means of the
equipment normally used for exhaust-gas analysis. Compare the results of
analysis and calculation with the mass difference of the small cylinder.
Attachment CD
(Normative)
Gaseous emissions measurement equipment
CD.1 Specification
CD.1.1 System overview
A continuously proportional sample of the diluted exhaust gases and the
dilution air shall be collected for analysis.
Mass of gaseous emissions shall be determined from the proportional sample
concentrations and the total volume measured during the test. The sample
concentrations shall be corrected to take account of the pollutant content of the
ambient air.
CD.1.2 Sampling system requirements
CD.1.2.1 The sample of diluted exhaust gases shall be taken upstream from
the suction device but downstream from the conditioning devices (if any).
CD.1.2.2 The flow rate shall not deviate from the average by more than ±2
percent.
CD.1.2.3 The sampling rate shall not fall below 5 litres per minute and shall not
exceed 0.2 percent of the flow rate of the dilute exhaust gases. An equivalent
limit shall apply to constant-mass sampling systems.
CD.1.2.4 A sample of the dilution air shall be taken at a constant flow rate near
the ambient air-inlet (after the filter if one is fitted).
CD.1.2.5 The dilution air sample shall not be contaminated by exhaust gases
from the mixing area.
CD.1.2.6 The sampling rate for the dilution air shall be comparable to that used
in the case of the dilute exhaust gases.
CD.1.2.7 The materials used for the sampling operations shall be such as not
to change the pollutant concentration.
CD.1.2.8 Filters may be used in order to extract the solid particles from the
sample.
CD.1.2.9 The various valves used to direct the exhaust gases shall be of a
quick adjustment, quick-acting type.
CD.1.2.10 Quick-fastening gas-tight connections may be used between the
three-way valves and the sampling bags, the connections sealing themselves
automatically on the bag side. Other systems may be used for conveying the
samples to the analyser (three-way stop valves, for example).
CD.1.2.11 Storage of the sample
The gas samples shall be collected in sampling bags of sufficient capacity not
to impede the sample flow. The change of the concentration of the mixed
pollutant gas caused by the material of the sampling bag, within 20 minutes
after the completion of sampling, shall not be greater than ±2% (for instance:
laminated polyethylene/polyamide films, or fluorinated polyethylene
hydrocarbons).
CD.1.2.12 Hydrocarbon sampling system - Compression ignition engine
CD.1.2.12.1 The hydrocarbon sampling system shall consist of a heated
sampling probe, line, filter and pump. The sampling probe shall be installed at
the same distance from the exhaust gas inlet as the particulate sampling probe,
in such a way that neither interferes with sampling taken by the other. It shall
have a minimum internal diameter of 4 mm.
CD.1.2.12.2 All heated parts shall be maintained at a temperature of 463 K
(190 °C) ±10 K by the heating system.
CD.1.2.12.3 The average concentration of the measured hydrocarbons shall
be determined by integration.
CD.1.2.12.4 The heated sampling line shall be fitted with a heated filter (Fh),
99 percent efficient for particles ≥ 0.3 μm, to extract any solid particles from the
continuous flow of gas required for analysis.
CD.1.2.12.5 The sampling system response time (from the probe to the
analyser inlet) shall be no more than 4 seconds.
CD.1.2.12.6 The HFID shall be used with a constant flow (heat exchanger)
system to ensure a representative sample, unless compensation for varying
CFV flow is made.
CD.1.3 Gas analysis requirements
CD.1.3.1 Carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO2) analysers:
Analysers shall be of the non-dispersive infra-red (NDIR) absorption type.
CD.1.3.2 Total hydrocarbons (THC) analyser - positive ignition engines:
The analyser shall be of hydrogen flame ionisation (FID) type calibrated with
propane gas expressed equivalent to carbon atoms (C1).
CD.1.3.3 Total hydrocarbons (THC) analyser - compression ignition
engines:
The analyser shall be of the heated hydrogen flame ionisation type with
detector, valves, pipework, etc., heated to 463 K (190 °C) ±10 K (HFID). It shall
be calibrated with propane gas expressed equivalent to carbon atoms (C1).
CD.1.3.4 Methane (CH4) analyser:
The analyser shall be either a gas chromatograph (GC) combined with a
hydrogen flame ionisation (FID), or a hydrogen flame ionisation (FID) with a
non-methane cutter (NMC) type, calibrated with methane gas expressed
equivalent to carbon atoms (C1).
CD.1.3.5 Nitrogen oxide (NOx) analyser:
The analyser shall be either of the chemi-luminescent (CLD) or of the
non-dispersive ultra-violet resonance absorption (NDUVR) type, both with
NOx-NO converters.
CD.1.3.6 The analysers shall have a measuring range compatible with the
accuracy required to measure the concentrations of the exhaust gas sample
pollutants.
CD.1.3.7 Measurement error shall not exceed ±2 percent (intrinsic error of
analyser) disregarding the true value for the calibration gases.
CD.1.3.8 For volume fraction of less than 100 ppm, the measurement error
shall not exceed ±2 ppm.
CD.1.3.9 The ambient air sample shall be measured on the same analyser
with an appropriate range.
CD.1.3.10 No gas drying device shall be used before the analysers unless
shown to have no effect on the pollutant content of the gas stream.
CD.1.4 Descriptions of recommended system
Figure CD.1 is a schematic drawing of the system for gaseous emissions
sampling.
Figure CD.1 -- Schematic drawing of gaseous emissions sampling
system
CD.1.4.1 Two sampling probes (S1 and S2) for continuous sampling of the
dilution air and of the diluted exhaust-gas/air mixture;
CD.1.4.2 A filter (F), to extract solid particles from the flows of gas collected for
analysis;
CD.1.4.3 Pumps (P), to collect a constant flow of the dilution air as well as of
the diluted exhaust-gas/air mixture during the test;
CD.1.4.4 Flow controller (N), to ensure a constant uniform flow of the gas
samples taken during the course of the test from sampling probes S1 and S2
(for PDP-CVS) and flow of the gas samples shall be such that, at the end of
each test, the quantity of the samples is sufficient for analysis (approximately
10 litres per minute);
CD.1.4.5 Flow meters (FL), for adjusting and monitoring the constant flow of
gas samples during the test;
CD.1.4.6 Quick-acting valves (V), to divert a constant flow of gas samples into
the sampling bags or to the outside vent;
CD.1.4.7 Gas-tight, quick-lock coupling elements (Q) between the quick-acting
valves and the sampling bags; the coupling shall close automatically on the
sampling-bag side; as an alternative, other ways of transporting the samples to
the analyser may be used (three-way stopcocks, for instance);
CD.1.4.8 Bags (B), for collecting samples of the diluted exhaust gas/air mixture
and of the dilution air during the test;
CD.1.4.9 A sampling critical-flow venturi (SV), to take proportional samples of
the diluted exhaust gas at sampling probe S2 (CFV-CVS only);
CD.1.4.10 A scrubber (PS), in the sampling line (CFV-CVS only);
CD.1.4.11 Components for hydrocarbon sampling using HFID:
Fh is a heated filter;
S3 is a sampling point close to the mixing chamber;
Vh is a heated multi-way valve;
Q is a quick connector to allow the ambient air sample BA to be
analysed on the HFID;
HFID is a heated hydrogen flame ionisation analyser;
R and I are a means of recording and integrating the instantaneous
hydrocarbon concentrations;
Lh is a heated sample line.
CD.2 Calibration procedures
CD.2.1 Analyser calibration procedure
CD.2.1.1 Each analyser shall be calibrated as often as necessary and once in
any case in the month before type approval testing and at least once every six
months for verifying conformity of production.
CD.2.1.2 Each normally used operating range shall be calibrated by the
following procedure:
CD.2.1.2.1 The analyser calibration curve is established by at least 5
calibration points spaced as uniformly as possible. The nominal concentration
of the calibration gas of the highest concentration shall be not less than 80
percent of the full scale.
CD.2.1.2.2 The calibration gas concentration required may be obtained by
means of a gas divider, diluting with purified N2 or with purified synthetic air.
The accuracy of the mixing device shall be such that the concentrations of the
diluted calibration gases may be determined to within ±2 percent.
CD.2.1.2.3 The calibration curve is calculated by the least square method. If
the resulting polynomial degree is greater than 3, the number of calibration
points shall be at least equal to this polynomial degree plus 2.
CD.2.1.2.4 The calibration curve shall not differ by more than 2 percent from
the nominal value of each calibration gas.
CD.2.1.3 Trace of the calibration curve
From the trace of the calibration curve and the calibration points, it is possible
to verify that the calibration has been carried out correctly. The different
characteristic parameters of the analyser shall be indicated, particularly:
- The scale;
- The sensitivity;
- The zero point;
- The date of carrying out the calibration.
CD.2.1.4 If it can be shown to the satisfaction of the testing organization that
alternative technology (e.g. electronic control unit, electronically controlled
range switch, etc.) can give equivalent accuracy, then these alternatives may
be used.
CD.2.2 Analyser verification procedure
CD.2.2.1 Each normally used operating range shall be checked prior to each
analysis in accordance with the following:
CD.2.2.2 The calibration shall be checked by use of a zero gas and by use of a
span gas that has a nominal value within 80-95 percent of the supposed value
to be analysed.
CD.2.2.3 If, for the two points specified in CD.2.2.2, the value found does not
differ by more than ±5 percent of the full scale from the theoretical value, the
adjustment parameters may be modified. Should this not be the case, a new
calibration curve shall be established in accordance with CD.2.1.
CD.2.2.4 After testing, zero gas and the same span gas are used for
re-checking. The analysis is considered acceptable if the difference between
the two measuring results is less than 2 percent.
CD.2.3 FID hydrocarbon response check procedure
CD.2.3.1 Detector response optimisation
The FID shall be adjusted, as specified by the instrument manufacturer.
Propane in air shall be used, to optimise the response, on the most common
operating range.
CD.2.3.2 Calibration of the THC analyser
The analyser shall be calibrated using propane in air and purified synthetic air
(see CD.3).
Establish a calibration curve as described in CD.2.1.
CD.2.3.3 Response factors of different hydrocarbons and recommended
limits
The response factor (Rf), for a particular hydrocarbon species is the ratio of the
FID C1 reading to the gas cylinder concentration, expressed as ppmC.
The concentration of the test gas shall be at a level to give a response of
approximately 80 percent of full-scale deflection, for the operating range. The
concentration shall be known, to an accuracy of ±2 percent in reference to a
gravimetric standard expressed in volume. In addition, the gas cylinder shall
be pre-conditioned for 24 hours at a temperature between 293 K and 303 K (20
and 30 °C).
Response factors shall be determined when introducing an analyser into
service and thereafter at major service intervals. The test gases to be used
and the recommended response factors are:
- Methane and purified air: 1.00or for NG fuelled vehicles: 1.00- Propylene and purified air: 0.90- Toluene and purified air: 0.90These are relative to a response factor (Rf) of 1.00 for propane and purified air.
CD.2.3.4 Oxygen interference check and recommended limits
The response factor shall be determined as described in paragraph CD.2.3.3
above. The test gas to be used and recommended response factor range is:
- Propane and nitrogen: 0.95CD.2.4 NOx converter efficiency test procedure
The efficiency of the converter used for the conversion of NO2 into NO is tested
as follows:
USE the test set up as shown in Figure CD.2 and the procedure described
below. The efficiency of converters can be tested by means of an ozonator.
Figure CD.2 -- NOx converter efficiency test configuration
CD.2.4.1 Calibrate the CLD in the most common operating range following the
manufacturer's specifications using zero and span gas (the NO content of
which shall amount to about 80 percent of the operating range and the NO2
concentration of the gas mixture shall be less than 5 percent of the NO
concentration). The NOx analyser shall be in the NO mode so that the span
gas does not pass through the converter. Record the indicated concentration.
CD.2.4.2 Via a T-fitting, oxygen or synthetic air is added continuously to the
gas flow until the concentration indicated is 10 percent less than the indicated
calibration concentration given in paragraph CD.2.4.1. Record the indicated
concentration (c). The ozonator is kept deactivated throughout this process.
CD.2.4.3 The ozonator is now activated to generate enough ozone to bring the
NO concentration down to 20 percent (minimum 10 percent) of the calibration
concentration given in paragraph CD.2.4.1. Record the indicated concentration
(d).
CD.2.4.4 The NOx analyser is then switched to the NOx mode, which means
that the gas mixture (consisting of NO, NO2, O2 and N2) now passes through
the converter. Record the indicated concentration (a).
CD.2.4.5 The ozonator is now deactivated. The mixture of gases described in
paragraph CD.2.4.2 passes through the converter into the detector. Record the
indicated concentration (b).
CD.2.4.6 With the ozonator deactivated, the flow of oxygen or synthetic air is
also shut off. The NOx reading of the analyser shall then be no more than 5
percent above the figure given in paragraph CD.2.4.1.
CD.2.4.7 The efficiency of the NOx converter is calculated as follows:
CD.2.4.8 The efficiency of the converter shall not be less than 95 percent.
CD.2.4.9 The efficiency of the converter shall be tested at least once a week.
CD.3 Reference gases
CD.3.1 Pure gases
The following pure gases shall be available, if necessary, for calibration and
operation:
- Purified nitrogen: (purity: ≤1ppmC, ≤1ppmCO, ≤400ppmCO2, ≤0.1ppmNO)
- Purified synthetic air: (purity: ≤1ppmC, ≤1ppmCO, ≤400ppmCO2,
≤0.1ppmNO); oxygen content between 18 and 21 percent volume
- Purified oxygen: (purity > 99.5 percent vol. O2)
- Purified hydrogen (and mixture containing helium): (purity ≤1ppmC,
≤400ppmCO2)
- Carbon monoxide (CO): (minimum purity 99.5 percent)
- Propane (C3H8): (minimum purity 99.5 percent)
CD.3.2 Calibration gases
Mixtures of gases having the following chemical compositions shall be
available:
- C3H8 and purified synthetic air (see CD.3.1)
- CO and purified nitrogen
- CO2 and purified nitrogen
- NO and purified nitrogen (the amount of NO2 contained in this calibration
gas shall not exceed 5 percent of the NO content)
- CH4 and purified synthetic air
The true concentration of a calibration gas shall be within ±2 percent of the
stated figure.
Attachment CE
(Normative)
Particulate matter mass emissions measurement equipment
CE.1 Specification
CE.1.1 System overview
CE.1.1.1 The particulate matter sampling unit shall consist of a sampling probe
located in the dilution tunnel, a particle transfer tube, a filter holder, a
partial-flow pump, and flow rate regulators and measuring units.
CE.1.1.2 It is recommended that a particle size pre-classifier (e.g. cyclone or
impactor) be employed upstream of the filter holder. However, a sampling
probe, acting as an appropriate size-classification device such as that shown
in Figure CE.2, is acceptable.
CE.1.2 General requirements
CE.1.2.1 The sampling probe for the test gas flow for particulates shall be so
arranged within the dilution tract that a representative sample gas flow can be
taken from the homogeneous air/exhaust mixture.
CE.1.2.2 The particulate sample flow rate shall be proportional to the total flow
of diluted exhaust gas in the dilution tunnel to within a tolerance of ±5 percent
of the particulate sample flow rate.
CE.1.2.3 The sampled dilute exhaust gas shall be maintained at a temperature
below 325 K (52 °C) within 20 cm upstream or downstream of the particulate
filter face, except in the case of a regeneration test where the temperature
shall be below 465 K (192 °C).
CE.1.2.4 The particulate sample shall be collected on a single filter mounted
within a holder in the sampled dilute exhaust gas flow.
CE.1.2.5 All parts of the dilution system and the sampling system from the
exhaust pipe up to the filter holder, which are in contact with raw and diluted
exhaust gas, shall be designed to minimize deposition or alteration of the
particulates. All parts shall be made of electrically conductive materials that do
not react with exhaust gas components. The system shall be electrically
grounded to prevent electrostatic effects.
CE.1.2.6 If it is not possible to compensate for variations in the flow rate,
provision shall be made for a heat exchanger and a temperature control device
as specified in Attachment CC so as to ensure that the flow rate in the system
is constant and the sampling rate accordingly proportional.
CE.1.3 Specific requirements
CE.1.3.1 PM sampling probe
CE.1.3.1.1 The sampling probe shall deliver the particle-size classification
performance described in paragraph CE.1.3.1.4. It is recommended that this
performance be achieved by the use of a sharp-edged, open-ended probe
facing directly into the direction of flow plus a pre-classifier (cyclone, impactor,
etc.). An appropriate sampling probe, such as that indicated in Figure CE.2,
may alternatively be used provided it achieves the pre-classification
performance described in paragraph CE.1.3.1.4.
CE.1.3.1.2 The sampling probe shall be installed near the tunnel centreline,
between approximately 10 and 20 times the tunnel diameter from downstream
of the exhaust gas inlet to the tunnel and have an internal diameter of at least
12 mm.
If more than one simultaneous sample is drawn from a single sampling probe,
the flow drawn from that probe shall be split into identical sub-flow to avoid
sampling artefacts.
If multiple probes are used, each probe shall be sharp-edged, open-ended and
facing directly into the direction of flow. Probes shall be equally spaced around
the central longitudinal axis of the dilution tunnel, with the spacing between
probes at least 5 cm.
CE.1.3.1.3 The distance from the sampling tip to the filter mount shall be at
least 5 times the probe diameter, but shall not exceed 1020 mm.
CE.1.3.1.4 The pre-classifier (e.g. cyclone, impactor, etc.) shall be located
upstream of the filter holder assembly. The pre-classifier 50 percent cut point
particle diameter shall be between 2.5 μm and 10 μm at the volumetric flow
rate selected for sampling particulate mass emissions. The pre-classifier shall
allow at least 99 percent of the mass concentration of 1 μm particles entering
the pre-classifier to pass through the exit of the pre-classifier at the volumetric
flow rate selected for sampling particulate mass emissions. However, a
sampling probe, acting as an appropriate size-classification device, such as
that shown in Figure CE.2, is acceptable as an alternative to a separate
pre-classifier.
CE.1.3.2 Sampling pump and flow meter
CE.1.3.2.1 The sample gas flow measurement unit shall consist of pumps, gas
flow regulators and flow measuring units.
CE.1.3.2.2 The temperature of the gas flow in the flow meter may not fluctuate
by more than ±3 K, except during regeneration tests on vehicles equipped with
periodically regenerating devices. In addition, the sample mass flow rate shall
remain proportional to the total flow of diluted exhaust gas to within a tolerance
of ±5 percent. Should the volume of flow change unacceptably as a result of
excessive filter loading, the test shall be stopped. When it is repeated, the rate
of flow shall be decreased.
CE.1.3.3 Filter and filter holder
CE.1.3.3.1 A valve shall be located downstream of the filter in the direction of
flow. The valve shall be quick enough acting to open and close within 1 s of the
start and end of test.
CE.1.3.3.2 It is recommended that the mass collected on the 47 mm diameter
filter (Pe) is ≥ 20 μg and that the filter loading shall be maximized consistent
with the requirements of paragraphs CE.1.2.3 and CE.1.3.3.
CE.1.3.3.3 For a given test the gas filter face velocity shall be set to a single
value within the range 20 cm/s to 80 cm/s unless the dilution system is being
operated with sampling flow proportional to CVS flow rate.
CE.1.3.3.4 Fluorocarbon coated glass fibre filters or fluorocarbon membrane
filters are required. All filter types shall have a 0.3 μm DOP (di-octylphthalate)
collection efficiency of at least 99 percent at a gas filter face velocity of at least
35 cm/s.
CE.1.3.3.5 The filter holder assembly shall be of a design that provides an
even flow distribution across the filter stain area. The filter stain area shall be at
least 1075 mm2.
CE.1.3.4 Filter weighing chamber and balance
CE.1.3.4.1 The microgram balance used to determine the weight of a filter
shall have a precision (standard deviation) of 2 μg and resolution of 1 μg.
It is recommended that the balance be checked at the start of each weighing
session by weighing one reference weight of 50 mg. This weight shall be
weighed at least 3 times and the average result recorded. If the average result
of the weighings is ±5 μg from the result from the previous weighing session
then the weighing session and balance are considered valid.
The weighing chamber (or room) shall meet the following conditions during all
filter conditioning and weighing operations:
Temperature maintained at 295 ±3 K (22 ±3 °C);
Relative humidity maintained at 45 ±8 percent;
Dewpoint maintained at 9.5 °C ±3 °C.
It is recommended that temperature and humidity conditions are recorded
along with sample and reference filter weights.
CE.1.3.4.2 Buoyancy correction
All filter weights shall be corrected for filter buoyancy in air.
The buoyancy correction depends on the density of the sample filter medium,
the density of air, and the density of the calibration weight used to calibrate the
balance. The density of the air is dependent on the pressure, temperature and
humidity.
It is recommended that the temperature and dew point of the weighing
environment are controlled to 22 °C ±1 °C and dew point of 9.5 °C ±1 °C
respectively. However, the minimum requirements stated in CE.1.3.4.1 will
also result in an acceptable correction for buoyancy effects. The correction for
buoyancy shall be applied as follows:
Where:
mcorr - PM mass corrected for buoyancy ;
muncorr - PM mass uncorrected for buoyancy;
ρair - density of air in balance environment;
ρweight - density of calibration weight used to span balance;
ρmedia - density of PM sampling filter according to the Table CE.1:
Table CE.1 -- Filter density
Filter medium ρmedia
Teflon coated glass fibre (e.g. TX40) 2300kg/m3
ρair can be calculated as follows:
Where:
Pabs - absolute pressure in balance environment;
Mmix - molar mass of air in balance environment (28.836gmol-1);
R - molar gas constant;
Tamb - absolute ambient temperature of balance environment.
The chamber (or room) environment shall be free of any ambient contaminants
(such as dust) that would settle on the filters during their stabilisation.
Limited deviations from weighing room temperature and humidity
specifications will be allowed provided their total duration does not exceed 30
minutes in any one filter pre-conditioning period. The weighing room shall meet
the required specifications prior to personal entrance into the weighing room.
During the weighing operation no deviations from the specified conditions are
permitted.
CE.1.3.4.3 The effects of static electricity shall be nullified. This may be
achieved by grounding the balance through placement upon an antistatic mat
and neutralisation of the particulate filters prior to weighing using a Polonium
neutraliser or a device of similar effect. Alternatively, nullification of static
effects may be achieved through equalisation of the static charge.
CE.1.3.4.4 A test filter shall be removed from the chamber no earlier than 1
hour before the test begins.
CE.1.4 Descriptions of recommended system
Figure CE.1 is a schematic drawing of the recommended particulate sampling
system. Since various configurations can produce equivalent results, exact
conformance with this figure is not required. Additional components such as
instruments, valves, solenoids, pumps and switches may be used to provide
additional information and co-ordinate the functions of component systems.
Compared with other system combinations, if more components can be
excluded, the exclusion shall be based on good engineering judgment.
Figure CE.1 -- Particulate matter sampling system
A sample of the diluted exhaust gas is taken from the full flow dilution tunnel
DT through the particulate sampling probe PSP and the particulate transfer
tube PTT by means of the pump P. The sample is passed through the particle
size pre-classifier PCF and the filter holder(s) FH that contain the particulate
The ratio
required to
control CVS
flowrate
sampling filter(s). The flow rate for sampling is set by the flow controller FC,
measured and monitored by sampling flow meter FM.
The configuration of optional PM sampling probe is as shown in Figure CE.2.
Wall thickness: 1 mm Material: Stainless steel (*) Minimum inner diameter
Figure CE.2 -- Particulate matter sampling probe configuration
CE.2 Calibration and verification procedures
CE.2.1 Flow meter calibration
The testing organization shall ensure that the flowmeter is consistent with the
traceable standard flowmeter. The verification is valid for 12 months. If any
repairs or changes have been made that may affect the calibration results, the
calibration shall be repeated.
CE.2.2 Microbalance calibration
The testing organization shall ensure that microbalances are consistent with
traceable standard microbalances. The verification is valid for 12 months.
CE.2.3 Reference filter weighing
To determine the specific reference filter weights, at least 2 unused reference
filters shall be weighed within 8 hours of, but preferably at the same time as,
the sample filter weighings. Reference filters shall be of the same size and
material as the sample filter.
If the specific weight of any reference filter changes by more than ±5μg
between sample filter weighings, then the sample filter and reference filters
shall be reconditioned in the weighing room and then reweighed.
The comparison of reference filter weighings shall be made between the
specific weights and the rolling average of that reference filter's specific
weights.
The rolling average shall be calculated from the specific weights collected in
the period since the reference filters were placed in the weighing room. The
averaging period shall be at least 1 day but not exceed 30 days.
Multiple reconditioning and re-weighing of the sample and reference filters are
permitted until a period of 80 h has elapsed following the measurement of
gases from the emissions test.
If, prior to or at the 80 h point, more than half the number of reference filters
meet the ±5 μg criterion, then the sample filter weighing can be considered
valid.
If, at the 80 h point, two reference filters are employed and one filter fails the ±5
μg criterion, the sample filter weighing can be considered valid under the
condition that the sum of the absolute differences between specific and rolling
averages from the two reference filters shall be less than or equal to 10 μg.
In case less than half of the reference filters meet the ±5 μg criterion the
sample filter shall be discarded, and the emissions test repeated. All reference
filters shall be discarded and replaced within 48 hours.
In all other cases, reference filters shall be replaced at least every 30 days and
in such a manner that no sample filter is weighed without comparison to a
reference filter that has been present in the weighing room for at least 1 day.
If the weighing room stability criteria outlined in CE.1.3.4.1 are not met, but the
reference filter weighings meet the above criteria, the vehicle manufacturer
has the option of accepting the sample filter weights or voiding the tests, fixing
the weighing room control system and re-running the test.
Attachment CF
(Normative)
Particle number emissions measurement equipment
CF.1 Specification
CF.1.1 System overview
CF.1.1.1 The particle sampling system shall consist of a dilution tunnel, a
sampling probe and a volatile particle remover (VPR) upstream of a particle
number counter (PNC) and suitable transfer tubing.
CF.1.1.2 It is recommended that a particle size pre-classifier (e.g. cyclone,
impactor etc.) be located prior to the inlet of the VPR. However, a sample
probe acting as an appropriate size-classification device, such as that shown
in Figure CE.2, is an acceptable alternative to the use of a particle size
pre-classifier.
CF.1.2 General requirements
CF.1.2.1 The particle sampling point shall be located within a dilution tunnel.
The sampling probe tip (PSP) and particle transfer tube (PTT) together
comprise the particle transfer system (PTS). The PTS conducts the sample
from the dilution tunnel to the entrance of the VPR. The PTS shall meet the
following conditions:
It shall be installed near the tunnel centre line, 10 to 20 times the tunnel
diameter from downstream of the gas inlet, facing upstream into the tunnel gas
flow with its axis at the tip parallel to that of the dilution tunnel.
It shall have an internal diameter of ≥ 8 mm.
Sample gas drawn through the PTS shall meet the following conditions:
It shall have a flow Reynolds number (Re) of < 1700;
It shall have a residence time in the PTS of ≤ 3 seconds.
Any other sampling configuration for the PTS for which equivalent particle
penetration at 30 nm can be demonstrated will be considered acceptable.
The outlet tube (OT) conducting the diluted sample from the VPR to the inlet of
the PNC shall have the following properties:
It shall have an internal diameter of ≥ 4 mm;
Sample gas flow through the OT shall have a residence time of ≤ 0.8 seconds.
Any other sampling configuration for the OT for which equivalent particle
penetration at 30 nm can be demonstrated will be considered acceptable.
CF.1.2.2 The VPR shall include devices for sample dilution and for volatile
particle removal. The sampling probe for the test gas flow shall be so arranged
within the dilution tract that a representative sample gas flow is taken from a
homogeneous air/exhaust mixture.
CF.1.2.3 All parts of the dilution system and the sampling system from the
exhaust pipe up to the PNC, which are in contact with raw and diluted exhaust
gas, shall be designed to minimize deposition of the particles. All parts shall be
made of electrically conductive materials that do not react with exhaust gas
components. The system shall be electrically grounded to prevent electrostatic
effects.
CF.1.2.4 The particle sampling system shall incorporate good air sampling
practice that includes the avoidance of sharp bends and abrupt changes in
cross-section, the use of smooth internal surfaces and the minimisation of the
length of the sampling line. Gradual changes in the cross-section are
permissible.
CF.1.3 Specific requirements
CF.1.3.1 The particle sample shall not pass through a pump before passing
through the PNC.
CF.1.3.2 A sample pre-classifier (PCF) is recommended.
CF.1.3.3 The sample preconditioning unit shall:
CF.1.3.3.1 Be capable of diluting the sample in one or more stages to achieve
a particle number concentration below the upper threshold of the single
particle count mode of the PNC and a gas temperature below 35 °C at the inlet
to the PNC;
CF.1.3.3.2 Include an initial heated dilution stage which outputs a sample at a
temperature of ≥ 150 °C and ≤ 400 °C and dilutes by a factor of at least 10;
CF.1.3.3.3 Control heated stages to constant nominal operating temperatures,
within the range specified in CF.1.3.3.2, to a tolerance of ±10 °C. Provide an
indication of whether or not heated stages are at their correct operating
temperatures;
CF.1.3.3.4 Achieve a particle concentration reduction factor (fr(di)), as defined
in CF.2.2.2, for particles of 30 nm and 50 nm electrical mobility diameters, that
is no more than 30 percent and 20 percent respectively higher, and no more
than 5 percent lower than that for particles of 100 nm electrical mobility
diameter for the VPR as a whole;
CF.1.3.3.5 Also achieve > 99 percent vaporisation of 30 nm tetracontane (CH3
(CH2) 38CH3) particles, with an inlet concentration of ≥ 1000 cm-3, by means of
heating and reduction of partial pressures of the tetracontane.
CF.1.3.4 The PNC shall:
CF.1.3.4.1 Operate under full flow operating conditions;
CF.1.3.4.2 Have a counting accuracy of ±10 percent across the range 1 cm-3 to
the upper threshold of the single particle count mode of the PNC against a
traceable standard. At concentrations below 100 cm-3 measurements
averaged over extended sampling periods may be required to demonstrate the
accuracy of the PNC with a high degree of statistical confidence;
CF.1.3.4.3 Have a readability of at least 0.1 cm-3 at particle concentrations
below 100 cm-3;
CF.1.3.4.4 Have a linear response to particle concentrations over the full
measurement range in single particle count mode;
CF.1.3.4.5 Have a data reporting frequency equal to or greater than 0.5 Hz;
CF.1.3.4.6 Have a T90 response time over the measured concentration range
of less than 5 s;
CF.1.3.4.7 Incorporate a coincidence correction function up to a maximum 10
percent correction and may make use of an internal calibration factor as
determined in CF.2.1.3, but shall not make use of any other algorithm to
correct for or define the counting efficiency;
CF.1.3.4.8 Have counting efficiencies at particle sizes of 23 nm (±1 nm) and 41
nm (±1 nm) electrical mobility diameter of 50 percent (±12 percent) and > 90
percent respectively. These counting efficiencies may be achieved by internal
(for example, control of instrument design) or external (for example, size
pre-classification) means;
CF.1.3.4.9 If the PNC makes use of a working liquid, it shall be replaced at the
frequency specified by the instrument manufacturer.
CF.1.3.5 Where they are not held at a known constant level at the point at
which PNC flow rate is controlled, the pressure and/or temperature at inlet to
the PNC shall be measured and reported for the purposes of correcting particle
concentration measurements to standard conditions.
CF.1.3.6 The sum of the residence time of the PTS, VPR and OT plus the T90
response time of the PNC shall be no greater than 20 s.
CF.1.4 Descriptions of recommended system
The following Figure CF.1 is the recommended system for measurement of
particle numbers. However, any system meeting the performance
specifications in CF.1.2 and CF.1.3 is acceptable.
Figure CF.1 -- Schematic of recommended particle sampling system
CF.1.4.1 Sampling system description
The particle sampling system shall consist of a sampling probe tip in the
dilution tunnel (PSP), a particle transfer tube (PTT), a particle pre-classifier
(PCF) and a volatile particle remover (VPR) upstream of the particle number
concentration measurement (PNC) unit. The VPR shall include devices for
sample dilution (particle number diluters: PND1 and PND2) and particle
evaporation (evaporation tube, ET). The sampling probe for the test gas flow
shall be so arranged within the dilution tract that a representative sample gas
flow is taken from a homogeneous air/exhaust mixture. The sum of the
residence time of particles in the system plus the T90 response time of the PNC
shall be no greater than 20 s.
CF.1.4.2 Particle transfer system
The sampling probe tip (PSP) and particle transfer tube (PTT) together
comprise the particle transfer system (PTS). The PTS conducts the sample
from the dilution tunnel to the entrance to the first particle number diluter. The
PTS shall meet the following conditions:
It shall be installed near the tunnel centreline, at the location between
approximately 10 and 20 times the tunnel diameter from downstream of the
gas inlet. It shall face the direction of the gas flow, with its axis at the tip parallel
to that of the dilution tunnel.
It shall have an internal diameter of ≥ 8 mm.
Sample gas drawn through the PTS shall meet the following conditions:
It shall have a flow Reynolds number (Re) of < 1700;
It shall have a residence time in the PTS of ≤ 3 seconds.
50%
Any other sampling configuration for the PTS for which equivalent particle
penetration for particles of 30 nm electrical mobility diameter can be
demonstrated will be considered acceptable.
The outlet tube (OT) conducting the diluted sample from the VPR to the inlet of
the PNC shall have the following properties:
It shall have an internal diameter of ≥ 4 mm;
Sample gas flow through the POT shall have a residence time of ≤ 0.8
seconds.
Any other sampling configuration for the OT for which equivalent particle
penetration for particles of 30 nm electrical mobility diameter can be
demonstrated will be considered acceptable.
CF.1.4.3 Particle pre-classifier (PCF)
The recommended particle pre-classifier shall be located upstream of the VPR.
The pre-classifier 50 percent cut point particle diameter shall be between 2.5
μm and 10 μm at the volumetric flow rate selected for sampling particle
number emissions. The pre-classifier shall allow at least 99 percent of the
mass concentration of 1 μm particles entering the pre-classifier to pass
through the exit of the pre-classifier at the volumetric flow rate selected for
sampling particle number emissions.
CF.1.4.4 Volatile particle remover (VPR)
The VPR shall comprise one particle number diluter (PND1), an evaporation
tube (ET) and a second diluter (PND2) in series. This dilution function is to
reduce the number concentration of the sample entering the particle
concentration measurement unit to be less than the upper threshold of the
single particle count mode of the PNC and to suppress nucleation within the
sample. The VPR shall provide an indication of whether or not PND1 and the
evaporation tube (ET) are at their correct operating temperatures.
The VPR shall achieve > 99 percent vaporisation of 0.03 μm tetracontane (CH3
(CH2) 38CH3) particles, with an inlet concentration of ≥ 10000 cm-3, by means of
heating and reduction of partial pressures of the tetracontane. The particle
concentration reduction factor (fr(di)) shall also be able to reach: For the
volatile particle remover as a whole, the particles with an electromobility
particle size of 30 nm and 50 nm do not exceed 30% and 20%, respectively;
the particles with an electromobility particle size of 100 nm are not less than
5%.
CF.1.4.4.1 First particle number dilution device (PND1)
The first particle number dilution device shall be specifically designed to dilute
particle number concentration and operate at a (wall) temperature of 150 °C -
400 °C. The wall temperature setpoint shall not exceed the temperature of the
ET (See CF.1.4.4.2). The diluter shall be supplied with HEPA filtered dilution
air and be capable of a dilution factor of 10 to 200 times.
CF.1.4.4.2 Evaporation tube (ET)
The entire length of the ET shall be controlled to a wall temperature greater
than or equal to that of the first particle number dilution device and the wall
temperature held at a fixed temperature between 300 °C and 400 °C.
CF.1.4.4.3 Second particle number dilution device (PND2)
PND2 shall be specifically designed to dilute particle number concentration.
The diluter shall be supplied with HEPA filtered dilution air and be capable of
maintaining a single dilution factor within a range of 10 to 30 times. The dilution
factor of PND2 shall be selected in the range between 10 and 15 such that
particle number concentration downstream of the second diluter is less than
the upper threshold of the single particle count mode of the PNC and the gas
temperature prior to entry to the PNC is < 35 °C.
CF.1.4.5 Particle number counter (PNC)
The PNC shall meet the requirements of CF.1.3.4.
CF.2 Calibration/validation of the particle sampling system
CF.2.1 Calibration of the particle number counter
CF.2.1.1 The testing organization shall ensure that the existing verification
certificate of the particle number counter is consistent with the traceable
standards. The verification is valid for 12 months.
CF.2.1.2 The PNC shall also be recalibrated and a new calibration certificate
issued following any major maintenance.
CF.2.1.3 Calibration shall be traceable to a standard calibration method:
(i) By comparison of the response of the PNC under calibration with that of a
calibrated aerosol electrometer when simultaneously sampling
electrostatically classified calibration particles; or
(ii) By comparison of the response of the PNC under calibration with that of
a second PNC which has been directly calibrated by the above method.
In the electrometer case, calibration shall be undertaken using at least 6
standard concentrations spaced as uniformly as possible across the PNC's
measurement range. These points will include a nominal zero concentration
point produced by attaching HEPA filters of at least class H13 of EN 1822 to
the inlet of each instrument. With no calibration factor applied to the PNC
under calibration, measured concentrations shall be within ±10 percent of the
standard concentration for each concentration used, with the exception of the
zero point, otherwise the PNC under calibration shall be rejected. The gradient
from a linear regression of the two data sets shall be calculated and recorded.
A calibration factor equal to the reciprocal of the gradient shall be applied to
the PNC under calibration. Linearity of response is calculated as the square of
the Pearson product moment correlation coefficient (R2) of the two data sets
and shall be equal to or greater than 0.97. In calculating both the gradient and
R2 the linear regression shall be forced through the origin (zero concentration
on both instruments).
In the reference PNC case, calibration shall be undertaken using at least 6
standard concentrations across the PNC's measurement range. At least 3
points shall be at concentrations below 1000 cm-3, the remaining
concentrations shall be linearly spaced between 1000 cm-3 and the maximum
of the PNC's range in single particle count mode. These points will include a
nominal zero concentration point produced by attaching HEPA filters of at least
class H13 of EN 1822 to the inlet of each instrument. With no calibration factor
applied to the PNC under calibration, measured concentrations shall be within
±10 percent of the standard concentration for each concentration, with the
exception of the zero point, otherwise the PNC under calibration shall be
rejected. The gradient from a linear regression of the two data sets shall be
calculated and recorded. A calibration factor equal to the reciprocal of the
gradient shall be applied to the PNC under calibration. Linearity of response is
calculated as the square of the Pearson product moment correlation coefficient
(R2) of the two data sets and shall be equal to or greater than 0.97. In
calculating both the gradient and R2 the linear regression shall be forced
through the origin (zero concentration on both instruments).
CF.2.1.4 Calibration shall also include a check, against the requirements in
CF.1.3.4.8, on the PNC's detection efficiency with particles of 23 nm electrical
mobility diameter. A check of the counting efficiency with 41 nm particles is not
required.
CF.2.2 Calibration/validation of the volatile particle remover
CF.2.2.1 Calibration of the VPR's particle concentration reduction factors
across its full range of dilution settings, at the instrument’s fixed nominal
operating temperatures, shall be required when the unit is new and following
any major maintenance. The periodic validation requirement for the VPR's
particle concentration reduction factor is limited to a check at a single setting,
typical of that used for measurement on diesel particulate filter equipped
vehicles. The testing organization shall ensure the existence of a calibration or
validation certificate for the volatile particle remover within a 6 month period. If
the volatile particle remover incorporates temperature monitoring alarms a 12
month validation interval shall be permissible.
The VPR shall be characterised for particle concentration reduction factor with
solid particles of 0.03μm, 0.05μm and 0.1μm electrical mobility diameter.
Particle concentration reduction factors for particles of 0.03μm and 0.05μm
electrical mobility diameters shall be no more than 30 percent and 20 percent
higher respectively, and no more than 5 percent lower than that for particles of
0.1μm electrical mobility diameter. For the purposes of validation, the mean
particle concentration reduction factor shall be within ±10 percent of the mean
particle concentration reduction factor ( ) determined during the primary
calibration of the VPR.
CF.2.2.2 The test aerosol for these measurements shall be solid particles of
0.03μm, 0.05μm and 0.1μm electrical mobility diameter and a minimum
concentration of 5000 cm-3 at the VPR inlet. Particle concentrations shall be
measured upstream and downstream of the components.
The particle concentration reduction factor at each particle size (fr(di)) shall be
calculated as follows:
Where:
Nin(di) - upstream particle number concentration for particles of diameter di;
Nout(di) - downstream particle number concentration for particles of diameter di;
and
di - particle electrical mobility diameter (0.03μm, 0.05μm or 0.1μm).
The particle concentration reduction factor ( ) at a given dilution setting shall
be calculated as follows:
It is recommended that the VPR is calibrated and validated as a complete unit.
CF.2.2.3 For volatile particle removers, the testing organization shall ensure
that the validity period of the volatile particle removal efficiency verification is 6
months. If the volatile particle remover incorporates temperature monitoring
alarms a 12 month validation interval shall be permissible. The VPR shall
demonstrate greater than 99.0 percent removal of tetracontane (CH3 (CH2)
38CH3) particles of 0.03 μm electrical mobility diameter with an inlet
concentration of ≥ 10000 cm-3 when operated at its minimum dilution setting
and manufacturer’s recommended operating temperature.
CF.2.3 Particle number system check procedures
CF.2.3.1 Prior to each test, the particle counter shall report a measured
concentration of less than 0.5 cm-3 when a HEPA filter of at least class H13 of
EN 1822 is attached to the inlet of the entire particle sampling system (VPR
and PNC).
CF.2.3.2 On a monthly basis, the flow into the particle counter shall report a
measured value within 5 percent of the particle counter nominal flow rate when
checked with a calibrated flow meter.
CF.2.3.3 Each day, following the application of a HEPA filter of at least class
H13 of EN 1822, or equivalent performance, to the inlet of the particle counter,
the particle counter shall report a concentration of ≤ 0.2 cm-3. Upon removal of
this filter, the particle counter shall show an increase in measured
concentration to at least 100 cm-3 when challenged with ambient air and a
return to ≤ 0.2 cm-3 on replacement of the HEPA filter.
CF.2.3.4 Prior to the start of each test, it shall be confirmed that the
measurement system indicates that the evaporation tube, where featured in
the system, has reached its correct operating temperature.
CF.2.3.5 Prior to the start of each test, it shall be confirmed that the
measurement system indicates that the diluter PND1 has reached its correct
operating temperature.
Attachment CG
(Normative)
Verification of simulated inertia
CG.1 Object
The method described in this attachment makes it possible to check that the
simulated total inertia of the dynamometer is carried out satisfactorily in the
running phase of the operating cycle. The manufacturer of the dynamometer
shall specify a method for verifying the specifications according to paragraph
CG.3.
CG.2 Principle
CG.2.1 Drawing-up working equations
Since the dynamometer is subjected to variations in the rotating speed of the
roller(s), the force at the surface of the roller(s) can be expressed by the
formula:
F=I×γ=IM×γ+F1
Where:
F - force at the surface of the roller(s),
I - total inertia of the dynamometer (equivalent inertia of the vehicle, see Table
C1),
IM - inertia of the mechanical masses of the dynamometer,
γ - tangential acceleration at roller surface,
F1 - inertia force.
Note: An explanation of this formula with reference to dynamometers with
mechanically simulated inertia is appended.
Thus, total inertia is expressed as follows:
I=IM+Fi/γ
Where:
IM can be calculated or measured by traditional methods.
Fi can be measured on the dynamometer, and also can be calculated
from the peripheral speed of the rollers.
γ can be calculated from the peripheral speed of the rollers.
The total inertia (I) will be determined during an acceleration or deceleration
test with values higher than or equal to those obtained on an operating cycle.
CG.2.2 Specification for the calculation of total inertia
The test and calculation methods shall make it possible to determine the total
inertia I with a relative error (ΔI/I) of less than ±2 percent.
CG.3 Specification
CG.3.1 The mass of the simulated total inertia I shall remain the same as the
theoretical value of the equivalent inertia (see Attachment CB) within the
following limits:
CG.3.1.1 ±5 percent of the theoretical value for each instantaneous value;
CG.3.1.2 ±2 percent of the theoretical value for the average value calculated
for each sequence of the cycle.
CG.3.2 The limit given in G.3.1.1 above is brought to ±50 percent for 1 second
when starting and, for vehicles with manual transmission, for 2 seconds during
gear changes.
CG.4 Verification procedure
CG.4.1 Verification is carried out during each test throughout the cycle
defined in C.5.1.
CG.4.2 However, if the requirements of CG.3 above are met, with
instantaneous accelerations which are at least three times greater or smaller
than the values obtained in the sequences of the theoretical cycle, the
verification described above will not be necessary.
Attachment CH
(Normative)
Measurement of vehicle road load
CH.1 Object
The object of the methods defined below is to measure the resistance to
progress of a vehicle at stabilized speeds on the road and to simulate this
resistance on a dynamometer, in accordance with C.5.2.1.
CH.2 Road requirements
The road shall be level and sufficiently long to enable the measurements
specified in this attachment to be made. The slope shall be constant to within
±0.1 percent and shall not exceed 1.5 percent.
CH.3 Atmospheric conditions
CH.3.1 Wind
Testing shall be limited to wind speeds averaging less than 3 m/s with peak
speeds of less than 5 m/s. In addition, the vector component of the wind speed
across the test road shall be less than 2 m/s. Wind velocity shall be measured
0.7 m above the road surface.
CH.3.2 Humidity
The road shall be dry.
CH.3.3 Pressure and temperature
Air density at the time of the test shall not deviate by more than ±7.5 percent
from the reference conditions, P = 100 kPa and T = 293.2 K.
CH.4 Vehicle preparation
CH.4.1 Selection of the test vehicle
If not all variants of a vehicle type are measured, the following criteria for the
selection of the test vehicle shall be used.
CH.4.1.1 Body
If there are different types of body, the test shall be performed on the least
aerodynamic body. The manufacturer shall provide the necessary data for the
selection.
CH.4.1.2 Tyres
The widest tyre shall be chosen. If there are more than three tyre sizes, the
widest minus one shall be chosen.
CH.4.1.3 Testing mass
The testing mass shall be the reference mass of the vehicle with the highest
inertia range.
CH.4.1.4 Engine
The test vehicle shall have the largest heat exchanger(s).
CH.4.1.5 Transmission
A test shall be carried out with each type of the following transmission:
- Front-wheel drive,
- Rear-wheel drive,
- Full-time 4 × 4,
- Part-time 4 × 4,
- Automatic gearbox,
- Manual gearbox.
CH.4.2 Running-in
The vehicle shall be in normal running order and adjustment after having been
run-in for at least 3000 km. The tyres shall be run-in at the same time as the
vehicle or have a tread depth within 90 and 50 percent of the initial tread depth.
CH.4.3 Verifications
The following checks shall be made in accordance with the manufacturer's
specifications for the use considered:
- Wheels, wheel trims, tyres (make, type, pressure),
- front axle geometry,
- brake adjustment (elimination of parasitic drag),
- lubrication of front and rear axles,
- adjustment of the suspension and vehicle level, etc.
CH.4.4 Preparation for the test
CH.4.4.1 The vehicle shall be loaded to its reference mass. The level of the
vehicle shall be that obtained when the centre of gravity of the load is situated
midway between the "R" points of the front outer seats and on a straight line
passing through those points.
CH.4.4.2 In the case of road tests, the windows of the vehicle shall be closed.
Any covers of air climatization systems, headlamps, etc. shall be in the
nonoperating position.
CH.4.4.3 The vehicle shall be clean.
CH.4.4.4 Immediately prior to the test, the vehicle shall be brought to normal
running temperature in an appropriate manner.
CH.5 Methods
CH.5.1 Energy variation during coast-down method
CH.5.1.1 On the road
CH.5.1.1.1 Test equipment and errors:
Time shall be measured to an error lower than 0.1 s. Speed shall be measured
to an error lower than 2 percent.
CH.5.1.1.2 Test procedure
CH.5.1.1.2.1 Accelerate the vehicle to a speed 10 km/h greater than the
chosen test speed V.
CH.5.1.1.2.2 Place the gearbox in "neutral" position.
CH.5.1.1.2.3 Measure the time taken (t1) for the vehicle to decelerate from
speed V2=V+ΔV km/h to V1=V-ΔV km/h, where: ΔV≤5km/h.
CH.5.1.1.2.4 Perform the same test in the opposite direction: t2.
CH.5.1.1.2.5 Take the average Ti of the two times t1 and t2.
CH.5.1.1.2.6 Repeat these tests several times such that the statistical
accuracy (p) of the average is not more than 2 percent (p ≤ 2
percent).
The statistical accuracy (p) is defined by:
Where:
t = coefficient given in the Table CH.1,
s = standard deviation,
n = number of tests.
Table CH.1
CH.5.1.1.2.7 Calculate the power by the formula:
Where:
P = power, expressed in kW,
V = speed of the test in m/s,
ΔV = speed deviation from speed V, in m/s as specified in CH.5.1.1.2.3,
M = reference mass in kg,
T = time in s.
CH.5.1.1.2.8 The power (P) determined on the track shall be corrected to the
reference ambient conditions as follows:
P corrected=KP measured
Where:
RR - rolling resistance at speed V,
R AERO - aerodynamic drag at speed V,
RT - total driving resistance = RR + RAERO,
KR - temperature correction factor of rolling resistance, taken to be equal to
8.64 × 10-3/°C, or the manufacturer's correction factor that is approved by the
authority,
t - road test ambient temperature in °C,
t0 - reference ambient temperature = 20 °C,
ρ - air density at the test conditions,
ρ0 - air density at the reference conditions (20 °C, 1000 kPa).
The ratios RR/RT and RAERO/RT shall be specified by the vehicle manufacturer
based on the data normally available to the company.
If these values are not available, subject to the agreement of the manufacturer
and the testing organization concerned, the figures for the rolling/total
resistance given by the following formula may be used:
Where:
M - vehicle mass in kg,
and for each speed the coefficients a and b are shown in Table CH.2:
Table CH.2
CH.5.1.2 On the dynamometer
CH.5.1.2.1 Measurement equipment and accuracy
The equipment shall be identical to that used on the road.
CH.5.1.2.2 Test procedure
CH.5.1.2.2.1 Install the vehicle on the test dynamometer.
CH.5.1.2.2.2 Adjust the tyre pressure (cold) of the driving wheels as required
by the dynamometer.
CH.5.1.2.2.3 Adjust the equivalent inertia of the dynamometer.
CH.5.1.2.2.4 Bring the vehicle and dynamometer to operating temperature in a
suitable manner.
CH.5.1.2.2.5 Carry out the operations specified in CH.5.1.1.2 (with the
exception of CH.5.1.1.2.4 and CH.5.1.1.2.5), replacing M by I in the formula
set out in paragraph CH.5.1.1.2.7.
CH.5.1.2.2.6 Adjust the brake to reproduce the corrected power (CH.5.1.1.2.8)
and to consider the difference between the vehicle mass (M) on the track and
the equivalent inertia test mass (I) to be used. This may be done by calculating
the mean corrected road coast down time from V2 to V1 and reproducing the
same time on the dynamometer by the following relationship:
Where: K = value specified in CH.5.1.1.2.8.
CH.5.1.2.2.7 The power Pa to be absorbed by the dynamometer shall be
determined in order to enable the same power (CH.5.1.1.2.8) to be reproduced
for the same vehicle on different days.
CH.5.2 Torque measurements method at constant speed
CH.5.2.1 On the road
CH.5.2.1.1 Measurement equipment and errors
Torque measurement shall be carried out with an appropriate measuring
device accurate to within 2 percent.
Speed measurement shall be accurate to within 2 percent.
CH.5.2.1.2 Test procedure
CH.5.2.1.2.1 Bring the vehicle to the chosen stabilized speed V.
CH.5.2.1.2.2 Record the torque C (t) and speed over a period of at least 20
seconds. The accuracy of the data recording system shall be at least ±1 Nm
for the torque and ±0.2 km/h for the speed.
CH.5.2.1.2.3 Differences in torque C (t) and speed relative to time shall not
exceed 5 percent for each second of the measurement period.
CH.5.2.1.2.4 The torque Ct1 is the average torque derived from the following
formula:
CH.5.2.1.2.5 The test shall be carried out three times in each direction.
Determine the average torque from these six measurements for the reference
speed. If the average speed deviates by more than 1 km/h from the reference
speed, a linear regression shall be used for calculating the average torque.
corrected
measured
CH.5.2.1.2.6 Determine the average of these two torques Ct1 and Ct2, i.e. Ct.
CH.5.2.1.2.7 The average torque Ct determined on the track shall be corrected
to the reference ambient conditions as follows:
Ct-corrected=KCt-measured
Where K has the value specified in CH.5.1.1.2.8.
CH.5.2.2 On the dynamometer
CH.5.2.2.1 Measurement equipment and error
The equipment shall be identical to that used on the road.
CH.5.2.2.2 Test procedure
CH.5.2.2.2.1 Perform the operations specified in CH.5.1.2.2.1 to CH.5.1.2.2.4
above.
CH.5.2.2.2.2 Perform the operations specified in paragraphs CH.5.2.1.2.1 to
CH.5.2.1.2.4 above.
CH.5.2.2.2.3 Adjust the power absorption unit to reproduce the corrected total
track torque indicated in CH.5.2.1.2.7.
CH.5.2.2.2.4 Proceed with the same operations as in CH.5.1.2.2.7, for the
same purpose.
Annex D
(Normative)
Two-speed idle test or free acceleration smoke test (Type II test)
D.1 Introduction
This annex describes the procedure of two-speed idle test for vehicles
equipped with positive-ignition engines and procedure of free acceleration
smoke test for vehicles equipped with compression-ignition engines.
D.2 Determining CO and THC at two-speed idle and λ value at high idling
speed (two-speed idle test)
D.2.1 Measurement conditions and equipment requirements
D.2.1.1 The test fuel shall be the fuel for Type I test.
D.2.1.2 During the test, the environmental temperature shall be between 293
and 303 K (20 and 30 °C).
The engine shall be warmed up until all temperatures of cooling and lubrication
means and the pressure of lubrication means have reached equilibrium.
D.2.1.3 Gear selection
In the case of vehicles with manually-operated or semi-automatic-shift
gearboxes, the test shall be carried out with the gear lever in the "neutral"
position and with the clutch engaged.
In the case of vehicles with automatic-shift gearboxes, the test shall be carried
out with the gear selector in either the "neutral" or the "parking" position.
D.2.1.4 Components for adjusting the idling speed
For the purposes of this Standard, "components for adjusting the idling speed"
means controls for changing the idling conditions of the engine which may be
easily operated by a mechanic using only the tools described in the following
paragraph. In particular, devices for calibrating fuel and air flows are not
considered as adjustment components if their setting requires the removal of
the set-stops, an operation which cannot normally be performed except by a
professional mechanic.
Tools which may be used to control components for adjusting the idling speed:
screwdrivers (ordinary or cross-headed), spanners (ring, open-end or
adjustable), pliers, Allen keys.
D.2.1.5 The specification for exhaust measuring instruments shall comply with
the provisions in Annex A, GB 18285.
D.2.2 Determination of CO and THC at normal idling speed
D.2.2.1 A measurement at the setting in accordance with the conditions fixed
by the manufacturer is performed first;
D.2.2.2 For each adjustment component with a continuous variation, a
sufficient number of characteristic positions shall be determined.
D.2.2.3 The measurement of the CO and THC content of exhaust gases shall
be carried out for all the possible positions of the adjustment components, but
for components with a continuous variation only the positions defined in
D.2.2.2 shall be adopted.
D.2.2.4 The possible positions of the adjustment components are limited as
follows:
D.2.2.4.1 On the one hand, by the larger of the following two values: the lowest
stable speed which the engine can reach; the speed recommended by the
manufacturer, minus 100 revolutions per minute;
D.2.2.4.2 On the other hand, by the smallest of the following three values: the
highest speed the engine can attain by activation of the idling speed
components; the speed recommended by the manufacturer, plus 250 r/min;
the cut-in speed of automatic clutches.
D.2.2.4.3 In addition, settings incompatible with correct running of the engine
shall not be adopted as measurement settings.
D.2.2.5 Sampling of gases
The sampling probe shall be positioned in the exhaust pipe connecting the
exhaust gas and sampling bag, as close as possible to the exhaust gas.
D.2.2.6 Determination of the concentration of CO and THC
D.2.2.6.1 The concentration of CO (CCO), THC, and CO2 (CCO2) shall be
determined from the measuring instrument readings or recordings, by use of
appropriate calibration curves.
D.2.2.6.2 The corrected concentration for carbon monoxide regarding
four-stroke engines is:
D.2.2.6.3 The concentration of CO (see D.2.2.6.1) need not be corrected
according to the formulae contained in D2.2.6.2 if the total of the
concentrations measured (CCO + CCO2) is at least 15 percent for four-stroke
engines.
D.2.2.6.4 Record the two combined values of CO and THC with highest
concentrations among those measured at each adjusted position in the table in
BA.2.2.1; record the engine oil temperature during the test and the engine
speed range at each adjusted position.
D.2.3 Determination of CO, THC and CO2 at high idling speed and
calculation of λ value
D.2.3.1 Adjust the engine’s idling speed to the high idling speed specified by
the manufacturer (shall be no lower than 2000 r/min). Record the
concentrations of CO, THC, CO2 and O2 and use the formula in D.2.3.2 to
calculate the λ value.
D.2.3.2 Use the following simplified Brettschneider formula to calculate the λ
value:
Where:
[ ] - concentration, % v/v,
K1 - coefficient for NDIR measuring value being converted into an FDI
measuring value (provided by the manufacturer of the measuring equipment),
Hcv - hydrogen-carbon atomic ratio,
- petrol=1.73
- LPG=2.53
- NG=4.0
Ocv - oxygen-carbon atomic ratio,
- petrol=0.02
- LPG=0.0
- NG=0.0
D.2.3.3 Record all of the calculated λ values in the table in BA.2.2.1 and
record the engine oil temperature during the test and the engine speed and its
tolerance.
D.3 Free acceleration smoke test, smoke opacity measurement method
D.3.1 Measurement conditions
D.3.1.1 The test fuel shall be the fuel for Type I test.
D.3.1.2 The ambient temperature during the test shall be between 293 K ~ 303
K (20 °C ~ 30 °C).
The engine shall be warmed up until all temperatures of cooling and lubrication
means and the pressure of lubrication means have reached equilibrium.
D.3.1.3 Gear selection
In the case of vehicles with manually-operated or semi-automatic-shift
gearboxes, the test shall be carried out with the gear lever in the "neutral"
position and with the clutch engaged.
In the case of vehicles with automatic-shift gearboxes, the test shall be carried
out with the gear selector in either the "neutral" or the "parking" position.
D.3.1.4 The other measurement conditions refer to the provisions in D.1 of
Annex D, GB 3847-2005.
D.3.2 Test method
The provisions in D.2 of Annex D, GB 3847-2005 shall be complied with.
Annex E
(Normative)
Test of crankcase emissions (Type III test)
E.1 Introduction
This annex describes the procedure for the Type III test defined in paragraph
5.3.3.
E.2 General provisions
E.2.1 The Type III test shall be carried out on a vehicle with positive-ignition
engine, which has been, subjected to the Type I or two-speed idle test, as
applicable.
E.2.2 The engines tested shall include leak-proof engines other than those so
designed that even a slight leak may cause unacceptable operating faults
(such as flat-twin engines).
E.3 Test conditions
E.3.1 Idling shall be regulated in conformity with the manufacturer's
recommendations.
E.3.2 The measurement shall be performed in the following three sets of
conditions of engine operation as described in Table E.1:
Table E.1 -- Operation conditions
Condition No. Vehicle speed (km/h) Power absorbed by the chassis dynamometer
1 Idling No
2 50 ±2 (in 3rd gear or "drive") That corresponding to the setting for Type I test at 50 km/h
3 50 ±2 (in 3rd gear or "drive") That for conditions No. 2, multiplied by a factor of 1.7
E.4 Test method
E4.1 For the operation conditions as listed in E.3.2, reliable function of the
crankcase ventilation system shall be checked.
E5 Method of verification of the crankcase ventilation system (See Figure
E.1)
E.5.1 The engine's apertures shall be left as found.
E.5.2 The pressure in the crankcase shall be measured at an appropriate
location. It shall be measured at the dip-stick hole with an inclined-tube
manometer.
E.5.3 The vehicle shall be deemed satisfactory if, in every condition of
measurement defined in E.3.2, the pressure measured in the crankcase does
not exceed the atmospheric pressure prevailing at the time of measurement.
E.5.4 For the test by the method described above, the pressure in the intake
manifold shall be measured to within ±1 kPa.
E.5.5 The vehicle speed as indicated at the dynamometer shall be measured
to within ±2 km/h.
E.5.6 The pressure measured in the crankcase shall be measured to within
±0.01 kPa.
E.5.7 If in one of the conditions of measurement defined in E.3.2, the pressure
measured in the crankcase exceeds the atmospheric pressure, an additional
test as defined in E.6 shall be performed if requested by the manufacturer.
E.6 Additional test
E.6.1 The engine's apertures shall be left as found.
E.6.2 A flexible bag impervious to crankcase gases and having a capacity of
approximately 5 litres shall be connected to the dipstick hole. The bag shall be
empty before each measurement.
E.6.3 The bag shall be closed before each measurement. It shall be opened to
the crankcase for 5 minutes for each condition of measurement prescribed in
E.3.2.
E.6.4 The vehicle shall be deemed satisfactory if, in every condition of
measurement defined in E.3.2, no visible inflation of the bag occurs.
E.6.5 If the structural layout of the engine is such that the test cannot be
performed by the methods described in E.6.1 to E.6.4, the measurements shall
be conducted by the method modified as follows:
E.6.5.1 Before the test, all apertures other than that required for the recovery
of the gases shall be closed;
E.6.5.2 The bag shall be placed on a suitable take-off which does not introduce
any additional loss of pressure and is installed on the recycling circuit of the
device directly at the engine-connection aperture.
Figure E.1 -- Type III test
Annex F
(Normative)
Test of evaporative emissions (Type IV test)
F.1 Introduction
This annex describes the procedure of the Type IV test according to paragraph
5.3.4.
This procedure describes the method for determining the evaporative
emissions of vehicles with positive ignition engines.
F.2 Description of test
The evaporative emissions test (See Figure F.1) is designed to determine
hydrocarbon evaporative emissions as a consequence of diurnal temperatures
fluctuation, hot soaks during parking, and urban driving. The test consists of
these phases:
- Test preparation including an urban (Part 1) and extra-urban (Part 2)
driving cycle,
- Hot soak loss determination,
- Diurnal loss determination.
Mass emissions of hydrocarbons from the hot soak and the diurnal loss
phases are added up to provide an overall result for the test.
F.3 Vehicle and fuel
F.3.1 Vehicle
F.3.1.1 The vehicle shall be in good mechanical condition and have been run
in and driven at least 3000 km before the test. The evaporative emission
control system shall be connected and have been functioning correctly over
this period and the carbon canister(s) shall have been subject to normal use,
neither undergoing abnormal purging nor abnormal loading.
F.3.2 Fuel
F.3.2.1 The appropriate reference fuel shall be used, as defined in Annex J.
F.4 Test equipment for evaporative emissions
F.4.1 Chassis dynamometer
The chassis dynamometer shall meet the requirements of Annex C.
F.4.2 Evaporative emission measurement enclosure
The evaporative emission measurement enclosure shall be a gas-tight
rectangular measuring chamber able to contain the vehicle under test. The
vehicle shall be accessible from all sides and the enclosure when sealed shall
be gas-tight in accordance with Attachment FA. The inner surface of the
enclosure shall be impermeable and non-reactive to hydrocarbons. The
temperature conditioning system shall be capable of controlling the internal
enclosure air temperature to follow the prescribed temperature versus time
profile throughout the test, and an average tolerance of ±1K over the duration
of the test.
The control system shall be tuned to provide a smooth temperature pattern
that has a minimum of overshoot, hunting, and instability about the desired
ambient temperature profile. Interior surface temperatures shall not be less
than 278K (5 °C) nor more than 328K (55 °C) at any time during the diurnal
emission test.
Wall design shall be such as to promote good dissipation of heat. Interior
surface temperatures shall not be below 293K (20 °C), nor above 325K (52 °C)
for the duration of the hot soak rest.
To accommodate the volume changes due to enclosure temperature changes,
either a variable-volume or fixed-volume enclosure may be used.
Figure F.1 -- Determination procedure of evaporative emissions
F.4.2.1 Variable-volume enclosure
The variable-volume enclosure expands and contracts in response to the
temperature change of the air mass in the enclosure. Two potential means of
accommodating the internal volume changes are movable panel(s), or a
bellows design, in which an impermeable bag or bags inside the enclosure
expand(s) and contracts(s) in response to internal pressure changes by
exchanging air from outside the enclosure. Any design for volume
accommodation shall maintain the integrity of the enclosure as specified in
Attachment FA over the specified temperature range.
Any method of volume accommodation shall limit the differential between the
enclosure internal pressure and the barometric pressure to a maximum value
of ±500 Pa.
The enclosure shall be capable of latching to a fixed volume. A variable
(18 °C ± 8 °C)
0.5 min
Tmax
volume enclosure shall be capable of accommodating a ±7 percent change
from its "nominal volume" (see FA.2.1.1), considering temperature and
barometric pressure variation during testing.
F.4.2.2 Fixed-volume enclosure
The fixed-volume enclosure shall be constructed with rigid panels that maintain
a fixed enclosure volume and meet the requirements below.
F.4.2.2.1 The enclosure shall be equipped with an outlet flow stream that
withdraws air at a low, constant rate from the enclosure throughout the test. An
inlet flow stream may provide make-up air to balance the outgoing flow with
incoming ambient air. Inlet air shall be filtered with activated carbon to provide
a relatively constant hydrocarbon level. Any method of volume accommodation
shall maintain the differential between the enclosure internal pressure and the
barometric pressure between 0 and -500Pa.
F.4.2.2.2 The equipment shall be capable of measuring the mass of
hydrocarbon in the inlet and outlet flow streams with a resolution of 0.01 gram.
A bag sampling system may be used to collect a proportional sample of the air
withdrawn from and admitted to the enclosure. Alternatively, the inlet and
outlet flow streams may be continuously analyzed using an on-line FID
analyzer and integrated with the flow measurements to provide a continuous
record of the mass hydrocarbon removal.
F.4.3 Analytical systems
F.4.3.1 Hydrocarbon analyser
F.4.3.1.1 The atmosphere within the chamber is monitored using a
hydrocarbon analyser of the hydrogen flame ionisation detector (FID) type.
Sample gas shall be drawn from the mid-point of one side wall or roof of the
chamber and any bypass flow shall be returned to the enclosure, preferably to
a point immediately downstream of the mixing fan.
F.4.3.1.2 The hydrocarbon analyser shall have a response time to 90 percent
of final reading of less than 1.5 seconds. Its stability shall be better than 2
percent of full scale at zero and at 80±20 percent of full scale over a 15-minute
period for all operational ranges.
F.4.3.1.3 The repeatability of the analyser expressed as one standard
deviation shall be less than 1 percent at zero and at 80±20 percent of full scale
on all ranges used.
F.4.3.1.4 The operational ranges of the analyser shall be chosen to give best
resolution over the measurement, calibration and leak checking procedures.
F.4.3.2 Hydrocarbon analyser data recording system
F.4.3.2.1 The hydrocarbon analyser shall be fitted with a device to record
electrical signal output either by strip chart recorder or other data processing
system at a frequency of at least once per minute. The recording system shall
have operating characteristics at least equivalent to the signal being recorded
and shall provide a permanent record of results. The record shall show a
positive indication of the beginning and end of the hot soak or diurnal emission
test (including beginning and end of sampling periods along with the time
elapsed between start and completion of each test).
F.4.4 Fuel tank heating (only applicable for gasoline canister load option)
F.4.4.1 The fuel in the vehicle tank(s) shall be heated by a controllable source
of heat; for example, a heating pad of 2000 W capacity is suitable. The heating
system shall apply heat evenly to the tank walls beneath the level of the fuel so
as not to cause local overheating of the fuel. Heat shall not be applied to the
vapour in the tank above the fuel.
F.4.4.2 The tank heating device shall make it possible to heat the fuel in the
tank evenly by 14 K from 289 K (16 °C) within 60 minutes, with the temperature
sensor position as in F.5.1.1. The heating system shall be capable of
controlling the fuel temperature to ±1.5 K of the required temperature during
the tank heating process.
F.4.5 Temperature recording
F.4.5.1 The temperature in the chamber is recorded at two points by
temperature sensors which are connected so as to show a mean value. The
measuring points are extended approximately 0.1 m into the enclosure from
the vertical centre line of each side wall at a height of 0.9 ±0.2 m.
F.4.5.2 Temperatures shall, throughout the evaporative emission
measurements, be recorded or entered into a data processing system at a
frequency of at least once per minute.
F.4.5.3 The temperatures of the fuel tank(s) are recorded by means of the
sensor positioned in the fuel tank as in F.5.1.1 in the case of use of the
gasoline canister load option (F.5.1.5).
F.4.5.4 The accuracy of the temperature recording system shall be within ±1.0
K and the temperature shall be capable of being resolved to ±0.4 K.
F4.5.5 The recording or data processing system shall be capable of resolving
time to ±15 seconds.
F.4.6 Pressure recording
F4.6.1 The difference Δp between barometric pressure within the test area and
the enclosure internal pressure shall, throughout the evaporative emission
measurements, be recorded or entered into a data processing system at a
frequency of at least once per minute.
F.4.6.2 The accuracy of the pressure recording system shall be within ±200Pa
and the pressure shall be capable of being resolved to ±20Pa.
F.4.6.3 The time resolution of the recording system or data processing system
shall not be less than ±15s.
F.4.7 Fans
F.4.7.1 By the use of one or more fans or blowers with the SHED door(s) open
it shall be possible to reduce the hydrocarbons concentration in the chamber to
the ambient hydrocarbon level.
F.4.7.2 The chamber shall have one or more fans or blowers of like capacity
0.1 to 0.5 m3/s, with which the atmosphere in the enclosure is thoroughly
mixed. It shall be possible to attain an even temperature and hydrocarbon
concentration in the chamber during measurements. The vehicle in the
enclosure shall not be subjected to a direct stream of air from the fans or
blowers.
F.4.8 Gases
F.4.8.1 The following pure gases shall be available for calibration and
operation:
- Purified synthetic air: (THC<1ppm C1, CO≤1ppm, CO2≤400ppm,
NO≤0.1ppm); oxygen content between 18 and 21 percent by volume.
- Hydrocarbon analyser fuel gas: (40±2 percent hydrogen, and balance
helium with less than 1 ppm C1 equivalent hydrocarbon, less than or equal
to 400 ppm CO2),
- Propane (C3H8): 99.5 percent minimum purity.
- Butane (C4H10): 98 percent minimum purity.
- Nitrogen (N2): 98 percent minimum purity.
F.4.8.2 Calibration and span gases shall be available containing mixtures of
propane (C3H8) and purified synthetic air. The true concentrations of a
calibration gas shall be within ±2 percent of the stated figures. The accuracy of
the diluted gases obtained when using a gas divider shall be to within ±2
percent of the true value. The concentrations specified in Attachment FA may
also be obtained by the use of a gas divider using synthetic air as the diluted
gas.
F.4.9 Additional equipment
F.4.9.1 The absolute humidity in the test area shall be measurable to within ±5
percent.
F.5 Test procedure
F.5.1 Test preparation
F.5.1.1 The vehicle is mechanically prepared before the test as follows:
- The exhaust system of the vehicle shall not exhibit any leaks;
- The vehicle may be steam-cleaned before the test;
- In the case of use of the gasoline canister load option (F.5.1.5) the fuel
tank of the vehicle shall be equipped with a temperature sensor to enable
the temperature to be measured at the geometric mid-point of the fuel in
the fuel tank when filled to 40 percent of its nominal capacity;
- Additional fittings, adapters of devices may be fitted to the fuel system in
order to allow a complete draining of the fuel tank. For this purpose, it is
not necessary to modify the shell of the tank;
- The manufacturer may propose a test method in order to consider the loss
of hydrocarbons by evaporation coming only from the fuel system of the
vehicle.
F.5.1.2 The vehicle is taken into the test area where the ambient temperature
is between 293 and 303 K (20 and 30 °C).
F.5.1.3 The ageing of the canister(s) has to be verified. This may be done by
demonstrating that it has accumulated a minimum of 3000 km. If this
demonstration is not given, the following ageing procedure is used. In the case
of a multiple canister system each canister shall undergo the procedure
separately.
F.5.1.3.1 The canister is removed from the vehicle. Special care shall be taken
during this step to avoid damage to components and the integrity of the fuel
system.
F.5.1.3.2 The weight of the canister shall be checked.
F.5.1.3.3 The canister is connected to a fuel tank, possibly an external one,
filled with reference fuel as specified in F.3.2.1, to 40 percent nominal volume
of the fuel tank(s).
F.5.1.3.4 The fuel temperature in the fuel tank shall be between 283 K and 287
K (10 and 14 °C).
F.5.1.3.5 The fuel tank is heated from 288 K to 318 K (15 to 45 °C) (1 °C
increase every 9 minutes).
F.5.1.3.6 If the canister reaches breakthrough before the temperature reaches
318 K (45 °C), the heat source shall be turned off. Then the canister is weighed.
If the canister did not reach breakthrough after the heating to 318 K (45 °C),
the procedure from F.5.1.3.3 shall be repeated until breakthrough occurs.
F.5.1.3.7 Breakthrough may be checked as described in F.5.1.5 and F.5.1.6,
or with the use of another sampling and analytical arrangement capable of
detecting the emission of hydrocarbons from the canister at breakthrough.
F.5.1.3.8 The canister shall be purged with 25 ±5 litres per minute with the
emission laboratory air until 300 times the effective volume of the canister is
reached.
F.5.1.3.9 The weight of the canister shall be checked.
F.5.1.3.10 The steps of the procedure in F.5.1.3.4 to F.5.1.3.9 shall be
repeated 9 times. The test may be terminated prior to that, after not less than
three ageing cycles, if the weight of the canister after the last cycles has
stabilised.
F.5.1.3.11 The canister is reconnected and the vehicle restored to its normal
operating condition.
F.5.1.4 Canister preconditioning
One of the methods specified in F.5.1.5 and F.5.1.6 shall be used to
precondition the canister. For vehicles with multiple canisters, each canister
shall be preconditioned separately.
F.5.1.4.1 Canister emissions are measured to determine breakthrough.
Breakthrough is here defined as the point at which the cumulative quantity of
hydrocarbons emitted is equal to 2 grams.
F.5.1.4.2 Breakthrough may be verified using the evaporative emission
enclosure as described in F.5.1.5 and F.5.1.6 respectively. Alternatively,
breakthrough may be determined using an auxiliary evaporative canister
connected downstream of the vehicle's canister. The auxiliary canister shall be
well purged with dry air prior to loading.
F.5.1.4.3 The air mixing fan in the chamber shall be turned on and the
measuring chamber purged for several minutes immediately before the test
until a stable background is obtained. The hydrocarbon analyser shall be
zeroed and spanned immediately before the test.
F.5.1.5 Canister loading with repeated heat builds to breakthrough
F.5.1.5.1 The fuel tank(s) of the vehicle(s) is (are) emptied using the fuel tank
drain(s). This shall be done so as not to abnormally purge or abnormally load
the canister fitted to the vehicle. Removal of the fuel cap is normally sufficient
to achieve this.
F.5.1.5.2 The fuel tank(s) is (are) refilled with test fuel at a temperature of
between 283 K to 287 K (10 to 14 °C) to 40 ±2 percent of the tank's normal
volumetric capacity. The fuel cap(s) of the vehicle shall be fitted at this point.
F.5.1.5.3 Within 1 hour of being refuelled the vehicle shall be placed, with the
engine shut off, in the enclosure. The fuel tank temperature sensor is
connected to the temperature recording system. A heat source shall be
properly positioned with respect to the fuel tank(s) and connected to the
temperature controller. The heat source is specified in F.4.4. In the case of
vehicles fitted with more than one fuel tank, all the tanks shall be heated in the
same way as described below. The temperatures of the tanks shall be identical
to within ±1.5 K.
F.5.1.5.4 The fuel may be artificially heated to the starting diurnal temperature
of 293 K (20 °C) ±1 K.
F.5.1.5.5 When the fuel temperature reaches at least 292 K (19 °C), the
following steps shall be taken immediately: the purge blower shall be turned off;
enclosure doors closed and sealed; and measurement initiated of the original
hydrocarbon level in the enclosure.
F.5.1.5.6 When the fuel temperature of the fuel tank reaches 293 K (20 °C) a
linear heating temperature-rise of 15 K (15 °C) begins. The fuel shall be heated
in such a way that the temperature of the fuel during the heating conforms to
the function below to within ±1.5 K. The elapsed time of the heat build and
temperature rise are recorded.
Tr=To+0.2333×t
Where:
Tr = required temperature (K),
To = initial temperature (K),
t = time from start of the tank heat build in minutes.
F.5.1.5.7 As soon as break-through occurs or when the fuel temperature
reaches 308 K (35 °C), whichever occurs first, the heat source is turned off, the
enclosure doors unsealed and opened, and the vehicle fuel tank cap(s)
removed. If break-through has not occurred by the time the fuel temperature
308 K (35 °C), the heat source is removed from the vehicle, the vehicle
removed from the evaporative emission enclosure and the entire procedure
outlined in F.5.1.7 and F.5.1.5.3 to F.5.1.5.7 repeated until break-through
occurs.
F.5.1.6 Butane loading to breakthrough
F.5.1.6.1 If the enclosure is used for the determination of the break-through
(see F.5.1.4.2) the vehicle shall be placed, with the engine shut off, in the
evaporative emission enclosure.
F.5.1.6.2 The evaporative emission canister shall be prepared for the canister
loading operation. The canister shall not be removed from the vehicle, unless
access to it in its normal location is so restricted that loading can only
reasonably be accomplished by removing the canister from the vehicle.
Special care shall be taken during this step to avoid damage to the
components and the integrity of the fuel system.
F.5.1.6.3 The canister is loaded with a mixture composed of 50 percent butane
and 50 percent nitrogen by volume at a rate of 40 grams of butane per hour.
F.5.1.6.4 As soon as the canister reaches breakthrough, the vapour source
shall be shut off.
F.5.1.6.5 The evaporative emission canister shall then be reconnected and the
vehicle restored to its normal operating condition.
F.5.1.7 Fuel drain and refill
F.5.1.7.1 The fuel tank(s) of the vehicle(s) is (are) emptied using the fuel tank
drain(s). This shall be done so as not to abnormally purge or abnormally load
the evaporative control devices fitted to the vehicle. Removal of the fuel cap is
normally sufficient to achieve this.
F.5.1.7.2 The fuel tank(s) is (are) refilled with test fuel at a temperature of
between 291 ±8 K (18 ±8 °C) to 40 ±2 percent of the tank's normal volumetric
capacity. The fuel cap(s) of the vehicle shall be fitted at this point.
F.5.2 Preconditioning drive
F.5.2.1 Within 1 hour from the completing of canister loading in accordance
with F.5.1.5 or F.5.1.6 the vehicle is placed on the chassis dynamometer and
driven through one Part 1 and two Part 2 driving cycles of Type I test as
specified in Annex C. Exhaust emissions are not sampled during this
operation.
F.5.3 Soak
F.5.3.1 Within 5 minutes of completing the preconditioning operation specified
in F.5.2.1 the engine bonnet shall be completely closed and the vehicle driven
off the chassis dynamometer and parked in the soak area. The vehicle is
parked for a minimum of 12 hours and a maximum of 36 hours. The engine oil
and coolant temperatures shall have reached within ±3 K of temperature of the
area at the end of the period.
F.5.4 Dynamometer test
F.5.4.1 After conclusion of the soak period the vehicle is driven through a
complete Type I test drive as described in Annex C (cold start urban and extra
urban test). Then the engine is shut off. Exhaust emissions may be sampled
during this operation but the results shall not be used for the purpose of
exhaust emission type approval.
F.5.4.2 Within 2 minutes after completing the Type I test drive specified in
F.5.4.1 the vehicle is driven a further conditioning drive consisting of one urban
test cycle (hot start) of a Type I test. Then the engine is shut off again. Exhaust
emissions need not be sampled during this operation.
F.5.5 Hot soak test
F.5.5.1 Before the completion of the test run the measuring chamber shall be
purged for several minutes until a stable hydrocarbon background is obtained.
The enclosure mixing fan(s) shall also be turned on at this time.
Warning: The measuring chamber shall be purged immediately once the
concentration of hydrocarbons, methyl alcohol or gas mixture of hydrocarbons
and methyl alcohol exceeds 15000 ppm C. With respect to the lean
flammability, such concentration can offer a safety factor of 4:1.
F.5.5.2 The hydrocarbon analyser and other analysers shall be zeroed and
spanned immediately prior to the test.
F.5.5.3 At the end of the preconditioning driving cycle the engine bonnet shall
be completely closed and all connections between the vehicle and the test
stand disconnected. The vehicle is then driven to the measuring chamber with
a minimum use of the accelerator pedal. The engine shall be turned off before
any part of the vehicle enters the measuring chamber. The time at which the
engine is switched off is recorded on the evaporative emission measurement
data recording system and temperature recording begins. The vehicle's
windows and luggage compartments shall be opened at this stage, if not
already opened.
F.5.5.4 The vehicle shall be pushed or otherwise moved into the measuring
chamber with the engine switched off.
F.5.5.5 The enclosure doors are closed and sealed gas-tight within 2 minutes
after the engine being switched off and within 7 minutes after the end of the
preconditioning drive.
F.5.5.6 The start of a 60 ±0.5 minute hot soak period begins when the chamber
is sealed. The hydrocarbon concentration, temperature and barometric
pressure are measured to give the initial readings CTHC,i, Ti and Pi for the hot
soak test. These figures are used in the evaporative emission calculation in
F.6.
F.5.5.7 The hydrocarbon analyser shall be zeroed and spanned immediately
before the end of the 60 ±0.5 minute test period.
F.5.5.8 At the end of the 60 ±0.5 minute test period, the hydrocarbon
concentration in the chamber shall be measured. The temperature and the
barometric pressure are also measured. These are the final readings CTHC,f, Tf
and Pf for the hot soak test used for the calculation in F.6.
F.5.6 Soak
F.5.6.1 The test vehicle shall be pushed or otherwise moved to the soak area
without use of the engine and soaked for not less than 6 hours and not more
than 36 hours between the end of the hot soak test and the start of the diurnal
emission test. For at least 6 hours of this period the vehicle shall be soaked at
293 ±2 K (20 ±2 °C).
F.5.7 Diurnal test
F.5.7.1 The test vehicle shall be exposed to 1 cycle of ambient temperature
according to the profile specified in Attachment FB with a maximum deviation
within ±2 K at any time. The average temperature deviation from the profile,
calculated using the absolute value of each measured deviation, shall not
exceed 1 K. Ambient temperature shall be measured at least every minute.
Temperature cycling begins when time Tstart = 0, as specified in F.5.7.6.
F.5.7.2 The measuring chamber shall be purged for several minutes
immediately before the test until a stable background is obtainable. The
chamber mixing fan(s) shall also be switched on at this time. Warning: The
measuring chamber shall be purged immediately once the concentration of
hydrocarbons, methyl alcohol or gas mixture of hydrocarbons and methyl
alcohol exceeds 15000 ppm C. With respect to the lean flammability, such
concentration can offer a safety factor of 4:1.
F.5.7.3 The test vehicle, with the engine shut off and the test vehicle windows
and luggage compartment(s) opened shall be moved into the measuring
chamber. The mixing fan(s) shall be adjusted in such a way as to maintain a
minimum air circulation speed of 8 km/h under the fuel tank of the test vehicle.
F.5.7.4 The hydrocarbon analyser shall be zeroed and spanned immediately
before the test.
F.5.7.5 The enclosure doors shall be closed and gas-tight sealed.
F.5.7.6 Within 10 minutes after closing and sealing the doors, the hydrocarbon
concentration, temperature and barometric pressure are measured to give the
initial readings CTHC,i, Ti and Pi for the diurnal test. This is the point where time
Tstart = 0.
F.5.7.7 The hydrocarbon analyser shall be zeroed and spanned immediately
before the end of the test.
F.5.7.8 The end of the emission sampling period occurs 24 hours ±6 minutes
after the beginning of the initial sampling, as specified in F.5.7.6. The time
elapsed is recorded. The hydrocarbon concentration, temperature and
barometric pressure are measured to give the final readings CTHC,f, Tf and Pf
for the diurnal test used for the calculation in F.6.
F.6 Calculation
F.6.1 The evaporative emission tests described in F.5 allow the hydrocarbon
emissions from the diurnal and hot soak phases to be calculated. Evaporative
losses from each of these phases is calculated using the initial and final
hydrocarbon concentrations, temperatures and pressures in the enclosure,
together with the net enclosure volume.
The formula below is used:
Where:
MTHC = hydrocarbon mass in grams,
MTHC, out = mass of hydrocarbon exiting the enclosure, in the case of
fixed-volume enclosures for diurnal emission testing (grams),
MTHC, in = mass of hydrocarbon entering the enclosure, in the case of
fixed-volume enclosures for diurnal emission testing (grams),
CTHC = hydrocarbon concentration in the enclosure (ppm volume in C1 -
equivalent),
V = net enclosure volume in cubic metres corrected for the volume of the
vehicle, with the windows and the luggage compartment open. If the volume of
the vehicle is not determined a volume of 1.42 m3 is subtracted,
T = ambient chamber temperature, in K,
P = barometric pressure in kPa,
H/C = hydrogen to carbon ratio,
k = 1.2 • (12 + H/C);
Where:
i = is the initial reading,
f = is the final reading,
H/C = is taken to be 2.33 for diurnal test losses,
H/C = is taken to be 2.20 for hot soak losses.
F.6.2 Overall results of test
The overall evaporative hydrocarbon mass emission for the vehicle is taken to
be:
Mtotal=MDI+MHS
Where:
Mtotal = overall hydrocarbon mass emissions of the vehicle (grams),
MDI = hydrocarbon mass emission for diurnal test (grams),
MHS = hydrocarbon mass emission for the hot soak (grams).
F.7 Conformity of production
F.7.1 For routine end-of-production-line testing, the holder of the approval may
demonstrate compliance by sampling vehicles which shall meet the following
requirements.
F.7.2 Test for leakage
F.7.2.1 Vents to the atmosphere from the emission control system shall be
isolated.
F.7.2.2 A pressure of 3.63kPa±0.10kPa shall be applied to the fuel system.
F.7.2.3 The pressure shall be allowed to stabilise prior to isolating the fuel
system from the pressure source.
F.7.2.4 Following isolation of the fuel system, the pressure shall not drop by
more than 0.49kPa in 5 minutes.
F.7.3 Test for venting
F.7.3.1 Vents to the atmosphere from the emission control shall be isolated.
F.7.3.2 A pressure of 3.63kPa±0.10kPa shall be applied to the fuel system.
F.7.3.3 The pressure shall be allowed to stabilise prior to isolating the fuel
system from the pressure source.
F.7.3.4 The venting outlets from the emission control systems to the
atmosphere shall be reinstated to the production condition.
F.7.3.5 The pressure of the fuel system shall drop to below 0.98kPa in not less
than 30 seconds but within 2 minutes.
F.7.3.6 At the request of the manufacturer the functional capacity for venting
can be demonstrated by equivalent alternative procedure. During the type
approval, the manufacturer shall prove to the testing organization the
reasonableness of its specific procedures and the test pressures used.
F.7.4 Purge test
F.7.4.1 Equipment capable of detecting an airflow rate of 1 L/min shall be
attached to the purge inlet and a pressure vessel of sufficient size to have
negligible effect on the purge system shall be connected via a switching valve
to the purge inlet, or alternatively.
F.7.4.2 The manufacturer may use a flow meter of his own choosing, if
acceptable to the competent authority.
F.7.4.3 The vehicle shall be operated in such a manner that any design feature
of the purge system that could restrict purge operation is detected and the
circumstances noted.
F.7.4.4 Whilst the engine is operating within the bounds noted in F.7.4.3, the
air flow shall be determined by either:
F.7.4.4.1 The device indicated in F.7.4.1 being switched in. A pressure-drop
from atmospheric to a level indicating that a volume of 1 litre of air has flowed
into the evaporative emission control system within 1 minute shall be observed;
or
F.7.4.4.2 If an alternative flow measuring device is used, a reading of no less
than 1 L/min shall be detectable.
F.7.4.4.3 At the request of the manufacturer an alternative purge test
procedure can be used, if the procedure has been presented to and has been
accepted by the testing organization during the type approval procedure.
F.7.5 The competent authority which has granted type approval may at any
time verify the conformity control methods applicable to each production unit.
F.7.5.1 The inspector shall take a sufficiently large sample from the series.
F.7.5.2 The inspector may test these vehicles by application of paragraph
5.3.4 or F.7.2 to F7.4.
F.7.5.3 If the inspection results from F.7.2 to F.7.4 are not met, the
manufacturer may request the application of type approval procedures as
specified in 5.3.4.
F.7.5.3.1 The manufacturer is not allowed to make any adjustments, repairs or
modifications to these vehicles unless these vehicles fail to meet the
requirements in 5.3.4 or all these actions have been included in the
manufacturer’s procedure documents for vehicle assembly and test of.
F.7.5.3.2 If, due to the operations specified in F.7.5.3.1, the evaporative
pollutants emission characteristics of the vehicle change, the manufacturer
may request to repeat a single test for the vehicle.
F.7.6 If the requirements of F.7.5 are not met, the manufacturer shall ensure
that all necessary steps are taken to re-establish conformity of production as
rapidly as possible.
Attachment FA
(Normative)
Calibration of equipment for evaporative emission testing
FA.1 Calibration frequency and methods
FA.1.1 All equipment shall be calibrated before its initial use and then
calibrated as often as necessary and in any case in the month before type
approval testing. The calibration methods to be used are described in this
attachment.
FA.1.2 The ambient temperatures during calibration, in accordance with the
specifications of Attachment FB, shall preferably be the series of temperatures
given in the left table. The series of temperatures in the right table may
alternatively be used.
FA.2 Calibration of the enclosure
FA.2.1 Initial determination of internal volume of the enclosure
FA.2.1.1 Before its initial use, the internal volume of the chamber shall be
determined as follows:
The internal dimensions of the chamber are carefully measured, allowing for
any irregularities such as bracing struts. The internal volume of the chamber is
determined from these measurements.
For variable-volume enclosures, the enclosure shall be latched to a fixed
volume when the enclosure is held at an ambient temperature of 303 K (30 °C)
[(302 K (29 °C)]. This nominal volume shall be repeatable within ±0.5 percent
of the reported value.
FA.2.1.2 The net internal volume is determined by subtracting 1.42 m3 from
the internal volume of the chamber. 1.42 m3 replaces the volume of the test
vehicle with the luggage compartment and windows open.
FA.2.1.3 The internal volume of the chamber shall be checked as in FA.2.3. If
the propane mass does not correspond to the injected mass to within ±2
percent, then corrective action is required.
FA.2.2 Determination of chamber background emissions
This operation determines that the chamber does not contain any materials
that emit significant amounts of hydrocarbons. The check shall be carried out
at the enclosure's introduction to service, after any operations in the enclosure
which may affect background emissions and at a frequency of at least once
per year.
FA.2.2.1 Variable-volume enclosures may be operated in either latched or
unlatched volume configuration, as described in FA.2.1.1. Ambient
temperatures shall be maintained at 308 K ±2 K (35 ±2 °C) [309 K ±2 K (36
±2 °C)], throughout the 4-hour period mentioned below.
FA.2.2.2 Fixed volume enclosures shall be operated with the inlet and outlet
flow streams closed. Ambient temperatures shall be maintained at 308 K ±2 K
(35 ±2 °C) [309 K ±2 K (36 ±2 °C) throughout the 4-hour period mentioned
below.
FA.2.2.3 The enclosure may be sealed and the mixing fan operated for a
period of up to 12 hours before the 4-hour background sampling period begins.
FA.2.2.4 The analyser (if required) shall be linearly calibrated, then zeroed and
spanned.
FA.2.2.5 The enclosure shall be purged until a stable hydrocarbon reading is
obtained, and the mixing fan shall be turned on.
FA.2.2.6 The chamber is then sealed and the background hydrocarbon
concentration CTHC,i, temperature Ti and barometric pressure Pf are measured.
FA.2.2.7 The enclosure is allowed to stand undisturbed with the mixing fan on
for a period of 4 hours.
FA.2.2.8 At the end of this time the same analyser is used to measure the
hydrocarbon concentration CTHC,f, temperature Tf and the barometric pressure
P in the chamber.
FA.2.2.9 The change in mass of hydrocarbons in the enclosure shall be
calculated over the time of the test in accordance with FA2.4 and shall not
exceed 0.05 g.
FA.2.3 Calibration and hydrocarbon retention test of the chamber
The calibration and hydrocarbon retention test in the chamber provides a
check on the calculated volume in FA.2.1 and also measures any leak rate.
The enclosure leak rate shall be determined at the enclosure's introduction to
service, after any operations in the enclosure which may affect the integrity of
the enclosure, and at least monthly thereafter. If 6 consecutive monthly
retention checks are successfully completed without corrective action, the
enclosure leak rate may be determined quarterly thereafter as long as no
corrective action is required.
FA.2.3.1 The mixing fan is turned on. The enclosure shall be purged until a
stable hydrocarbon concentration is reached. The hydrocarbon analyser is
subject to zero and span calibrations.
FA.2.3.2 On variable-volume enclosures, the enclosure shall be latched to the
nominal volume position. On fixed-volume enclosures the outlet and inlet flow
streams shall be closed.
FA.2.3.3 The ambient temperature control system is then turned on (if not
already on) and adjusted for an initial temperature of 308 K (35 °C) [309 K
(36 °C)].
FA.2.3.4 When the enclosure stabilises at 308 K ±2 K (35 ±2 °C) [309 K ±2 K
(36 ±2 °C)], the enclosure is sealed and the background concentration CTHC,i,
temperature Ti and barometric pressure Pi measured.
FA.2.3.5 A quantity of approximately 4 grams of propane is injected into the
enclosure. The mass of propane shall be measured to an accuracy and
precision of ±2 percent of the measured value.
FA.2.3.6 The contents of the chamber shall be allowed to mix for 5 minutes
and then the hydrocarbon concentration CTHC,f, temperature Tf and barometric
pressure Pf are measured. These are the initial readings CTHCi, Ti and Pi for the
retention check.
FA.2.3.7 Based on the readings taken according to FA.2.3.4 and FA.2.3.6 and
the formula in FA.2.4, the mass of propane in the enclosure is calculated. This
shall be within ±2 percent of the mass of propane measured in FA.2.3.5.
FA.2.3.8 For variable-volume enclosures the enclosure shall be unlatched
from the nominal volume configuration. For fixed-volume enclosures, the outlet
and inlet flow streams shall be opened.
FA.2.3.9 The process is then begun of cycling the ambient temperature from
308 K (35 °C) to 293 K (20 °C) and back to 308 K (35 °C) [308.6 K (35.6 °C) to
295.2 K (22.2 °C) and back to 308.6 K (35.6 °C)] over a 24-hour period
according to the profile [alternative profile] specified in Attachment FB within
15 minutes of sealing the enclosure. (Tolerances as specified in F.5.7.1).
FA.2.3.10 At the completion of the 24-hour cycling period, the final
hydrocarbon concentration CTHCf, temperature Tf and barometric pressure Pf
are measured and recorded. These are the final readings for the hydrocarbon
retention check.
FA.2.3.11 Using the formula in FA.2.4, the propane mass is then calculated
from the readings taken in FA.2.3.10 and FA.2.3.6. The mass may not differ by
more than 3 percent from the hydrocarbon mass given in FA.2.3.7.
FA.2.4 Calculations
The calculation of net hydrocarbon mass change within the enclosure is used
to determine the chamber's hydrocarbon background and leak rate. Initial and
final readings of hydrocarbon concentration, temperature and barometric
pressure are used in the following formula to calculate the mass change.
Where:
MTHC - hydrocarbon mass in grams,
MTHC, out - mass of hydrocarbons exiting the enclosure, in the case of
fixed-volume enclosures for diurnal emission testing (grams),
MTHC, in - mass of hydrocarbons entering the enclosure when a fixed volume
enclosure is used for testing diurnal emissions (grams),
CTHC - hydrocarbon concentration in the enclosure (ppmC (Note: ppmC = ppm
propane × 3)),
V - enclosure volume in cubic metres,
T - ambient temperature in the enclosure, (K),
P - barometric pressure, (kPa),
K - 17.6;
Where:
I: the initial reading,
f: the final reading.
FA.3 Checking of FID hydrocarbon analyser
FA.3.1 Detector response optimisation
The FID analyser shall be adjusted as specified by the instrument
manufacturer. Propane in air shall be used to optimise the response on the
most common operating range.
FA.3.2 Calibration of the THC analyser
The analyser shall be calibrated using propane in air and purified synthetic air.
See CD.3.2 (calibration and span gas).
Establish a calibration curve as described in FA.4.1 to FA.4.5.
FA.3.3 Oxygen interference check and recommended limits
The response factor (Rf) for a particular hydrocarbon species is the ratio of the
FID C1 reading to the gas cylinder concentration, expressed as ppmC1.
The concentration of the test gas shall be at a level to give a response of
approximately 80 percent of full-scale deflection, for the operating range. The
concentration shall be known, to an accuracy of ±2 percent in reference to a
gravimetric standard expressed in volume. In addition, the gas cylinder shall
be preconditioned for 24 hours at a temperature between 293 K and 303 K (20
and 30 °C).
Response factors shall be determined when introducing an analyser into
service and thereafter at major service intervals. The reference gas to be used
is propane with balance purified air which is taken to give a response factor of
1.00.
The test gas to be used for oxygen interference and the recommended
response factor (Rf) range are given below:
Propane and nitrogen: 0.95 ≤ Rf ≤ 1.05.
FA.4 Calibration of the hydrocarbon analyser
Each of the normally used operating ranges is calibrated by the following
procedure:
FA.4.1 Establish the calibration curve by at least 5 calibration points spaced as
evenly as possible over the operating range. The nominal concentration of the
calibration gas with the highest concentrations is at least 80 percent of the full
scale.
FA.4.2 Calculate the calibration curve by the method of least squares. If the
resulting polynomial degree is greater than 3, then the number of calibration
points shall be at least the number of the polynomial degree plus 2.
FA.4.3 The calibration curve shall not differ by more than 2 percent from the
nominal value of each calibration gas.
FA.4.4 Using the coefficients of the polynomial derived from FA.4.2, a table of
indicated reading against true concentration shall be drawn up in steps of no
greater than 1 percent of full scale. This is to be carried out for each analyser
range calibrated. The table shall also contain other relevant data such as:
Date of calibration;
Span and zero potentiometer readings (where applicable);
Nominal scale;
Reference data of each calibration gas used;
The actual and indicated value of each calibration gas used together with
the percentage differences;
FID fuel and type;
FID air pressure.
FA.4.5 If it can be shown to the satisfaction of the testing organization that
alternative technology (e.g. electric control switch, electronically controlled
range switch) can give equivalent accuracy, then those alternatives may be
used.
Attachment FB
(Normative)
Temperature profile during diurnal breathing in the enclosure
Diurnal ambient temperature profile for the
calibration of the enclosure and the diurnal
emission test
Alternative diurnal ambient temperature
profile for the calibration of the enclosure in
accordance with FA.1.2 and FA.2.3.9
Time/h Time/h Temperature/°C Temperature/°C Calibration Test
Annex G
(Normative)
Durability test of pollution control devices (Type V test)
G.1 Introduction
This annex describes the test for verifying the durability of pollution control
devices of vehicles equipped with positive-ignition or compression-ignition
engines.
G.2 Whole vehicle durability test
G.2.1 Test vehicle
The vehicle shall be in good mechanical order. The engine and the pollution
control devices shall be new.
The vehicle may be the same as that presented for the Type I test. This Type I
test has to be done after the vehicle has run at least 3000 km of the AMA cycle
specified in G.2.4.1 or SRC cycle specified in Attachment GB.
G.2.2 Fuel
The durability test shall be conducted with a commercially available fuel
complying with relevant standards.
G.2.3 Vehicle maintenance and adjustment
Maintenance, adjustment and operation of the test vehicle shall be those
recommended by the manufacturer.
G.2.4 Vehicle operation on track, road or on chassis dynamometer
G.2.4.1 Operating cycle
The operation process on track, road or chassis dynamometer shall comply
with the prescribed Mileage Accumulation Cycle (AMA) (See Figure G.1):
Figure G.1 -- Driving schedule
- The durability test schedule is composed of 11 cycles covering 6
kilometres each,
- During the first 9 cycles, the vehicle is stopped four times in the middle of
the cycle, with the engine idling each time for 15 seconds,
- Normal acceleration and deceleration,
- Five decelerations in the middle of each cycle, dropping from cycle speed
to 32 km/h, and the vehicle is gradually accelerated again until cycle speed
is attained,
- The 10th cycle is carried out at a steady speed of 89 km/h,
- The 11th cycle begins with maximum acceleration from stop point up to 113
km/h. At half-way, braking is employed normally until the vehicle comes to
a stop. This is followed by an idle period of 15 seconds and a second
maximum acceleration.
The schedule is then restarted from the beginning. The maximum speed of
each cycle is given in Table G.1.
1.1
2.1
3.1
3.5
4.2
4.7
5.3
0.6
Table G.1 -- Maximum speed of each cycle
G.2.4.2 As an alternative to the AMA operating cycle described in G.2.4.1, the
vehicle manufacturer may use Standard Road Cycle (SRC) described in
Attachment GB or any other alternative cycles proposed by the manufacturer
and approved by the testing organization.
G.2.4.3 According to the above cycle, the test shall be conducted until the
vehicle has covered a minimum of 160000 km.
G.2.4.4 Test equipment
G.2.4.4.1 Chassis dynamometer
G.2.4.4.1.1 When the durability test is performed on a chassis dynamometer,
the dynamometer shall enable the cycle described in G.2.4.1 to be carried out.
In particular, it shall be equipped with systems simulating inertia and
resistance to progress.
G.2.4.4.1.2 The brake shall be adjusted in order to absorb the power exerted
on the driving wheels at a steady speed of 80 km/h. Methods to be applied to
determine this power and to adjust the brake are the same as those described
in Attachment CH.
G.2.4.4.1.3 The vehicle cooling system shall enable the vehicle to operate at
temperatures similar to those obtained on road (oil, cooling liquid, exhaust
system, etc.).
G.2.4.4.1.4 Certain other test bench adjustments and features are deemed to
be identical, where necessary, to those described in Annex C (inertia, for
example, which may be mechanical or electronic).
Cycle Maximum speed
G.2.4.4.1.5 The vehicle may be moved, where necessary, to a different
dynamometer in order to conduct emission measurement tests.
G.2.4.4.2 Operation on track or road
When the durability test is completed on track or road, the vehicle's reference
mass will be at least equal to that retained for tests conducted on a chassis
dynamometer.
G.2.5 Measuring emissions of pollutants
At the start of the test (0 km), and every 10000 km (±400 km) or more
frequently, at regular intervals until having covered 160000 km, exhaust
emissions are measured in accordance with the Type I test as defined in 5.3.1.
The limit values to be complied with are those laid down in 5.3.1.4.
In the case of vehicles equipped with periodically regenerating systems, when
the vehicle is not approaching a regeneration period, the emission test shall be
carried out. If this is the case, the vehicle shall be driven until the end of the
regeneration. If a regeneration occurs during the emissions measurement, a
new test (including preconditioning) shall be performed; the previous result not
considered.
All exhaust emissions results shall be plotted as a function of the running
distance on the system rounded to the nearest kilometer and the best fit
straight line fitted by the method of least squares shall be drawn through all
these data points. This calculation shall not consider the test results at 0 km.
The data will be acceptable for use in the calculation of the deterioration factor
only if the interpolated 6400 km and 160000 km points on this line are within
the above mentioned limits. The data are still acceptable when a best fit
straight line crosses an applicable limit with a negative slope (the 6400 km
interpolated point is higher than the 160000 km interpolated point) but the
160000 km actual data point is below the limit.
A multiplicative exhaust emission deterioration factor (DF) shall be calculated
for each pollutant as follows:
Where:
Mi1 = mass emission of the pollutant i in g/km interpolated to 6400 km,
Mi2 = mass emission of the pollutant i in g/km interpolated to 160000 km.
These interpolated values shall be carried out to a minimum of four places to
the right of the decimal point before dividing one by the other to determine the
deterioration factor. The result shall be rounded to three places to the right of
the decimal point.
If a deterioration factor is less than 1, it is deemed to be equal to 1.
At the request of a manufacturer, an additive exhaust emission deterioration
factor shall be calculated for each pollutant as follows:
DF = Mi2 − Mi1
If a deterioration factor is less than 0, it is deemed to be equal to 0.
G.3 Bench ageing durability test
G.3.1 Fuel
The fuel to be used for durability test shall be the commercial fuel in
compliance with the relevant standard.
G.3.2 Vehicles with positive ignition engines
G.3.2.1 The following bench ageing procedure shall be applicable for positive
ignition vehicles including hybrid vehicles which use a catalytic converter as
the principle after-treatment emission control device.
The bench ageing procedure requires the installation of the catalytic
converter-oxygen sensor system on a catalytic converter ageing bench.
Ageing on the bench shall be conducted by following the standard bench cycle
(SBC) for the period of time calculated from the bench ageing time (BAT)
equation. The BAT equation requires, as input, catalytic converter
time-temperature data measured on the Standard Road Cycle (SRC),
described in Attachment GB.
G.3.2.2 Standard bench cycle (SBC). Standard catalytic converter bench
ageing shall be conducted following the SBC. The SBC shall be run for the
period of time calculated from the BAT equation. The SBC is described in
Attachment GA.
G.3.2.3 Catalytic converter time-temperature data. Catalytic converter
temperature shall be measured during at least two full cycles of the SRC cycle
as described in Attachment GB.
Catalytic converter temperature shall be measured at the highest temperature
location in the hottest catalytic converter on the test vehicle. Alternatively, the
temperature may be measured at another location providing that it is adjusted
to represent the temperature measured at the hottest location using good
engineering judgement.
Catalytic converter temperature shall be measured at a minimum rate of 1
hertz (one measurement per second).
The measured catalytic converter temperature results shall be tabulated into a
histogram with temperature groups of no larger than 25 °C.
G.3.2.4 Bench-ageing time. Bench ageing time shall be calculated using the
bench ageing time (BAT) equation as follows:
te for a temperature bin = th × e(R/Tr-R/Tv)
Total te = Sum of te over all the temperature groups
Bench Ageing Time = A × (Total te)
Where:
A - 1.1.  This value corrects the effect of non-thermal aging factors on the
ageing time of the catalytic converter during the calculation of the ageing time
of the bench.
R - Catalytic converter thermal reactivity =17500
th - The time (in hours) measured within the prescribed temperature bin of the
vehicle's catalytic converter temperature histogram adjusted to a full useful life
basis e.g., if the histogram represented 400 km, and useful life is 160000 km;
all histogram time entries would be multiplied by 400 (160000/400).
Total te - The equivalent time (in hours) to age the catalytic converter at the
temperature of Tr on the catalytic converter ageing bench using the catalytic
converter ageing cycle to produce the same amount of deterioration
experienced by the catalytic converter due to thermal deactivation over the
160000 km.
te - The equivalent time (in hours) to age the catalytic converter at the
temperature of Tr on the catalytic converter ageing bench using the catalytic
converter ageing cycle to produce the same amount of deterioration
experienced by the catalytic converter due to thermal deactivation at the
temperature bin of Tv over 160000 km.
Tr - The effective reference temperature (in °K) of the catalytic converter on the
catalytic converter bench run on the bench ageing cycle. The effective
temperature is the constant temperature that would result in the same amount
of ageing as the various temperatures experienced during the bench ageing
cycle.
Tv - The mid-point temperature (in °K) of the temperature bin of the vehicle
on-road catalytic converter temperature histogram.
G.3.2.5 Effective reference temperature on the SBC. The effective reference
temperature of the standard bench cycle (SBC) shall be determined for the
actual catalytic converter system design and actual ageing bench which will be
determined using the following procedures:
(a) Measure time-temperature data in the catalytic converter system on the
catalytic converter ageing bench following the SBC. Catalytic converter
temperature shall be measured at the highest temperature location of
the hottest catalytic converter in the system. Alternatively, the
temperature may be measured at another location providing that it is
adjusted to represent the temperature measured at the hottest location.
Catalytic converter temperature shall be measured at a minimum rate of
1 hertz (one measurement per second) during at least 20 minutes of
bench ageing. The measured catalytic converter temperature results
shall be tabulated into a histogram with temperature groups of no larger
than 10 °C.
(b) The BAT equation shall be used to calculate the effective reference
temperature by iterative changes to the reference temperature until the
calculated ageing time equals or exceeds the actual time represented in
the catalytic converter temperature histogram. The resulting
temperature is the effective reference temperature (Tr) on the SBC for
that catalytic converter system on ageing bench.
G.3.2.6 Catalytic Converter Ageing Bench. The catalytic converter ageing
bench shall follow the SBC and deliver the appropriate exhaust flow, exhaust
constituents, and exhaust temperature at the face of the catalytic converter.
All bench ageing equipment and procedures shall record appropriate
information (such as measured A/F ratios and time-temperature in the catalytic
converter) to assure that sufficient ageing has actually occurred.
G.3.2.7 Required Testing. For calculating deterioration factors at least two
Type I tests before bench ageing and at least two Type I tests after the
bench-aged emission hardware is reinstalled have to be performed on the test
vehicle.
Additional Type I tests may be conducted by the manufacturer. Calculation of
the deterioration factors has to be done according to the calculation method as
specified in G.2.5.
G.3.2.8 As an alternative to the SBC operating cycle described in Attachment
GA, other alternative cycles proposed by the manufacturer and approved by
the type-approval authority may be used.
Attachment GA
(Normative)
Standard bench cycle (SBC)
GA.1 Introduction
The standard ageing durability procedure consists of ageing a catalytic
converter-oxygen sensor system on an ageing bench which follows the
standard bench cycle (SBC) described in this attachment. The SBC requires
the use of an ageing bench with an engine as the source of feed gas for the
catalytic converter. The SBC is a 60-second cycle which is repeated as
necessary on the ageing bench to conduct ageing for the required period of
time. The SBC is defined based on the catalytic converter temperature, engine
air/fuel (A/F) ratio, and the amount of secondary air injection which is added in
front of the first catalytic converter.
GA.2 Catalytic converter temperature control
GA.2.1 Catalytic converter temperature shall be measured in the catalytic
converter bed at the location where the highest temperature occurs in the
hottest catalytic converter. Alternatively, the feed gas temperature may be
measured and converted to catalytic converter bed temperature using a linear
transform calculated from correlation data collected on the catalytic converter
design and ageing bench to be used in the ageing process.
GA.2.2 Control the catalytic converter temperature at  theoretical air-fuel ratio
(1 to 40 seconds on the cycle) to a minimum of 800 °C (±10° C) by selecting
the appropriate engine speed, load, and spark timing for the engine. Control
the maximum catalytic converter temperature that occurs during the cycle to
890 °C (±10 °C) by selecting the appropriate A/F ratio of the engine during the
"rich" phase described in Table GA.1.
GA.2.3 If a low control temperature other than 800 °C is utilized, the high
control temperature shall be 90 °C higher than the low control temperature.
Table GA.1 -- Standard bench cycle (SBC)
Time
(s) Engine air/fuel ratio Secondary air injection
1-40
Theoretical air-fuel ratio (with load, ignition timing and
engine speed controlled to achieve a minimum catalytic
converter temperature of 800 °C)
None
41-45
"Rich" (A/F ratio selected to achieve a maximum
catalytic converter temperature over the entire cycle of
890 °C or 90 °C higher than lower control temperature)
None
46-55
"Rich" (A/F ratio selected to achieve a maximum
catalytic converter temperature over the entire cycle of
890 °C or 90 °C higher than lower control temperature)
3% (±0.1%)
56-60
Theoretical air-fuel ratio (with load, spark timing and
engine speed controlled to achieve a minimum catalytic
converter temperature of 800 °C)
3% (±0.1%)
Figure GA.1 -- Standard bench cycle
GA.3 Ageing bench equipment and procedures
GA.3.1 Ageing Bench Configuration. The ageing bench shall provide the
appropriate exhaust flow rate, temperature, air-fuel ratio, exhaust constituents
and secondary air injection at the inlet face of the catalytic converter.
The standard ageing bench consists of an engine, engine controller, and
engine dynamometer. Other configurations may be acceptable (e.g. whole
vehicle on a dynamometer, or a burner that provides the correct exhaust
conditions), as long as the catalytic converter inlet conditions and control
features specified in this attachment are met.
Theoretical air-fuel ratio
Control catalytic converter
temperature to 800°C
"Rich"
Air/fuel ratio Secondary Air
Time
Air
Injection
(%)
Air/
fuel
ratio
A single ageing bench may have the exhaust flow split into several streams
providing that each exhaust stream meets the requirements of this attachment.
If the bench has more than one exhaust stream, multiple catalytic converter
systems may be aged simultaneously.
GA.3.2 Exhaust System Installation. The entire catalytic converter(s)-oxygen
sensor(s) system, together with all exhaust piping which connects these
components, will be installed on the bench. For engines with multiple exhaust
streams (such as some V6 and V8 engines), each bank of the exhaust system
will be installed separately on the bench in parallel.
For exhaust systems that contain multiple in-line catalytic converters, the entire
catalytic converter system including all catalytic converters, all oxygen sensors
and the associated exhaust piping will be installed as a unit for ageing.
Alternatively, each individual catalytic converter may be separately aged for
the appropriate period of time.
GA.3.3 Temperature Measurement. Catalytic converter temperature shall be
measured using a thermocouple placed in the catalytic converter bed at the
location where the highest temperature occurs in the hottest catalytic converter.
Alternatively, the feed gas temperature just before the catalytic converter inlet
face may be measured and converted to catalytic converter bed temperature
using a linear transform calculated from correlation data collected on the
catalytic converter design and ageing bench to be used in the ageing process.
The catalytic converter temperature shall be stored digitally at the speed of 1
hertz (one measurement per second).
GA.3.4 Air/Fuel Measurement. Provisions shall be made for the measurement
of the air/fuel (A/F) ratio (such as a wide-range oxygen sensor) as close as
possible to the catalytic converter inlet and outlet flanges. The information from
these sensors shall be stored digitally at the speed of 1 hertz (one
measurement per second).
GA.3.5 Exhaust Flow Balance. Provisions shall be made to assure that the
proper amount of exhaust (measured in grams/second at theoretical air-fuel
ratio, with a tolerance of ±5 grams/second) flows through each catalytic
converter system that is being aged on the bench.
The proper flow rate is determined based upon the exhaust flow that would
occur in the original vehicle’s engine at the steady state engine speed and load
selected for the bench ageing in GA.3.6.
GA.3.6 Setup. The engine speed, load, and spark timing are selected to
achieve a catalytic converter bed temperature of 800 °C (±10 °C) at
steady-state theoretical air-fuel ratio.
The air injection system is set to provide the necessary air flow to produce 3.0
percent oxygen (±0.1 %) in the theoretical air-fuel ratio exhaust stream just in
front of the first catalytic converter. A typical reading at the upstream A/F
measurement point (required in GA.3.4) is lambda 1.16 (which is
approximately 3 percent oxygen).
With the air injection on, set the "Rich" A/F ratio to produce a catalytic
converter bed temperature of 890 °C (±10 °C). A typical A/F value for this step
is lambda 0.94 (approximately 2 percent CO).
GA.3.7 Ageing Cycle. The standard bench ageing procedures use the
standard bench cycle (SBC). The SBC is repeated until the amount of ageing
calculated from the bench ageing time equation (BAT) is achieved.
GA.3.8 Quality Assurance. The temperatures and A/F ratio in GA.3.3 and
GA.3.4 shall be reviewed periodically (at least every 50 hours) during ageing.
Necessary adjustments shall be made to assure that the SBC is being
appropriately followed throughout the ageing process.
After the ageing has been completed, the catalytic converter time-temperature
collected during the ageing process shall be tabulated into a histogram with
temperature groups of no larger than 10 °C. The BAT equation and the
calculated effective reference temperature for the ageing cycle according to
G.3.2.4 will be used to determine if the appropriate amount of thermal ageing
of the catalytic converter has in fact occurred. Bench ageing will be extended if
the thermal effect of the calculated ageing time is less than 95 percent of the
target thermal ageing.
GA.3.9 Startup and Shutdown. Care should be taken to assure that the
maximum catalytic converter temperature for rapid deterioration (e.g., 1050 °C)
does not occur during startup or shutdown. Special low temperature startup
and shutdown procedures may be used to alleviate this concern.
GA.4 Experimentally determining the R-factor for thermal degradation of
catalytic converter
GA.4.1 The R-factor is the catalytic converter thermal degradation reactivity
coefficient used in the bench ageing time (BAT) equation. Manufacturers may
determine the value of R experimentally using the following procedures.
GA.4.1.1 Using the applicable bench cycle and ageing bench hardware, age
several catalytic converters (minimum of 3 of the same catalytic converter
design) at different control temperatures between the normal operating
temperature and the damage limit temperature. Measure emissions (or
catalytic converter inefficiency) for each exhaust constituent of aged samples
at different temperatures to assure that the final testing yields data between
one- and two-times the emission standard limit.
GA.4.1.2 Estimate the value of R and calculate the effective reference
temperature (Tr) for the bench ageing cycle for each control temperature
according to G.3.2.4.
GA.4.1.3 Plot emissions (or catalytic converter inefficiency) versus ageing time
for each catalytic converter. Calculate the least-squared best-fit line through
the data. For the data set to be useful for this purpose the data shall have an
approximately common intercept between 0 and 6400 km. See Figure GA.2 for
an example.
Figure GA.2 -- Relationship between catalytic converter ageing and
emission
GA.4.1.4 Calculate the slope of the best-fit line for emission data at each
ageing temperature.
GA.4.1.5 Plot the natural log (ln) of the slope of each best-fit line (determined
in GA.4.1.4) along the vertical axis, versus the inverse of ageing temperature
(1/ageing temperature, absolute temperature K) along the horizontal axis.
Calculate the least squared best-fit lines through the data. The slope of the line
is the R-factor. See Figure GA.3 for an example.
Figure GA.3 -- Determination of R-factor
GA.4.1.6 Compare the R-factor to the initial value that was used in GA.4.1.2. If
the calculated R-factor differs from the initial value by more than 5 percent,
choose a new R-factor that is between the initial and calculated values; then
repeat steps in GA.4.1.2 to GA.4.1.6 to derive a new R-factor. Repeat this
process until the calculated R-factor is within 5 percent of the initially assumed
R-factor.
GA.4.1.7 Compare the R-factor determined separately for each exhaust
constituent. Use the lowest R-factor (worst case) for the BAT equation.
Attachment GB
(Normative)
Standard road cycle (SRC)
GB.1 Introduction
The standard road cycle (SRC) is a kilometre accumulation cycle. The vehicle
may be run on test track, road or chassis dynamometer.
The SRC consists of 7 laps of a 6 km course. See Table GB.1.
Table GB.1 -- Standard road cycle (SRC)
Lap Description Typical acceleration rate m/s²
1 (Start engine) idle 10 seconds 0
1 Moderate acceleration to 48 km/h 1.79
1 Cruise at 48 km/h for ¼ lap 0
1 Moderate deceleration to 32 km/h -2.23
1 Moderate acceleration to 48 km/h 1.79
1 Cruise at 48 km/h for ¼ lap 0
1 Moderate deceleration to stop -2.23
1 Idle 5 seconds 0
1 Moderate acceleration to 56 km/h 1.79
1 Cruise at 56 km/h for ¼ lap 0
1 Moderate deceleration to 40 km/h -2.23
1 Moderate acceleration to 56 km/h 1.79
1 Cruise at 56 km/h for ¼ lap 0
1 Moderate deceleration to stop -2.23
2 Idle 10 seconds 0
2 Moderate acceleration to 64 km/h 1.34
2 Cruise at 64 km/h for ¼ lap 0
2 Moderate deceleration to 48 km/h -2.23
2 Moderate acceleration to 64 km/h 1.34
2 Cruise at 64 km/h for ¼ lap 0
2 Moderate deceleration to stop -2.23
2 Idle 5 seconds 0
2 Moderate acceleration to 72 km/h 1.34
2 Cruise at 72 km/h for ¼ lap 0
2 Moderate deceleration to 56 km/h -2.23
2 Moderate acceleration to 72 km/h 1.34
2 Cruise at 72 km/h for ¼ lap 0
2 Moderate deceleration to stop -2.23
3 Idle 10 seconds 0
3 Hard acceleration to 88 km/h 1.79
3 Cruise at 88 km/h for ¼ lap 0
3 Moderate deceleration to 72 km/h -2.23
3 Moderate acceleration to 88 km/h 0.89
3 Cruise at 88 km/h for ¼ lap 0
3 Moderate deceleration to 72 km/h -2.23
3 Moderate acceleration to 97 km/h 0.89
3 Cruise at 97 km/h for ¼ lap 0
3 Moderate deceleration to 80 km/h -2.23
3 Moderate acceleration to 97 km/h 0.89
3 Cruise at 97 km/h for ¼ lap 0
3 Moderate deceleration to stop -1.79
4 Idle 10 seconds 0
4 Hard acceleration to 129 km/h 1.34
4 Coast-down to 113 km/h -0.45
4 Cruise at 113 km/h for ½ lap 0
4 Moderate deceleration to 80 km/h -1.34
4 Moderate acceleration to 105 km/h 0.89
4 Cruise at 105 km/h for ½ lap 0
4 Moderate deceleration to 80 km/h -1.34
5 Moderate acceleration to 121 km/h 0.45
5 Cruise at 121 km/h for ½ lap 0
5 Moderate deceleration to 80 km/h -1.34
5 Light acceleration to 113 km/h 0.45
5 Cruise at 113 km/h for ½ lap 0
5 Moderate deceleration to 80 km/h -1.34
6 Moderate acceleration to 113 km/h 0.89
6 Coast-down to 97 km/h -0.45
6 Cruise at 97 km/h for ½ lap 0
6 Moderate deceleration to 80 km/h -1.79
6 Moderate acceleration to 104 km/h 0.45
6 Cruise at 104 km/h for ½ lap 0
6 Moderate deceleration to stop -1.79
7 Idle 45 seconds 0
7 Hard acceleration to 88 km/h 1.79
7 Cruise at 88 km/h for ¼ lap 0
7 Moderate deceleration to 64 km/h -2.23
7 Moderate acceleration to 88 km/h 0.89
7 Cruise at 88 km/h for ¼ lap 0
7 Moderate deceleration to 64 km/h -2.23
7 Moderate acceleration to 80 km/h 0.89
7 Cruise at 80 km/h for ¼ lap 0
7 Moderate deceleration to 64 km/h -2.23
7 Moderate acceleration to 80 km/h 0.89
7 Cruise at 80 km/h for ¼ lap 0
7 Moderate deceleration to stop -2.23
GB.2 The standard road cycle is represented graphically in Figure GB.1:
Figure GB.1 -- Standard road cycle (SRC)
Annex H
(Normative)
Emission test of CO and THC in the exhaust after a cold start at low
temperature (Type VI test)
H.1 Introduction
This annex applies only to vehicles with positive-ignition engines defined in
5.3.6. It describes the equipment required and the procedure for the Type VI
test defined in 5.3.6 in order to verify the emissions of carbon monoxide and
hydrocarbons after a cold start at low temperature. Topics addressed in this
annex include:
- Equipment requirements;
- Test conditions;
- Test procedures and data requirements.
H.2 Test equipment
H.2.1 Summary
This section deals with the equipment needed for low ambient temperature CO
and THC exhaust emission tests of vehicles installed with positive-ignition
engine according to the requirements in 5.3.6. Equipment required and
specifications are equivalent to the requirements for the Type I test as
specified Annex C, with attachments, if specific requirements for the Type VI
test are not prescribed. Paragraphs from H.2.2 to H.2.6 describe deviations
applicable to Type VI low ambient temperature testing.
H.2.2 Chassis dynamometer
H.2.2.1 The requirements of CB.1 apply. The dynamometer’s resistance
setting shall be adjusted to simulate the operation of a vehicle on the road at
266 K (-7 °C). Such adjustment may be based on a determination of the road
load force profile at 266 K (-7 °C). Alternatively, the driving resistance
determined according to Attachment CH may be adjusted for a 10 percent
decrease of the coast-down time. The testing organization may approve the
use of other methods of determining the driving resistance.
H.2.2.2 For calibration of the dynamometer the provisions of CB.2 apply.
H.2.3 Exhaust dilution and sampling system
The exhaust dilution and sampling system shall conform to the provisions of
Attachment CC and Attachment CD.
H.2.4 Analytical equipment
H.2.4.1 The provisions of Attachment CD apply, but only for carbon monoxide,
carbon dioxide, and total hydrocarbon testing.
H.2.4.2 For calibrations of the analytical equipment the provisions of
Attachment CD apply.
H.2.5 Gases
The provisions in CD.3 shall apply, where they are relevant.
H.2.6 Additional equipment
For equipment used for the measurement of volume, temperature, pressure
and humidity the provisions in paragraph C.3.5 apply.
H.3 Test sequence and fuel
H.3.1 General requirements
H.3.1.1 The test sequence in Figure H.1 shows the steps encountered as the
test vehicle undergoes the procedures for the Type VI test. Ambient
temperature levels encountered by the test vehicle shall average: 266 K (-7 °C)
±3 K and shall not be less than 260 K (-13 °C), or more than 272 K (-1 °C).
The temperature may not fall below 263 K (-10 °C) or exceed 269 K (-4 °C) for
more than 3 consecutive minutes.
Figure H.1 -- Procedure for low ambient temperature test
H.3.1.2 The test cell temperature monitored during testing shall be measured
at the outlet of the cooling fan (H.5.2.7). The ambient temperature reported
shall be an arithmetic average of the test cell temperatures measured at
constant intervals no more than 1 minute apart.
H.3.2 Test procedure
The Part 1 urban driving cycle according to Figure CA.1 in Attachment CA,
consists of four elementary cycles which together make a complete Part 1
cycle.
Start of engine, start of the sampling and the operation of the first cycle shall
be in accordance with Table CA.1 and Figure CA.2.
H.3.3 Preparation for the test
For the test vehicle the provisions of C.2.2 apply. For setting the equivalent
inertia mass on the dynamometer the provisions of C.5.2.1 apply.
H.3.4 Test fuel
The test fuel shall comply with the specifications concerning the reference fuel
for Type VI test given in paragraph J.1.1.
H.4 Vehicle preconditioning
H.4.1 Summary
To ensure reproducible emission tests, the test vehicles shall be conditioned in
a uniform manner. The conditioning consists of a preparatory drive on a
chassis dynamometer followed by a soak period before the emission test
according to H.4.3.
H.4.2 Preconditioning
H.4.2.1 The fuel tank(s) shall be filled with the specified test fuel. If the existing
fuel in the fuel tank(s) does not meet the specifications contained in H.3.4, the
existing fuel shall be drained prior to the fuel fill. The test fuel shall be at a
temperature less than or equal to 289 K (+16 °C). For the above operations the
evaporative emission control system shall neither be abnormally purged nor
abnormally loaded.
H.4.2.2 The vehicle is moved to the test cell and placed on the chassis
dynamometer.
H.4.2.3 The preconditioning consists of one complete driving cycle, Parts 1
and 2, according to Figure CA.1 of Attachment CA. At the request of the
manufacturer, vehicles may be preconditioned with one Part 1 and two Part 2
driving cycles.
H.4.2.4 During the preconditioning the test cell temperature shall remain
relatively constant and not be higher than 303 K (30 °C).
H.4.2.5 The drive-wheel tyre pressure shall be set in accordance with the
provisions of C.5.2.3.
H.4.2.6 Within 10 minutes after completion of the preconditioning, the engine
shall be switched off.
H.4.2.7 If requested by the manufacturer and approved by the testing
organization, additional preconditioning may in exceptional cases be allowed.
The testing organization may also choose to conduct additional
preconditioning. The additional preconditioning consists of one or more driving
schedules of the Part 1 cycle as described in Attachment CA. The extent of
such additional preconditioning shall be recorded in the test report.
H.4.3 Soak methods
H.4.3.1 One of the following two methods, to be selected by the manufacturer,
shall be utilised to stabilise the vehicle before the emission test.
H.4.3.2 Standard method
The vehicle is stored for not less than 12 hours nor for more than 36 hours
prior to the exhaust emission test after a cold start at low temperature. The
ambient temperature (dry bulb) during this period shall be maintained at an
average temperature of:
266 K (-7 °C) ±3 K during each hour of this period and shall not be less than
260 K (-13 °C) nor more than 272 K (-1 °C). In addition, the temperature may
not fall below 263 K (-10 °C) nor more than 269 K (-4 °C) for more than 3
consecutive minutes.
H.4.3.3 Forced method
The vehicle shall be stored for not more than 36 hours prior to the exhaust
emission test after a cold start at low temperature.
H.4.3.3.1 The vehicle shall not be stored at ambient temperatures which
exceed 303 K (30 °C) during this period.
H.4.3.3.2 Vehicle cooling may be accomplished by force-cooling the vehicle to
the test temperature. If cooling is augmented by fans, the fans shall be placed
in a vertical position so that the maximum cooling of the drive train and engine
is achieved and not primarily the sump. Fans shall not be placed under the
vehicle.
H.4.3.3.3 The ambient temperature need only be stringently controlled after
the vehicle has been cooled to 266 K (-7 °C) ±2 K, as determined by a
representative bulk oil temperature. A representative bulk oil temperature is
the temperature of the oil measured near the middle of the oil sump, not at the
surface or at the bottom of the oil sump. If two or more diverse locations in the
oil are monitored, they shall all meet the temperature requirements.
H.4.3.3.4 The vehicle shall be stored for at least 1 hour after is has been
cooled to 266 K (-7 °C) ±2 K, prior to the exhaust emission test after a cold
start at low temperature. The ambient temperature (dry bulb) during this period
shall average 266 K (-7 °C) ±3 K; shall not be less than 260 K (-13 °C) or more
than 272 K (-1 °C). In addition, the temperature may not fall below 263 K
(-10 °C) or exceed 269 K (-4 °C), for more than 3 consecutive minutes.
H.4.3.4 If the vehicle is stabilised at 266 K (-7 °C), in a separate area and is
moved through a warm area to the test cell, the vehicle shall be re-stabilised in
the test cell for at least 6 times the period the vehicle is exposed to warmer
temperatures. The ambient temperature (dry bulb) during this period shall
average 266 K (-7 °C) ±3 K and shall not be less than 260 K (-13 °C) nor more
than 272 K (-1 °C). In addition, the temperature may not fall below 263 K
(-10 °C) or exceed 269 K (-4 °C), for more than 3 consecutive minutes.
H.5 Dynamometer procedure
H.5.1 Summary
The emission sampling shall be performed over the test procedure. Engine
start-up, immediate sampling, operation over the Part 1 cycle and engine
shut-down make a complete low ambient temperature test, with a total test
time of 780 seconds. The exhaust emissions are diluted with ambient air and a
continuously proportional sample is collected for analysis. The exhaust gases
collected in the bag are analysed for total hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide,
and carbon dioxide. A parallel sample of the dilution air is similarly analysed for
carbon monoxide, total hydrocarbons and carbon dioxide.
H.5.2 Dynamometer operation
H.5.2.1 Cooling fan
H.5.2.1.1 A cooling fan is positioned so that cooling air is appropriately directed
to the radiator (water cooling) or to the air intake (air-cooling) and to the
vehicle.
H.5.2.1.2 For front-engined vehicles, the fan shall be positioned in front of the
vehicle, within 300 mm of it. In the case of rear-engined vehicles or if the above
arrangement is impractical, the cooling fan shall be positioned so that sufficient
air is supplied to cool the vehicle.
H.5.2.1.3 The cooling fan shall comply with the requirements given in C.2.4.2.
H.5.2.1.4 The vehicle speed as measured from the dynamometer roll(s) shall
be used (CB.1.2.6).
H.5.2.2 Preliminary testing cycles may be carried out if necessary, to
determine how best to actuate the accelerator and brake controls so as to
achieve a cycle approximating to the theoretical cycle within the prescribed
limits, or to permit sampling system adjustment. Such driving shall be carried
out before "START" according to Figure H.1.
H.5.2.3 Humidity in the air shall be kept low enough to prevent water
condensation on the dynamometer roll(s).
H.5.2.4 The dynamometer shall be thoroughly warmed as recommended by
the dynamometer manufacturer and using procedures or control methods that
assure stability of the residual frictional power.
H.5.2.5 The time between dynamometer warming and the start of the emission
test shall be no longer than 10 minutes if the dynamometer bearings are not
independently heated. If the dynamometer bearings are independently heated,
the emission test shall begin no longer than 20 minutes after dynamometer
warming.
H.5.2.6 If the dynamometer power is to be adjusted manually, it shall be set
within 1 hour prior to the exhaust emission test phase. The test vehicle may not
be used to make the adjustment. The dynamometer, using automatic control of
pre-selectable power settings, may be set at any time prior to the beginning of
the emission test.
H.5.2.7 Before the emission test driving schedule may begin, the test cell
temperature shall be 266 K (-7 °C) ±2 K, as measured in the air stream of the
cooling fan with a maximum distance of 1.5 m from the vehicle.
H.5.2.8 During operation of the vehicle the heating and defrosting devices shall
be shut off.
H.5.2.9 The total driving distance or roller revolutions measured are recorded.
H.5.2.10 A four-wheel drive vehicle shall be tested in a two-wheel drive mode
of operation. When testing in the two-wheel drive mode, the vehicle shall be
run in the original design drive mode (four-wheel drive), to determine the total
road load for the chassis dynamometer setting.
H.5.3 Performing the test
H.5.3.1 The provisions of C.5.4, excluding C.5.4.1.3, apply in respect of
starting the engine and carrying out the test. The sampling begins before or at
the initiation of the engine start-up procedure and ends on conclusion of the
final idling period of the last elementary cycle of the Part 1 (urban driving cycle),
after 780 seconds.
The first driving cycle starts with a period of 11 seconds idling as soon as the
engine has started.
H.5.3.2 For the analysis of the sampled emissions the provisions of C.5.1 and
C.5.5.3 apply. In performing the exhaust sample analysis, it shall prevent
condensation of water vapour in the exhaust gas sampling bags.
H.5.3.3 For the calculations of the mass emissions the provisions of C.5.6
apply.
H.6 Other requirements
Irrational emission control strategy
Any irrational emission control strategy which results in a reduction in
effectiveness of the emission control system under normal operating
conditions at low temperature driving, so far as not covered by the
standardised emission tests, may be considered a defeat device.
Annex I
(Normative)
Onboard diagnostic (OBD) system
I.1 Introduction
This annex applies to the functional aspects of onboard diagnostic (OBD)
system for the emission control of motor vehicles.
I.2 Definitions
For the purposes of this annex:
I.2.1
Vehicle type
"Vehicle type" means a category of vehicles which do not differ in such
essential engine and OBD system characteristics as defined in Annex A.
I.2.2
Vehicle family
"Vehicle family" means a manufacturer's grouping of vehicles which, through
their design, are expected to have similar exhaust emission and OBD system
characteristics. Each vehicle of this family shall have complied with the
requirements of this Standard.
I.2.3
Emission control system
"Emission control system" means the electronic engine management controller
and any emission-related component in the exhaust or evaporative system
which supplies an input to or receives an output from this controller.
I.2.4
Malfunction
"Malfunction" means the failure of an emission-related component or system
that would result in emissions exceeding the limits in I.3.3.2 or if the OBD
system is unable to fulfil the basic monitoring requirements of this annex.
I.2.5
Secondary air
"Secondary air" refers to air introduced into the exhaust system by means of a
pump or aspirator valve or other means that is intended to aid in the oxidation
of THC and CO contained in the exhaust gas stream.
I.2.6
Driving cycle
A "driving cycle" consists of engine start-up, driving mode where a malfunction
would be detected if present, and engine shut-off.
I.2.7
Warm-up cycle
A "warm-up cycle" means sufficient vehicle operation such that the coolant
temperature has risen by a least 22 K from engine starting and reaches a
minimum temperature of 343 K (70 °C).
I.2.8
Cold start
“Cold start” means the engine coolant temperature, or equivalent temperature,
is not more than 35 °C nor environment temperature plus 7 °C at the startup of
the engine.
I.2.9
Fuel trim
A "fuel trim" refers to feedback adjustments to the base fuel schedule.
Short-term fuel trim refers to dynamic or instantaneous adjustments.
Long-term fuel trim refers to much more gradual adjustments to the fuel
calibration schedule than short-term trim adjustments. These long-term
adjustments compensate for vehicle differences and gradual changes that
occur over time.
I.2.10
Calculated load value (CLV)
A "calculated load value" refers to an indication of the current airflow divided by
peak airflow, where peak airflow is corrected for altitude, if available. This
definition provides a dimensionless number that is not engine specific and
provides the service technician with an indication of the proportion of engine
capacity that is being used (with wide open throttle as 100 percent).
I.2.11
Permanent emission default mode
"Permanent emission default mode" refers to a case where the engine
management controller permanently switches to a setting that does not require
an input from a failed component or system where such a failed component or
system would result in an increase in emissions from the vehicle to a level
above the limits given in I.3.3.2.
I.2.12
Power take-off unit
"Power take-off unit" means an engine-driven output provision for the purposes
of powering auxiliary, vehicle mounted, equipment.
I.2.13
Access
"Access" means the availability of all emission-related OBD data including all
fault codes required for the inspection, diagnosis, servicing or repair of
emissions-related parts of the vehicle, via the serial interface for the standard
diagnostic connection (see IA.6.5.3.5).
I.2.14
Unrestricted
- Access not dependent on an access code obtainable only from the
manufacturer, or a similar device; or
- Access allowing evaluation of the data produced without the need for any
unique decoding information, unless that information itself is standardised.
I.2.15
Standardised
"Standardised" means that all data stream information, including all fault codes
used, shall be produced only in accordance with industry standards which, by
virtue of the fact that their format and their permitted options are clearly defined,
provide for a maximum level of harmonisation in the motor vehicle industry,
and whose use is expressly permitted in this Standard.
I.2.16
Repair information
"Repair information" means all information required for diagnosis, servicing,
inspection, periodic monitoring or repair of the vehicle and which the
manufacturers provide for their authorised dealers/repair shops. Where
necessary, such information shall include service handbooks, technical
manuals, diagnosis information (e.g. minimum and maximum theoretical
values for measurements), wiring diagrams, the software calibration
identification number applicable to a vehicle type, instructions for individual
and special cases, information provided concerning tools and equipment, data
record information and two-directional monitoring and test data. The
manufacturer shall not be obliged to make available that information which is
covered by intellectual property rights or constitutes specific know-how of
manufacturers and/or OEM suppliers; in this case the necessary technical
information shall not be improperly withheld.
I.2.17
Deficiency
"Deficiency" means, in respect of vehicle OBD systems, that up to 2 separate
components or systems that are monitored contain temporary or permanent
operating characteristics that impair the otherwise efficient OBD monitoring of
those components or systems or do not meet all of the other detailed
requirements for OBD. Vehicles may be type-approved, registered and sold
with such deficiencies according to the requirements in I.4.
I.3 Requirements and tests
I.3.1 All vehicles shall be equipped with an OBD system so designed,
constructed and installed in a vehicle as to enable it to identify types of
deterioration or malfunction over the entire life of the vehicle.
In achieving this objective the approval authority shall accept that vehicles
which have travelled distances in excess of the Type V test durability distance
referred to in I.3.3.1, may show some deterioration in OBD system
performance such that the emission limits given in I.3.3.2 may be exceeded
before the OBD system signals a failure to the driver of the vehicle.
I.3.1.1 Access to the OBD system required for the inspection, diagnosis,
servicing or repair of the vehicle shall be unrestricted and standardised. All
emission-related fault codes shall be consistent with IA.6.5.3.4.
I.3.1.2 No later than three months after the manufacturer has provided any
authorised dealer or repair shop with repair information, the manufacturer shall
make that information (including all subsequent amendments and supplements)
available upon reasonable and non-discriminatory payment and shall notify the
approval authority accordingly.
In the event of failure to comply with these provisions the approval authority
shall act to ensure that repair information is available, in accordance with the
procedures laid down for type approval and in-service surveys.
I.3.2 The OBD system shall be so designed, constructed and installed in a
vehicle as to enable it to comply with the requirements of this annex during
conditions of normal use.
I.3.2.1 Temporary disablement of the OBD system
I.3.2.1.1 A manufacturer may disable the OBD system if its ability to monitor is
affected by low fuel levels. Disablement shall not occur when the fuel tank level
is above 20 percent of the nominal capacity of the fuel tank.
I.3.2.1.2 A manufacturer may disable the OBD system at ambient engine
starting temperatures below 266 K (-7 °C) or at elevations over 2500 metres
above sea level provided the manufacturer submits data and/or an engineering
evaluation which adequately demonstrate that monitoring would be unreliable
when such conditions exist. A manufacturer may also request disablement of
the OBD system at other ambient engine starting temperatures if he
demonstrates to the authority with data and/or an engineering evaluation that
misdiagnosis would occur under such conditions.
I.3.2.1.3 For vehicles designed to accommodate the installation of power
take-off units, disablement of affected monitoring systems is permitted
provided disablement occurs only when the power take-off unit is active.
I.3.2.1.4 In addition to the provisions of this section the manufacturer may
temporarily disable the OBD system in the following conditions:
(a) For mono-fuel gas vehicles or bi-fuel vehicles during 1 minute after
refueling to allow for the recognition of fuel quality and composition by
the ECU;
(b) For bi-fuel vehicles during 5 seconds after fuel switching to allow for
readjusting engine parameters;
(c) The manufacturer may deviate from these time limits if it can
demonstrate that stabilisation of the fuelling system after re-fuelling or
fuel switching takes longer for justified technical reasons. In any case,
the OBD system shall be re-enabled as soon as either the fuel quality or
composition is recognised or the engine parameters are readjusted.
I.3.2.2 Misfire monitoring for vehicles equipped with positive-ignition engines
I.3.2.2.1 Manufacturers may adopt higher misfire percentage malfunction
criteria than those declared to the authority, under specific engine speed and
load conditions where it can be demonstrated to the authority that the detection
of lower levels of misfire would be unreliable.
I.3.2.2.2 When a manufacturer can demonstrate to the authority that the
detection of higher levels of misfire percentages is still not feasible, or that
misfire cannot be distinguished from other effects (e.g. rough roads,
transmission shifts, after engine starting; etc.) the misfire monitoring system
may be disabled when such conditions exist.
I.3.3 Description of tests
I.3.3.1 The test shall be carried out on the vehicle used for the Type V
durability test, given in Annex G, and using the test procedure in Attachment IA.
Tests are carried out at the conclusion of the Type V durability testing.
When no Type V durability testing is carried out, or at the request of the
manufacturer, a suitably aged (equivalent to having been driven for 160000 km
as verified by the testing organization) and representative vehicle may be used
for these OBD demonstration tests.
I.3.3.2 The OBD system shall indicate the failure of an emission-related
component or system when that failure results in emissions exceeding the
threshold limits given in Table I.1:
Table I.1 -- Threshold limits
Reference mass
(RM)
kg
Carbon
monoxide
Nonmethane
hydrocarbons
Oxides of
nitrogen
Particulate
matter
(CO)
(g/km)
(NMHC)
(g/km)
(NOx)
(g/km)
(PM)
(g/km)
Category Class PI CI PI CI PI CI PI (1) CI
Category I — ALL 1.90 1.90 0.250 0.320 0.300 0.540 0.050 0.050
Category II
I RM≤1305 1.90 1.90 0.250 0.320 0.300 0.540 0.050 0.050
II 1305III 1760Key: PI = Positive Ignition, CI = Compression Ignition
(1) Apply only to the vehicles with direct injection engines.
I.3.3.3 Monitoring requirements for vehicles equipped with
positive-ignition engines
In satisfying the requirements of I.3.3.2, the OBD system shall, at a minimum,
monitor for:
I.3.3.3.1 The reduction in the efficiency of the catalytic converter with respect
to emissions of NMHC and NOx. Manufacturers may monitor the front catalytic
converter alone or in combination with the next catalytic converter(s)
downstream. Each monitored catalytic converter or catalytic converter
combination shall be considered malfunctioning when the emissions exceed
the NMHC or NOx threshold limits provided for by I.3.3.2.
I.3.3.3.2 The presence of engine misfire in the engine operating region
bounded by the following lines:
(a) A maximum speed of 4500 r/min or 1000 r/min greater than the highest
speed occurring during a Type I test cycle, whichever is the lower;
(b) The positive torque line (i.e. engine load with the transmission in
neutral);
(c) A line joining the following engine operating points: the positive torque
line at 3000 r/min defined in (b) and a point on the maximum speed line
defined in (a) above with the engine's manifold vacuum defined in (b) at
13.33 kPa lower than that at the positive torque line.
I.3.3.3.3 The deterioration of all oxygen sensors fitted and used for monitoring
malfunctions of the catalytic converter shall be monitored.
I.3.3.3.4 If active on the selected fuel, other emission control system
components or systems, or emission related power train components or
systems which are connected to a computer, the failure of which may result in
tailpipe emissions exceeding the limits given in I.3.3.2.
I.3.3.3.5 Unless otherwise monitored, any other emission-related power-train
component connected to a computer, including any relevant sensors to enable
monitoring functions to be carried out, shall be monitored for circuit continuity.
I.3.3.3.6 The electronic evaporative emission purge control shall, at a minimum,
be monitored for circuit continuity.
I.3.3.3.7 For direct injection positive ignition engines any malfunction, which
may lead to emissions exceeding the particulate threshold limits provided for
by I.3.3.2 and which has to be monitored according to the requirements of this
annex for compression ignition engines, shall be monitored.
I.3.3.4 Monitoring requirements for vehicles equipped with
compression-ignition engines
In satisfying the requirements of I.3.3.2, the OBD system shall monitor:
I.3.3.4.1 Where fitted, reduction in the efficiency of the catalytic converter.
I.3.3.4.2 Where fitted, the functionality and integrity of the particulate trap, and
any malfunction possible to result in emissions exceeding the OBD limits.
I.3.3.4.3 The fuel-injection system electronic fuel quantity and timing actuator(s)
is/are monitored for circuit continuity and total functional failure.
I.3.3.4.4 Malfunctions and the reduction in efficiency of the EGR system shall
be monitored.
I.3.3.4.5 Malfunctions and the reduction in efficiency of a NOx after-treatment
system using a reagent and the reagent dosing sub-system shall be
monitored.
I.3.3.4.6 Malfunctions and the reduction in efficiency of NOx after-treatment not
using a reagent shall be monitored.
I.3.3.4.7 Other emission control system components or systems, or
emission-related power-train components or systems, which are connected to
a computer, the failure of which may result in exhaust emissions exceeding the
limits given in I.3.3.2. Examples of such systems or components are those for
monitoring and control of air mass-flow, air volumetric flow (and temperature),
boost pressure and inlet manifold pressure (and relevant sensors to enable
these functions to be carried out).
I.3.3.4.8 Unless otherwise monitored, any other emission-related power-train
component connected to a computer shall be monitored for circuit continuity.
I.3.3.5 Manufacturers may demonstrate to the approval authority that certain
components or systems need not be monitored if, in the event of their total
failure or removal, emissions do not exceed the emission limits given in I.3.3.2.
I.3.4 A sequence of diagnostic checks shall be initiated at each engine start
and completed at least once provided that the correct test conditions are met.
The test conditions shall be selected in such a way that they all occur under
normal driving as represented by the Type I test.
I.3.5 Activation of malfunction indicator (MI)
I.3.5.1 The OBD system shall incorporate a malfunction indicator readily
perceivable to the vehicle operator. The MI shall not be used for any other
purpose except to indicate emergency start-up or limp-home routines to the
driver. The MI shall be visible in all reasonable lighting conditions. When
activated, it shall display a symbol in conformity with ISO 2575-1982. A vehicle
shall not be equipped with more than one general purpose MI for
emission-related problems. Separate specific purpose telltales (e. g. brake
system, fasten seat belt, oil pressure, etc.) are permitted. The use of red colour
for an MI is prohibited.
I.3.5.2 For strategies requiring more than two preconditioning cycles for MI
activation, the manufacturer shall provide data and/or an engineering
evaluation which adequately demonstrates that the monitoring system is
equally effective and timely in detecting component deterioration. Strategies
requiring on average more than 10 driving cycles for MI activation are not
accepted. The MI shall also activate whenever the engine control enters a
permanent emission default mode of operation if the emission limits given in
I.3.3.2 are exceeded or if the OBD system is unable to fulfil the basic
monitoring requirements specified in I.3.3.3 or I.3.3.4. The MI shall operate in a
distinct warning mode, e.g. a flashing light, under any period during which
engine misfire occurs at a level likely to cause catalytic converter damage, as
specified by the manufacturer. The MI shall also activate when the vehicle's
ignition is in the "key-on" position before engine starting or cranking and
de-activate after engine starting if no malfunction has previously been
detected.
I.3.6 Storage of fault code
The OBD system shall record fault code(s) indicating the status of the emission
control system. Separate status codes shall be used to identify correctly
functioning emission control systems and those emission control systems
which need further vehicle operation to be fully evaluated. If the MI is activated
due to deterioration or malfunction or permanent emission default modes of
operation, a fault code shall be stored that identifies the type of malfunction. A
fault code shall also be stored in the cases referred to in I.3.3.3.5 and I.3.3.4.8.
I.3.6.1 The distance travelled by the vehicle while the MI is activated shall be
available at any instant through the serial port on the standard link connector.
I.3.6.2 In the case of vehicles equipped with positive-ignition engines, misfiring
cylinders need not be uniquely identified if a distinct single or multiple cylinder
misfire fault code is stored.
I.3.7 Extinguishing the MI
I.3.7.1 If misfire at levels likely to cause catalytic converter damage (as
specified by the manufacturer) is not present any more, or if the engine is
operated after changes to speed and load conditions where the level of misfire
will not cause catalytic converter damage, the MI may be switched back to the
previous state of activation during the first driving cycle on which the misfire
level was detected and may be switched to the normal activated mode on
subsequent driving cycles. If the MI is switched back to the previous state of
activation, the corresponding fault codes and stored freeze-frame conditions
may be erased.
I.3.7.2 For all other malfunctions, the MI may be de-activated after three
subsequent sequential driving cycles during which the monitoring system
responsible for activating the MI ceases to detect the malfunction and if no
other malfunction has been identified that would independently activate the MI.
I.3.8 Erasing a fault code
I.3.8.1 The OBD system may erase a fault code and the distance travelled and
freeze-frame information if the same fault is not re-registered in at least 40
engine warm-up cycles.
I.3.9 Bi-fuel vehicles
In general, for bi-fuel vehicles for each of the fuel types (petrol, NG and LPG))
all the OBD requirements as for a mono-fuel vehicle are applicable. To this end
one of the following two options in I.3.9.1 or I.3.9.2 or any combination thereof
shall be used.
I.3.9.1 One OBD system for both fuel types
I.3.9.1.1 The following procedures shall be executed for each diagnostic in a
single OBD system for operation on petrol and on gas fuel, either independent
of the fuel currently in use or fuel type specific:
- Activation of malfunction indicator (MI) (see I.3.5);
- Fault code storage (see I.3.6);
- Extinguishing the MI (see I.3.7);
- Erasing a fault code (see I.3.8).
For components or systems to be monitored, either separate diagnostics for
each fuel type can be used or a common diagnostic.
I.3.9.1.2 The OBD system can reside in either one or more computers.
I.3.9.2 One set of separate OBD system is for each fuel type.
I.3.9.2.1 The following procedures shall be executed independently of each
other when the vehicle is operated on petrol or on gas fuel:
- Activation of malfunction indicator (MI) (see I.3.5);
- Fault code storage (see I.3.6);
- Extinguishing the MI (see I.3.7);
- Erasing a fault code (see I.3.8).
I.3.9.2.2 The separate OBD systems can reside in either one or more
computers.
I.3.9.3 Specific requirements regarding the transmission of diagnostic
signals from bi-fuel vehicles
I.3.9.3.1 On a request from a diagnostic scan tool, the diagnostic signals shall
be transmitted on one or more source addresses. The use of source
addresses is described in ISO 15031-5 "Road vehicles - communication
between vehicles and external test equipment for emissions-related
diagnostics - Part 5: Emissions-related diagnostic services", dated November
1, 2001.
I.3.9.3.2 Identification of fuel specific information can be realized:
- By use of source addresses; and/or
- By use of a fuel select switch; and/or
- By use of fuel specific fault codes.
I.3.9.4 Regarding the status code (as described in I.3.6), one of the following
two options has to be used, if one or more of the diagnostics reporting
readiness is fuel type specific:
- The status code is fuel specific, i.e. use of two status codes, one for each
fuel type;
- When evaluating the function of a control system using one fuel, the status
code shall be sufficient to indicate the evaluation status of the control
system when using two fuels (petrol and gas fuel).
If none of the diagnostics reporting readiness is fuel type specific, then only
one status code has to be supported.
I.4 Administrative provisions relating to the OBD system defect
I.4.1 A manufacturer may request to the authority that an OBD system be
accepted for type-approval even though the system contains one or more
deficiencies such that the specific requirements of this annex are not fully met.
I.4.2 In considering the request, the authority shall determine whether
compliance with the requirements of this annex is infeasible or unreasonable.
The type-approval authority shall take into consideration data from the
manufacturer that details such factors as, but not limited to, technical feasibility,
lead time and production cycles including phase-in or phase-out of engines or
vehicle designs and programmed upgrades of computers, the extent to which
the resultant OBD system will be effective in complying with the requirements
of this Standard and that the manufacturer has demonstrated an acceptable
level of effort towards compliance with the requirements of this Standard.
I.4.2.1 The authority will not accept any deficiency request that includes the
complete lack of a required diagnostic monitor function or mandatory records
and reports of the data related to monitoring.
I.4.2.2 The authority will not accept any deficiency request that does not
respect the OBD threshold limits in I.3.3.2.
I.4.3 In determining the identified order of deficiencies, deficiencies relating to
I.3.3.3.1, I.3.3.3.2 and I.3.3.3.3 for positive-ignition engines and I.3.3.4.1,
I.3.3.4.2 and I.3.3.4.3 for compression-ignition engines shall be identified first.
I.4.4 Prior to or at the time of type-approval, no deficiency shall be granted in
respect of the requirements of IA.6.5, except IA.6.5.3.4.
I.4.5 Deficiency period
I.4.5.1 A deficiency may be carried-over for a period of two years after the date
of type-approval of the vehicle type unless it can be adequately demonstrated
that substantial vehicle hardware modifications and additional lead-time
beyond two years would be necessary to correct the deficiency. In such a case,
the deficiency may be carried-over for a period not exceeding three years.
I.4.5.2 A manufacturer may request that the approval authority grant a
deficiency retrospectively when such a deficiency is discovered after the
original type approval. In this case, the deficiency may be carried-over for a
period of two years after the date of notification to the approval authority unless
it can be adequately demonstrated that substantial vehicle hardware
modifications and additional lead-time beyond two years would be necessary
to correct the deficiency. In such a case, the deficiency may be carried-over for
a period not exceeding three years.
I.5 Access to vehicle OBD and maintenance/repair information
I.5.1 Access to vehicle OBD information
I.5.1.1 Applications for type-approval or amendment of a type-approval shall
be accompanied by the relevant information concerning the OBD system. This
relevant information shall enable manufacturers of replacement or retrofit
components to make the parts they manufacture compatible with the vehicle
OBD system with a view to fault-free operation assuring the vehicle user
against malfunctions. Similarly, such relevant information shall enable the
manufacturers of diagnostic tools and test equipment to make tools and
equipment that provide for effective and accurate diagnosis of vehicle emission
control systems.
I.5.1.2 Upon request, the approval authority shall make Attachment AB
containing the relevant information on the OBD system available to any
interested components, diagnostic tools or test equipment manufacturer on a
non-discriminatory basis.
I.5.1.2.1 If the approval authority receives a request from any interested
components, diagnostic tools or test equipment manufacturer for information
on the OBD system of a vehicle that has been type-approved to a previous
version of Standard,
- The approval authority shall, within 30 days, request the manufacturer of
the vehicle in question the type to make available the information required
in A.4.2.11.2.7.6;
- The manufacturer shall submit this information to the approval authority
within two months after receiving the request.
This requirement shall not invalidate any approval previously granted nor
prevent extensions to such approvals.
I.5.1.2.2 Information can only be requested for replacement or service
components that are subject to type-approval, or for components that form part
of a system that is subject to type-approval.
I.5.1.2.3 The request for information shall identify the exact specification of the
vehicle model for which the information is required. It must be confirmed that
the information is required for the development of replacement or retrofit parts
or components or diagnostic tools or test equipment.
I.5.2 Access to vehicle maintenance/repair information
I.5.2.1 The vehicle manufacturer shall, on a reasonable charge basis, provide
the repair information to the enterprises in compliance with the requirements of
I.5.2.2, within three months after the repair information, including the
subsequent improvements and supplements, is delivered to the authorized
dealers or repair shops.
I.5.2.2 Any enterprises engaged in vehicle repair, roadside assistance, vehicle
inspection, spare parts and reworked accessories, manufacture or sales of
diagnostic tools and test equipment shall be qualified for obtaining such
information.
I.5.2.3 If these provisions are identified to be violated during the process of
type approval and in-service conformity check, the type-approval authority
shall take appropriate measures to ensure obtaining maintenance and repair
information.
Attachment IA
(Normative)
Test for functional aspects of onboard diagnostic (OBD) system
IA.1 Introduction
This attachment describes the procedure of the test according to I.3.3. The
procedure describes a method for checking the function of the onboard
diagnostic (OBD) system installed on the vehicle by failure simulation of
relevant systems in the engine management or emission control system. It
also sets procedures for determining the durability of OBD systems.
The manufacturer shall make available the defective components and/or
electrical devices which would be used to simulate failures. When measured
over the Type I test cycle, such defective components or devices shall not
cause the vehicle emissions to exceed the limits of I.3.3.2 by more than 1.2
times.
When the vehicle is tested with the defective component or device fitted, the
OBD system is approved if the MI is activated. The OBD system is also
approved if the MI is activated below the OBD threshold limits.
IA.2 Description of test
IA.2.1 The testing of OBD systems consists of the following phases:
- Simulation of malfunction of a component of the engine management or
emission control system;
- Preconditioning of the vehicle with a simulated malfunction over
preconditioning specified in IA.6.2.1 or IA.6.2.2;
- Driving the vehicle with a simulated malfunction over the Type I test cycle
and measuring the emissions of the vehicle;
- Determining whether the OBD system reacts to the simulated malfunction
and indicates malfunction in an appropriate manner to the vehicle driver.
IA.2.2 Alternatively, at the request of the manufacturer, malfunction of one or
more components may be electronically simulated according to the
requirements of IA.6.
IA.2.3 Manufacturers may request that monitoring take place outside the Type
I test cycle if it can be demonstrated to the authority that monitoring during
conditions encountered during the Type I test cycle would impose restrictive
monitoring conditions when the vehicle is used in service.
IA.3 Test vehicle and fuel
IA.3.1 Vehicle
The test vehicle shall meet the requirements of C.2.2.
IA.3.2 Fuel
The appropriate reference fuel as described in Annex J for petrol, diesel fuels,
LPG and NG shall be used for testing. The fuel type for each failure mode to be
tested (described in IA.6.3) may be selected by the approval authority from the
reference fuels described in J.2 in the case of the testing of a mono-fuel gas
vehicle and from the reference fuels described in J.1 or J.2 in the case of the
testing of a bi-fuel vehicle. The selected fuel type must not be changed during
any of the test phases (described in IA.2.1 to IA.2.3). In the case of the use of
LPG or NG as a fuel it is permissible that the engine is started on petrol and
switched to LPG or NG after a pre-determined period of time which is
controlled automatically and not under the control of the driver.
IA.4 Test temperature and pressure
IA.4.1 The test temperature and pressure shall meet the requirements of the
Type I test as described in Annex C.
IA.5 Test equipment
IA.5.1 Chassis dynamometer
The chassis dynamometer shall meet the requirements of Annex C.
IA.6 OBD system test procedure
IA.6.1 The operating cycle on the chassis dynamometer shall meet the
requirements of Annex C.
IA.6.2 Vehicle preconditioning
IA.6.2.1 According to the engine type and after introduction of one of the failure
modes given in IA.6.3, the vehicle shall be preconditioned by driving at least 2
consecutive Type I tests (Parts 1 and 2). For compression ignition engined
vehicles an additional preconditioning of two Part 2 cycles is permitted.
IA.6.2.2 At the request of the manufacturer, alternative preconditioning
methods may be used.
IA.6.3 Failure modes to be tested
IA.6.3.1 Positive-ignition engined vehicles
IA.6.3.1.1 Replacement of the catalytic converter with a deteriorated or
defective catalytic converter or electronic simulation of such a failure.
IA.6.3.1.2 Engine misfire conditions are determined according to the
conditions for misfire monitoring given in I.3.3.3.2.
IA.6.3.1.3 Replacement of the oxygen sensor with a deteriorated or defective
oxygen sensor or electronic simulation of such a failure.
IA.6.3.1.4 Electrical disconnection of any other emission-related power-train
component connected to a computer (if active on the selected fuel type).
IA.6.3.1.5 Electrical disconnection of the electronic evaporative purge control
device (if equipped and if active on the selected fuel type). For this specific
failure mode, the Type I test need not be performed.
IA.6.3.2 Compression-ignition engined vehicles
IA.6.3.2.1 Where fitted, replacement of the catalytic converter with a
deteriorated or defective catalytic converter or electronic simulation of such a
failure.
IA.6.3.2.2 Where fitted, total removal of the particulate trap or, where sensors
are an integral part of the trap, a defective trap assembly.
IA.6.3.2.3 Where fitted, it shall demonstrate that malfunctions of the EGR flow
and cooler are detected by the OBD system.
IA.6.3.2.4 Electrical disconnection of any fuelling system electronic fuel
quantity and timing actuator.
IA.6.3.2.5 Electrical disconnection of any other emission-related power-train
component connected to a computer.
IA.6.3.2.6 In meeting the requirements of IA.6.3.2.4 and IA.6.3.2.5, and with
the agreement of the approval authority, the manufacturer shall take
appropriate steps to demonstrate that the OBD system will indicate a fault
when disconnection occurs.
IA.6.4 OBD system test
IA.6.4.1 Vehicles fitted with positive-ignition engines
IA.6.4.1.1 After vehicle preconditioning according to IA.6.2, the test vehicle is
driven over a Type I test (Parts 1 and 2).
The MI shall activate before the end of this test under any of the conditions
given in IA.6.4.1.2 to IA.6.4.1.6. The testing organization may substitute those
conditions with others in accordance with IA.6.4.1.6. However, the total
number of failures simulated shall not exceed four (4) for the purpose of type
approval.
In the case of testing a bi-fuel vehicle, both fuel types shall be used within the
maximum of four (4) simulated failures at the discretion of the type-approval
authority.
IA.6.4.1.2 Replacement of a catalytic converter with a deteriorated or defective
catalytic converter or electronic simulation of a deteriorated or defective
catalytic converter that results in NMHC or NOX emissions exceeding the limit
given in I.3.3.2.
IA.6.4.1.3 An induced misfire condition according to the conditions for misfire
monitoring given in I.3.3.3.2 that result in emissions exceeding any of the limits
given in I.3.3.2.
IA.6.4.1.4 Replacement of an oxygen sensor with a deteriorated or defective
oxygen sensor or electronic simulation of a deteriorated or defective oxygen
sensor that results in emissions exceeding any of the limits given in I.3.3.2.
IA.6.4.1.5 Electrical disconnection of the electronic evaporative purge control
device (if equipped and if active on the selected fuel type).
IA.6.4.1.6 Electrical disconnection of any other emission-related power-train
component connected to a computer that results in emissions exceeding any
of the limits given in I.3.3.2 (if active on the selected fuel type).
IA.6.4.2 Vehicles fitted with compression-ignition engines
IA.6.4.2.1 After vehicle preconditioning according to IA.6.2, the test vehicle is
driven over a Type I test (Parts 1 and 2).
The MI shall activate before the end of this test under any of the conditions
given in IA.6.4.2.2 to IA.6.4.2.5. The testing organization may substitute those
conditions by others in accordance with IA.6.4.2.5. However, the total number
of failures simulated shall not exceed 4 for the purposes of type approval.
IA.6.4.2.2 Where fitted, replacement of a catalytic converter with a deteriorated
or defective catalytic converter or electronic simulation of a deteriorated or
defective catalytic converter that results in emissions exceeding limits given in
I.3.3.2.
IA.6.4.2.3 Where fitted, total removal of the particulate trap or replacement of
the particulate trap with a defective particulate trap meeting the conditions of
IA.6.3.2.2 that results in emissions exceeding the limits given in I.3.3.2.
IA.6.4.2.4 With reference to IA.6.3.2.3, disconnection of any fuelling system
electronic fuel quantity and timing actuator that results in emissions exceeding
any of the limits given in I.3.3.2.
IA.6.4.2.5 With reference to IA.6.3.2.4, disconnection of any other
emission-related power-train component connected to a computer that results
in emissions exceeding any of the limits given in I.3.3.2.
IA.6.5 Diagnostic signals
IA.6.5.1 Content and access of diagnostic signals
IA.6.5.1.1 Upon determination of the first malfunction of any component or
system, "freeze-frame" engine conditions present at the time shall be stored in
computer memory. Should a subsequent fuel system or misfire malfunction
occur, any previously stored freeze-frame conditions shall be replaced by the
fuel system or misfire conditions (whichever occurs first). Stored engine
conditions shall include, but are not limited to calculated load value, engine
speed, fuel trim value(s) (if available), fuel pressure (if available), vehicle
speed (if available), coolant temperature, intake manifold pressure (if
available), closed- or open-loop operation (if available) and the fault code
which caused the data to be stored. The manufacturer shall choose the most
appropriate set of conditions facilitating effective repairs for freeze-frame
storage. Only one frame of data is required. Manufacturers may choose to
store additional frames provided that at least the required frame can be read
by a generic scan tool meeting the specifications of IA6.5.3.2 and IA.6.5.3.3. If
the fault code causing the conditions to be stored is erased in accordance with
I.3.7, the stored engine conditions may also be erased.
IA.6.5.1.2 If available, the following signals in addition to the required
freeze-frame information shall be made available on demand through the serial
port on the standardised data link connector, if the information is available to
the onboard computer or can be determined using the onboard computer:
diagnostic trouble codes, engine coolant temperature, fuel control system
status (closed-loop, open-loop, other), fuel trim, ignition timing advance, intake
air temperature, manifold air pressure, air flow rate, engine speed, throttle
position sensor output value, secondary air status (upstream, downstream or
atmosphere), calculated load value, vehicle speed and fuel pressure.
The signals shall be provided in standard units based on the specifications
given in IA.6.5.3. Actual signals shall be clearly identified separately from
default value or limp-home signals.
IA.6.5.1.3 For all emission control systems for which specific on-board
evaluation tests are conducted (catalytic converter, oxygen sensor, etc.),
except misfire detection, fuel system monitoring and comprehensive
component monitoring, the results of the most recent test performed by the
vehicle and the limits to which the system is compared shall be made available
through the serial data port on the standardised data link connector according
to the specifications given in IA.6.5.3. For the monitored components and
systems excepted above, a pass/fail indication for the most recent test results
shall be available through the data link connector.
All data required to be stored in relation to OBD in-use performance according
to the provisions of IA.7.6 shall be available through the serial data port on the
standardized data link connector according to the specifications given in
IA.6.5.3.
IA.6.5.1.4 The OBD requirements to which the vehicle is certified and the
major emission control systems monitored by the OBD system consistent with
IA.6.5.3.3 shall be available through the serial data port on the standardised
data link connector according to the specifications given in IA.6.5.3.
IA.6.5.1.5 The software calibration identification number shall be made
available through the serial port on the standardised data link connector. The
software calibration identification number shall be provided in a standardised
format.
IA.6.5.2 The emission control diagnostic system is not required to evaluate
components during malfunction if such evaluation would result in a risk to
safety or component failure.
IA.6.5.3 The emission control diagnostic system shall provide for standardised
and unrestricted access and conform to the following ISO standards and/or
SAE specification.
IA.6.5.3.1 One of the following standards with the restrictions as described
shall be used as the on-board to off-board communications link:
ISO 9141-2:1994 (amended 1996) “Road Vehicles - Diagnostic Systems -
Part 2: CARB requirements for interchange of digital information”;
SAE J1850: March 1998 “Class B Data Communication Network Interface”.
Emission-related messages shall use the cyclic redundancy check and the
three-byte header and not use inter-byte separation or checksums;
ISO 14230-4 “Road Vehicles - Keyword protocol 2000 for diagnostic
systems - Part 4: Requirements for emission-relate systems”;
ISO 15765-4 “Road vehicles - Diagnostics on Controller Area Network (CAN)
- Part 4: Requirements for emissions-related systems”, dated November 1,
2001.
IA.6.5.3.2 Test equipment and diagnostic tools needed to communicate with
OBD systems shall meet or exceed the functional specification given in ISO
15031-4 "Road vehicles - Communication between vehicle and external test
equipment for emissions-related diagnostics - Part 4: External test equipment",
dated November 1, 2001.
IA.6.5.3.3 Basic diagnostic data, (as specified in IA.6.5.1) and bi-directional
control information shall be provided using the format and units described in
ISO 15031-5 "Road vehicles - Communication between vehicle and external
test equipment for emissions-related diagnostics - Part 5: Emissions related
diagnostic services", dated November 1, 2001, and shall be available using a
diagnostic tool meeting the requirements of ISO 15031-4.
The vehicle manufacturer shall provide to a national standardisation body the
details of any emission-related diagnostic data, e.g. PID’s, OBD monitor Id’s,
Test Id’s not specified in ISO 15031-5 but related to this Standard.
IA.6.5.3.4 When a fault is registered, the manufacturer shall identify the fault
using an appropriate fault code consistent with those given in Section 6.3 of
ISO 15031-6 “Road vehicles - Communication between vehicle and external
test equipment for emissions-related diagnostics - Part 6: Diagnostic trouble
code definitions”, relating to “emission related system diagnostic trouble
codes”. If such identification is not possible, the manufacturer may use
diagnostic trouble codes according to Sections 5.3 and 5.6 of ISO 15031-6.
The fault codes shall be fully accessible by standardised diagnostic equipment
complying with the provisions of IA.6.5.3.2.
The vehicle manufacturer shall provide the type-approval authority with the
details of any emission-related diagnostic data, e.g. PID’s, OBD monitor Id’s,
Test Id’s not specified in ISO 15031-5 but related to this Standard.
IA.6.5.3.5 The connection interface between the vehicle and the diagnostic
tester shall be standardised and shall meet all the requirements of ISO
15031-3 "Road vehicles - Communication between vehicle and external test
equipment for emissions-related diagnostics - Part 3: Diagnostic connector
and related electrical circuits: specification and use", dated November 1, 2001.
The installation position shall be subject to agreement of the approval authority
such that it is readily accessible by service personnel but protected from
accidental damage under normal use conditions.
IA.7 IUPR of OBD system
IA.7.1 General requirements
IA.7.1.1 Each monitor of the OBD system shall be executed at least once per
driving cycle in which the monitoring conditions as specified IA.7.2 are met.
Manufacturers may not use the calculated ratio (or any element thereof) or any
other indication of monitor frequency as a monitoring condition for any monitor.
IA.7.1.2 The in-use performance ratio (IUPRM) of a specific monitor M of the
OBD systems shall be:
IUPRM = NumeratorM / DenominatorM
IA.7.1.3 Comparison of Numerator and Denominator gives an indication of
how often a specific monitor is operating relative to vehicle operation. To
ensure all manufacturers are tracking IUPR in the same manner, detailed
requirements are given for defining and incrementing these counters.
IA.7.1.4 If, according to the requirements of this annex, the vehicle is equipped
with a specific monitor M, IUPRM shall be greater than or equal to 0.1.
IA.7.1.5 Vehicles shall comply with the requirements of section IA.7.1.4 for a
mileage of at least 160000 km.
IA.7.1.6 The requirements of IUPR in this attachment are deemed to be met
for a particular monitor M, if for all vehicles of a particular OBD family
manufactured in a particular calendar year the following statistical conditions
hold:
- The average IUPRM is equal to or greater than 0.1;
- More than 50 percent of all vehicles have an IUPRM greater than or equal
to 0.1.
IA.7.1.7 Within 18 months after the first vehicle type equipped with IUPR within
a certain OBD family is put on the market, and every 18 months thereafter, the
manufacturer shall demonstrate to the approval authority that these statistical
conditions are satisfied for vehicles manufactured for all monitors required to
be reported by the OBD system according to IA.7.1.6. For this purpose,
sample vehicles shall be selected from the OBD Family with a sales volume of
more than 1000 during the sampling period, which shall be performed in
accordance with the procedures specified in Annex N and under the condition
of not affecting the requirements of IA.7.1.9.
In addition to the requirements in Annex N, regardless of the results obtained
in N.2, the approval authority can make random inspection in an appropriate
quantity according to the IUPR in-service conformity check requirements
specified in Attachment NA, for the purpose of preventing the complete vehicle
manufacturers from violating the requirements of IA.7 and submitting fake,
false or unrepresentative data when performing type approval for in-use
vehicle conformity check. In general, at least 5 percent of the approved OBD
families shall be randomly inspected. With respect to the randomly inspected
OBD families, the approval authority shall, without damaging the warning effect,
determine the appropriate inspection plan with the manufacturer, so as to
reduce repeated tests for in-service conformity check of a certain OBD family.
IA.7.1.8 For the entire test sample of vehicles the manufacturer shall report to
the approval authority all of the actual monitoring data to be reported by the
OBD system according to paragraph IA.7.6, and the information of test
vehicles and selection method shall be provided at the same time.
IA.7.1.9 The approval authority and their authorized testing organization may
pursue further tests on vehicles or collect appropriate data recorded by
vehicles to verify the IUPR’s conformity.
IA.7.1.10 Test shall be performed according to the provisions in IA.7.1.7 to
IA.7.1.9. In case of failing to meet the requirements of IA.7.1.6, the IUPR
inspection to the manufacturer is considered as unsatisfied; actions shall be
taken in accordance with the requirements of 8.6.
IA.7.2 Numerator
IA.7.2.1 The numerator of a specific monitor is a counter measuring the
number of times a vehicle has been operated such that all monitoring
conditions necessary for the specific monitor to detect a malfunction in order to
warn the driver, as they have been implemented by the manufacturer, have
been encountered. The numerator shall not be incremented more than once
per driving cycle, unless there is reasoned technical justification.
IA.7.3 Denominator
IA.7.3.1 The purpose of the denominator is to provide a counter indicating the
number of vehicle driving events, considering special conditions for a specific
monitor. The denominator shall be incremented at least once per driving cycle,
if during this driving cycle such conditions are met and the general
denominator is incremented as specified in IA.7.5 unless the denominator is
disabled according to IA.7.7.
IA.7.3.2 In addition to the requirements of IA.7.3.1:
(a) Secondary air system monitor denominator(s) shall be incremented if the
commanded "on" operation of the secondary air system occurs for a
time greater than or equal to 10 seconds. For purposes of determining
this commanded "on" time, the OBD system may not include time during
intrusive operation of the secondary air system solely for the purposes
of monitoring.
(b) Denominators of monitors of systems only active during cold start shall
be incremented if the component or strategy is commanded "on" for a
time greater than or equal to 10 seconds.
(c) The denominator(s) for monitors of Variable Valve Timing (VVT) and/or
control systems shall be incremented if the component is commanded to
function (e.g., commanded "on", "open", "closed", "locked", etc.) on two
or more occasions during the driving cycle or for a time greater than or
equal to 10 seconds, whichever occurs first.
(d) For the following monitors, the denominator(s) shall be incremented by 1,
even if there is no one operation cycle meeting the requirements of
IA.7.3.1, if at least 800 cumulative kilometres of vehicle operation have
been experienced since the last time the denominator was incremented:
- Diesel oxidation catalyst;
- Diesel particulate filter.
(e) The denominators monitored by the following components shall be
incremented only during the cold start operating cycle, under the
conditions of without breaking the increment requirement of other
monitored denominators:
- Liquid (lubricating oil, engine coolant, fuel, SCR reactant) temperature
sensor;
- Clean air (ambient air, air intake, pressurized air, intake manifold)
temperature sensor;
- Exhaust (EGR recycling/cooling, exhaust gas turbocharging, catalyst)
temperature sensor.
(f) The denominator monitored by boost pressure control system shall be
incremented in case the following requirements are met:
- Meet the requirements for general denominator;
- The working hours of boost pressure control system is no less than 15s.
IA.7.3.3 For hybrid vehicles, vehicles that employ alternative engine start
hardware or strategies (e.g. integrated starter and generators), or alternative
fuel vehicles (e.g., bi-fuel, or mono-fuel gas vehicle), the manufacturer may
request the approval of the approval authority to use alternative criteria to
those set forth in this paragraph for incrementing the denominator. In general,
the approval authority shall not approve alternative criteria for vehicles that
only employ engine shut off at or near idle/vehicle stop conditions. Approval by
the approval authority of the alternative criteria shall be based on the
equivalence of the alternative criteria to determine the amount of vehicle
operation relative to the measure of conventional vehicle operation in
accordance with the criteria in IA.7.3.1 and IA.7.3.2.
IA.7.4 Ignition cycle counter
IA.7.4.1 The ignition cycle counter indicates the number of ignition cycles a
vehicle has experienced. The ignition cycle counter may not be incremented
more than once per driving cycle.
IA.7.5 General denominator
IA.7.5.1 The general denominator is a counter measuring the number of times
a vehicle has been operated. It shall be incremented within 10 seconds, if and
only if, the following criteria are satisfied on a single driving cycle:
- Cumulative time since engine start is greater than or equal to 600 seconds
while at an elevation of less than 2440 m above sea level and at an
ambient temperature of greater than or equal to -7° C;
- Cumulative vehicle operation at or above 40 km/h occurs for greater than
or equal to 300 seconds while at an elevation of less than 2440 m above
sea level and at an ambient temperature of greater than or equal to -7 °C;
- Continuous vehicle operation at idle (i.e. accelerator pedal released by
driver and vehicle speed less than or equal to 1.6 km/h) for greater than or
equal to 30 seconds while at an elevation of less than 2440 m above sea
level and at an ambient temperature of greater than or equal to -7 °C.
IA.7.6 Reporting and increasing counters
IA.7.6.1 The OBD system shall report in accordance with the ISO 15031-5
specifications the ignition cycle counter and general denominator as well as
separate numerators and denominators for the following monitors, if their
presence on the vehicle is required by this attachment:
For vehicles equipped with positive ignition engine:
- Catalysts (each bank to be reported separately);
- Oxygen sensors, including secondary oxygen sensors (each sensor to be
reported separately);
- EGR system;
- VVT system;
- Secondary air system;
- Evaporative system (if fitted with leaking monitoring).
For vehicles equipped with compression ignition engine:
- NMHC catalysts (each bank to be reported separately);
- NOx catalysts (e.g. NOx absorber, NOx reagent/catalyst system, each
bank to be reported separately);
- SCR aftertreatment system;
- Particulate trap;
- Exhaust gas sensors;
- EGR system;
- VVT system;
- Boost pressure control system.
IA.7.6.2 For specific components or systems that have multiple monitors,
which are required to be reported by this paragraph (e.g. oxygen sensor bank
1 may have multiple monitors for sensor response or other sensor
characteristics), the OBD system shall separately track numerators and
denominators for each of the specific monitors except for short circuit and open
circuit monitoring and report only the corresponding numerator and
denominator for the specific monitor that has the lowest numerical ratio. If two
or more specific monitors have identical ratios, the corresponding numerator
and denominator for the specific monitor that has the highest denominator
shall be reported for the specific component.
IA.7.6.3 All counters, when incremented, shall be incremented by an integer of
1.
IA.7.6.4 The minimum value of each counter is 0, the maximum value shall not
be less than 65535, notwithstanding any other requirements on standardized
storage and reporting of the OBD system.
IA.7.6.5 If either the numerator or denominator for a specific monitor reaches
its maximum value, both counters for that specific monitor shall be divided by 2
before being incremented again according to the provisions set in IA.7.2 and
IA.7.3. If the ignition cycle counter or the general denominator reaches its
maximum value, the respective counter shall change to zero at its next
increment according to the provisions set in IA.7.4 and IA.7.5, respectively.
IA.7.6.6 Each counter shall be reset to zero only when a non-volatile memory
reset occurs (e.g. reprogramming event, etc.) or, if the numbers are stored in
keepalive memory (KAM), when KAM’s data is lost due to an interruption in
electrical power to the control module (e.g. battery disconnect, etc.).
IA.7.6.7 The manufacturer shall take measures to ensure that the values of
numerator and denominator cannot be reset or modified, except in cases
provided for explicitly in IA.7.6.
IA.7.7 Disablement of numerators and denominators and of the general
denominator
IA.7.7.1 Within 10 seconds of a malfunction being detected, which disables a
monitor required to meet the monitoring conditions (i.e. a pending or confirmed
code is stored), the OBD system shall disable further incrementing of the
corresponding numerator and denominator for each monitor that is disabled.
When the malfunction is no longer detected (i.e., the pending code is erased
through self-clearing or through a scan tool command), incrementing of all
corresponding numerators and denominators shall resume within 10 seconds.
IA.7.7.2 Within 10 seconds of the start of a power take-off operation (PTO) that
disables a monitor required to meet the monitoring conditions of this
attachment, the OBD system shall disable further incrementing of the
corresponding numerator and denominator for each monitor that is disabled.
When the PTO operation ends, incrementing of all corresponding numerators
and denominators shall resume within 10 seconds.
IA.7.7.3 The OBD system shall disable further incrementing of the numerator
and denominator of a specific monitor within 10 seconds, if a malfunction of
any component used to determine the criteria within the definition of the
specific monitor's denominator (i.e. vehicle speed, ambient temperature,
elevation, idle operation, engine cold start, or time of operation) has been
detected and the corresponding pending fault code has been stored.
Incrementing of the numerator and denominator shall resume within 10
seconds when the malfunction is no longer present (e.g. pending code erased
through self-clearing or by a scan tool command).
IA.7.7.4 The OBD system shall disable further incrementing of the general
denominator within 10 seconds, if a malfunction has been detected of any
component used to determine whether the criteria in IA.7.5 are satisfied (i.e.
vehicle speed, ambient temperature, elevation, idle operation, or time of
operation) and the corresponding pending fault code has been stored. The
general denominator may not be disabled from incrementing for any other
condition. Incrementing of the general denominator shall resume within 10
seconds when the malfunction is no longer present (e.g., pending code erased
through self-clearing or by a scan tool command).
Attachment IB
(Normative)
Essential characteristics of the OBD system family
IB.1 Parameters defining the OBD family
The OBD family may be defined by basic design parameters which shall be
common to vehicles within the family. In some cases, there may be interaction
of parameters. These effects shall also be taken into consideration to ensure
that only vehicles with similar exhaust emission characteristics are included
within an OBD family.
IB.2 To this end, those vehicle types whose parameters described below are
identical are considered to belong to the same engine/emission control/OBD
system combination.
Engine:
- Combustion process (i.e. positive-ignition, compression-ignition,
two-stroke, four-stroke);
- Method of engine fuelling (i.e. single or multi-point fuel injection);
- Fuel type (i.e. petrol, diesel, NG, LPG, bi fuel petrol/NG, bi fuel
petrol/LPG).
Emission control system:
- Type of catalytic converter (i.e. oxidation, three-way, heated catalytic
converter, SCR, other);
- Type of particulate trap;
- Secondary air injection (i.e. with or without);
- Exhaust gas recirculation (i.e. with or without);
OBD system parts and functioning:
- The methods of OBD functional monitoring, malfunction detection and
malfunction indication to the vehicle driver.
Annex J
(Normative)
Specifications of reference fuels
J.1 Specifications of liquid fuels for vehicle emission test
J.1.1 Specifications of reference petrol used for testing vehicles
equipped with positive-ignition engines (Table J.1)
Table J.1 -- Specifications of reference petrol
Parameter Quality index Test method
Antiknock quality:
Research octane number (RON) no less than
Antiknock index (RON + MON)/2 no less than
95
90
GB/T 5487
GB/T 503, GB/T 5487
Density (1) at 20°C, kg/m3 725~760 GB/T 1884, GB/T 1885
Distillation range:
10% evaporation temperature, °C
50% evaporation temperature, °C
90% evaporation temperature, °C
Final boiling point, °C
Residue, % (v/v)
50~70
90~120
160~190
180~205
GB/T 6536
Vapour pressure (2), kPa 55~65 GB/T 8017
Existent gum, mg/100mL no more than 4 GB/T 8019
Induction period, min no less than 480 GB/T 8018
Sulphur content, (mg/kg) no more than 10 SH/T 0689
Mercaptan (judged as qualified if one of the following
requirements is met):
Doctor test
mercaptan sulfur content (m/m), % no more than
Pass
0.001
SH/T 0174
GB/T 1792
Copper strip corrosion (50°C, 3h), class no more than 1 GB/T 5096
Water soluble acid or alkali None GB/T 259
Mechanical impurity and water (3) None GB/T 511, GB/T 260
Benzene content (v/v), /% no more than 1.0 SH/T 0713
Aromatic hydrocarbon content (4), % (v/v) no more than 35 GB/T 11132
Alkene content (4), % (v/v) no more than 25 GB/T 11132
Oxygen content, % (m/m) no more than 2.7 SH/T 0663
Methanol content (5), (m/m), /% no more than 0.3 SH/T 0663
Lead content (5), g/L) no more than 0.005 GB/T 8020
Iron content (5), g/L) no more than 0.01 SH/T 0712
Manganese content (5), g/L no more than 0.002 SH/T 0711
Copper Content (5), g/L no more than 0.001 SH/T 0102
Phosphorus content (5), g/L no more than 0.0002 SH/T 0020
(1) SH/T 0604 may be applied. In case of any dispute of the result, GB/T 1884 and GB/T 1885
shall be followed for determination.
(2) The maximum vapor pressure of the gasoline used for Type VI test is 85kPa.
(3) Injecting specimen into a 100mL glass cylinder, which shall be transparent and free from
any suspended or sedimentary mechanical impurities and moisture. In case of any
dispute, GB/T 511 and GB/T 260 shall be followed for determination.
(4) SH/T 0714, Standard test method for detailed analysis of petroleum naphthas through
n-nonane by capillary gas chromatography may be applied. In case of any dispute, GB/T
11132 shall be followed for determination.
(5) No intentional addition is allowed.
J.1.2 Specifications of reference diesel used for testing vehicles
equipped with compression-ignition engines (Table J.2)
Table J.2 -- Specifications of reference diesel
Parameter Quality index Test method
Cetane number no less than 51 GB/T 386
Density at 20°C, kg/m3 815~845 GB/T 1884, GB/T 1885
Distillation range:
50% distilled temperature, °C no more than
90% distilled temperature, °C
95% distilled temperature, °C
300
335~355
345~365
GB/T 6536
Oxidation stability,
Total insoluble, mg/100mL no more than
2.5 SH/T 0175
Sulphur content (mg/kg) no more than 10 SH/T 0689
Acidity , mgKOH/100mL no more than 7 GB/T 258
Carbon residual in 10% of distilled residual (1), % (m/m)
no more than
0.3 GB/T 268
Ash content, % (m/m) no more than 0.01 GB/T 508
Copper strip corrosion (50°C, 3h), class no more than 1 GB/T 5096
Water content, % (v/v) no more than Trace GB/T 260
Mechanical impurities (2) None GB/T 511, GB/T 260
Kinematic viscosity (20°C), mm2/s 2.0~7.5 GB/T 265
CFPP, °C no more than -5 SH/T 0248
Flash point (closed-cup) °C no less than 55 GB/T 261
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, % (m/m)
no more than
11 SH/T 0606
Lubricity, wear spot diameter µm no more than 460 SH/T 0765
FAME (3) (v/v) no more than 0.5% GB/T 23801
(1) If the diesel oil contains nitrate cetane number improver, the determination of 10% carbon
residue on residuum shall be performed with the basic fuel free of nitrate. The methods of
checking whether nitrate cetane number improver exists in the diesel oil refer to Annex B of
GB 19147.
(2) Visual observation is workable, namely injecting specimen into a 100mL glass cylinder,
which shall be transparent and free from any suspended or sedimentary mechanical
impurities and moisture under the condition of ambient temperature (20°C±5°C). In case of
any dispute, GB/T 511 and GB/T 260 shall be followed for determination.
(3) No intentional addition is allowed.
J.2 Specifications of gaseous fuels used for vehicle emission test
J.2.1 Technical data of the LPG reference fuel (Table J.3)
Table J.3 -- Technical data of the LPG reference fuel
Fuel A Fuel B Test method
Composition: percent vol % SH/T 0614
C3 - content percent vol % 30±2 85±2
C4 - content percent vol % Balance Balance
C4 percent vol % Max. 2 Max. 2
Olefins percent vol % Max. 12 Max. 15
Evaporation residue mg/kg Max. 50 Max. 50 SY/T 7509
Water content None None Visual inspection
Total sulphur content mg/kg Max. 10 Max. 10 SH/T 0222
Hydrogen sulphide None None
Copper strip corrosion Class 1 Class 1 SH/T 0232(1)
Odour Characteristic Characteristic
Motor octane number Min. 89 Min. 89 GB/T 12576
(1) This method may not accurately determine the presence of corrosive materials if the
sample contains corrosion inhibitors or other chemicals which diminish the corrosivity of the
sample to the copper strip. Therefore, the addition of such compounds for the sole purpose of
biasing the test method is prohibited.
J.2.2 Technical data of the NG reference fuel (Table J.4)
Table J.4 -- Technical data of the NG reference fuel
Characteristics Units Basis Limits Test method Min. Max.
Reference fuel G20
Composition:
Methane percent mole % 100 99 100 GB/T 13610
Balance (1) percent mole % -- -- 1 GB/T 13610
N2 percent mole % GB/T 13610
Sulphur content mg/m3 (2) -- -- 10 GB/T 11061
Wobbe Index (net) Mj/m3 (3) 48.2 47.2 49.2
Reference fuel G25
Composition:
Methane percent mole % 86 84 88 GB/T 13610
Balance (1) percent mole % -- -- 1 GB/T 13610
N2 percent mole % 14 12 16 GB/T 13610
Sulphur content mg/m3 (2) -- -- 10 GB/T 11061
Wobbe Index (net) Mj/m3 (3) 39.4 38.2 40.6
(1) Inert (different from N2) +C2+C2+.
(2) Value to be determined at 293.2 K (20 °C) and 101.3 kPa.
(3) Value to be determined at 273.2 K (0 °C) and 101.3 kPa.
The Wobbe Index is the product of the calorific value of a unit volume of gas
and the square root of its relative density (under the same reference
conditions):
Where,
Hgas - Calorific value of the fuel in MJ/m3 at 0°C;
ρair - Density of air at 0°C;
ρgas - Density of fuel at 0°C.
The Wobbe Index is said to be gross or net according to whether the calorific
value is the gross or net calorific value.
J.3 Bibliography for this annex
GB/T 259 Petroleum products - Determination of water-soluble acids and
alkalis
GB/T 260 Determination of water content in petroleum products
GB/T 261 Petroleum products - Determination of flash point - Closed cup
method
GB/T 265 Petroleum products - Determination of kinematic viscosity and
calculation of dynamic viscosity
GB/T 268 Petroleum products - Determination of carbon residue -
Conradson method
GB/T 386 Diesel fuels determination of ignition quality by the cetane method
GB/T 503 Test method for knock characteristics of motor and aviation fuels
by the motor method
GB/T 508 Petroleum products - Determination of ash
GB/T 511 Petroleum, petroleum products and additives - Method for
determination of mechanical admixtures
GB/T 1792 Distillate fuels - Determination of mercaptan Sulphur -
Potentiometric titration method
GB/T 1884 Crude petroleum and liquid petroleum products - Laboratory
determination of density - Hydrometer method
GB/T 1885 Petroleum measurement tables
GB/T 5096 Petroleum products - Corrosiveness to copper - Copper strip test
GB/T 5487 Test method for knock characteristics of motor fuels by the
Research method
GB/T 6536 Petroleum products - Determination of distillation
GB/T 8017 Petroleum products - Determination of vapour pressure - Reid
Method
GB/T 8018 Gasoline - Determination of oxidation stability - Induction
period method
GB/T 8019 Motor gasoline and aviation fuels - Determination of existent
gum - Jet evaporation method
GB/T 8020 Gasoline - Determination of lead content - Atomic absorption
spectrometry
GB/T 11061 Natural gas - Determination of sulfur - Oxidative
microcoulometry method
GB/T 11132 Liquid petroleum products - Determination of hydrocarbon
types
GB/T 12576 Liquified petroleum gases - Calculation of vapour pressure and
relative density and octane number
GB/T 13610 Analysis of natural gas by gas Chromatography
GB 19147 Automobile diesel fuels
GB/T 23801 Determination of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) in middle
distillates by infrared spectroscopy method
SH/T 0020 Determination of phosphorus content in gasoline
(Spectrophotometric method)
SH/T 0102 Determination of copper content in lubricating oil and liquid fuel
(atomic absorption spectrometric method)
SH/T 0174 Petroleum products and hydrocarbon solvents - Detection of
thiols and other sulfur species - Doctor test
SH/T 0175 Standard test method for oxidation stability of distillate fuel oil
(accelerated method)
SH/T 0222 Determination method for total sulphur content of liquefied
petroleum gas (coulometric method)
SH/T 0232 Determination method for copper strip corrosion of liquefied
petroleum gas
SH/T 0248 Diesel and domestic heating fuels - Determination of cold filter
plugging point
SH/T 0604 Crude petroleum and petroleum products - Determination of
density - Oscillating U-tube method
SH/T 0606 Standard test method for hydrocarbon types in middle distillates
by mass spectrometry
SH/T 0614 Determination method for component of industrial propane and
butane (gas chromatography method)
SH/T 0663 Standard test method for determination of certain alcohols and
ethers in gasoline by gas chromatography
SH/T 0689 Standard test method for determination of total sulfur in light
hydrocarbons motor fuels and oils by ultraviolet fluorescence
SH/T 0711 Standard test method for manganese in gasoline by atomic
absorption spectroscopy
SH/T 0712 Standard test method for iron in gasoline by atomic absorption
spectroscopy
SH/T 0713 Standard test method for determination of benzene and toluene
in finished motor and aviation gasoline by gas chromatography
SH/T 0714 Standard test method for detailed analysis of petroleum
naphthas through n-nonane by capillary gas chromatography
SH/T 0765 Diesel fuel - Assessment of lubricity using the high-frequency
reciprocating rig (HFRR)
SY/T 7509 Determination of LPG residues
Annex K
(Normative)
Special requirements for a vehicle fuelled by LPG or NG
K.1 Introduction
This annex describes the special requirements that apply in the case of an
approval of a vehicle that runs on LPG or NG, or that can run either on petrol or
LPG or NG in so far as the testing on LPG or NG gas is concerned.
In the case of LPG and NG there is on the market a large variation in fuel
composition, requiring the fuelling system to adapt its fuelling rates to these
compositions. To demonstrate this capability, the vehicle has to be tested in
the test Type I on two extreme reference fuels. Whenever the self-adaptability
of a fuelling system has been demonstrated on a vehicle, such a vehicle may
be considered as a parent of a family. Vehicles that comply with the
requirements of members of that family, if fitted with the same fuelling system,
need to be tested on only one fuel.
K.2 Definitions
For the purpose of this Standard:
K.2.1
Parent vehicle
A "parent vehicle" means a vehicle that is selected to act as the vehicle on
which the self-adaptability of a fuelling system is going to be demonstrated,
and to which the members of a family refer. It is possible to have more than
one parent vehicle in a family.
K.2.2
Vehicle family
A vehicle that shares the following essential characteristics with its parent(s):
(1) It is produced by the same manufacturer;
(2) It is subject to the same emission limits;
(3) If the gas fuelling system has a central metering for the whole engine: It
has a type-approval power output between 0.7 and 1.15 times that of the
parent vehicle. If the gas fuelling system has an individual metering per
cylinder: It has a type-approval power output per cylinder between 0.7
and 1.15 times that of the parent vehicle.
(4) If fitted with a catalyst, it has the same type of catalyst i.e. three way,
oxidation, de-NOx.
(5) It has a gas fuelling system (including the pressure regulator) from the
same system manufacturer and of the same type: induction, vapour
injection (single point, multipoint), liquid injection (single point,
multipoint).
(6) This gas fuelling system is controlled by an ECU of the same type and
technical specification, containing the same software principles and
control strategy.
With regard to requirement (3): In the case where a demonstration shows two
gas-fuelled vehicles could be members of the same family with the exception
of their certified power output, respectively P1 and P2 (P1 < P2), and both are
tested as if were parent vehicles the family relation will be considered valid for
any vehicle with a certified power output between 0.7 × P1 and 1.15 × P2.
K.3 Type approval
Type approval is granted subject to the following requirements:
K.3.1 Exhaust emissions approval of a parent vehicle
The parent vehicle shall demonstrate its capability to adapt to any fuel
composition that may occur across the market. In the case of LPG there are
variations in C3/C4 composition. In the case of NG there are generally two
types of fuel, high calorific fuel (H-gas) and low calorific fuel (L-gas), but with a
significant spread within both ranges; they differ significantly in Wobbe Index.
These variations are reflected in the reference fuels.
K.3.1.1 The parent vehicle(s) shall be tested in the test Type I on the two
extreme reference fuels of Annex J.
K.3.1.1.1 If the transition from one fuel to another is in practice aided through
the use of a switch, this switch shall not be used during type approval.
In such a case on the manufacturer's request and with the agreement of the
testing organization the pre-conditioning cycle referred in C5.3.1 may be
extended.
K.3.1.2 The vehicle(s) is (are) considered to conform if, with both reference
fuels, the vehicle complies with the emission limits.
K.3.1.3 The ratio of emission results "r" shall be determined for each pollutant
as shown in Table K.1:
Table K.1
Fuel type Reference fuels Calculation of "r"
LPG and petrol or LPG only Fuel A r=B/A Fuel B
NG and petrol or NG only Fuel G20 r=G25/G20 Fuel G25
K.3.2 Exhaust emissions approval of a member of the family:
For a member of the family, a Type I test shall be performed with one
reference fuel. This reference fuel may be either reference fuels. The vehicle is
considered to comply if the following requirements are met.
K.3.2.1 The vehicle complies with the definition of a family member as defined
under K.2.2.
K.3.2.2 The test result for each pollutant shall be multiplied by factor "r", if r in
K.3.1.3 is greater than 1. If r is smaller than 1 its value shall be taken as 1. The
results of these multiplications shall be taken as the final emission result. On
the manufacturer's request the Type I test may be performed on reference fuel
2 or on both reference fuels, so that no correction is needed.
K.3.2.3 The vehicle shall comply with the emission limits valid for the relevant
category for both measured and calculated emissions.
K.4 Checking the conformity of production for vehicles fuelled by LPG or
NG
Tests for conformity of production may be performed with a commercial fuel of
which the C3/C4 ratio lies between the two reference fuels defined in Annex J in
the case of LPG, or of which the Wobbe Index lies between the two extreme
reference fuels defined in Annex J in the case of NG. In that case a fuel
analysis needs to be submitted to the approval authority.
Annex L
(Normative)
Type-approval of replacement pollution control device as separate
technical unit
L.1 Scope
This annex applies to the approval, as separate technical units, of pollution
control devices to be fitted on one or more given types of motor vehicles of
categories M1 and N1 as replacement parts.
L.2 Definitions
L.2.1
Type of pollution control device
“Type of pollution control device” means pollution control devices which do not
differ in any of the following essential aspects:
- number of coated substrates, structure and material;
- type of catalytic activity (oxidizing, three-way, etc.);
- volume, ratio of frontal area and substrate length;
- catalyst material content;
- catalyst material ratio;
- cell density;
- dimensions and shape;
- thermal protection.
L.2.2
Original equipment pollution control device
“Original replacement pollution control device” means a pollution control
device or an assembly of pollution control devices on the type-approval vehicle
whose types are indicated in the relevant sections in Annex B.
L.2.3
Replacement pollution control device
“Replacement pollution control device” means a pollution control device or an
assembly of such devices, to be offered on the market, intended to replace an
original pollution control device and which can be approved as a separate
technical unit as defined in Annex L.
L.2.4
Original replacement pollution control device
“Original replacement pollution control device” means an original equipment
pollution control device which is offered on the market as separate technical
unit.
L.2.5
Approval of replacement pollution control device
“Approval of replacement pollution control device” means the approval of a
pollution control device intended to be fitted as a replacement part on one or
more specific types of vehicles with regard to the limitation of pollutant
emissions, noise level, effect on vehicle performance and compatibility with
OBD system.
L.2.6
Deteriorated replacement pollution control device
“Deteriorated replacement pollution control device” means a pollution control
device that has been aged or artificially deteriorated to such an extent that it
fulfills the requirements laid out in IA.1.(1)
L.3 Type-approval application
L.3.1 The application for approval of a type of replacement pollution control
device shall be submitted by its manufacturer.
L.3.2 Attachment LA gives model type-approval application material.
L.3.3 When applying for type-approval of a replacement pollution control
device, the testing organization responsible for the type-approval tests shall
provide:
L.3.3.1 Vehicle(s) already type-approved equipped with an original equipment
pollution control device. This (these) vehicle(s) shall be selected by the
applicant with the agreement of the testing organization. It (they) shall comply
with the requirements of C.3. If a test method as described in L.5.3.2.1.1 is
(1) For the purpose of the demonstration test of vehicles equipped with positive-ignition
engines, when the THC value is higher than the value measured during type approval of
the vehicle, the difference has to be added to the threshold values mentioned in I.3.3.2, to
which the exceedance allowed in section IA.1 is applied.
selected, an engine to be fitted in the aforementioned vehicle(s) shall also be
submitted.
The test vehicle(s) shall have no emission control system defects; any
excessively worn out or malfunctioning emission related original part shall be
repaired or replaced. The test vehicle(s) shall be tuned properly and set to the
manufacturer’s specification prior to emission testing.
L.3.3.2 Two samples of the replacement pollution control device. The sample
shall be clearly and indelibly marked with the applicant’s trade name or mark
and its commercial designation. One of the samples shall be deteriorated as
specified in L.2.7.
L.4 Type-approval
L.4.1 If the requirements of Section L.5 are satisfied, type-approval shall be
granted.
L.4.2 If, in case of the replacement pollution control device, the requirements in
L.4.2.1 and L.4.2.2 are satisfied, it is not necessary to follow the requirements
of L.5 to conduct test.
L.4.2.1 Marking
Original replacement pollution control devices shall bear at least the following
identifications:
L.4.2.1.1 The vehicle manufacturer’s name or trade mark;
L.4.2.1.2 The make and identifying part number of the original replacement
pollution control device as recorded in the information mentioned in L.4.3.
L.4.2.2 Documentation
Original replacement pollution control devices shall be accompanied by the
following information:
L.4.2.2.1 The vehicle manufacturer’s name or trade mark;
L.4.2.2.2 The make and identifying part number of the original replacement
pollution control device as recorded in the information mentioned in L.4.3;
L.4.2.2.3 The vehicle types for which the original replacement pollution control
device applies and a marking to identify if the original replacement pollution
control device is suitable for fitting to a vehicle that is equipped with an OBD
system;
L.4.2.2.4 Installation instructions, where necessary;
L.4.2.2.5 This information shall be provided either:
- As a page accompanying the original replacement pollution control device;
- On the packaging in which the original replacement pollution control device
is sold;
- By any other applicable means.
This information shall be available in the product catalogue distributed to
points of sale by the vehicle manufacturer.
L.4.3 The vehicle manufacturer shall provide the technical service and/or
approval authority with the necessary information in electronic format which
makes the link between the relevant part numbers and the type-approval
documentation.
This information shall contain the following:
- make(s) and type(s) of vehicle,
- make(s) and type(s) of original replacement pollution control device,
- part number(s) of original replacement pollution control device,
- type-approval number of the relevant vehicle type(s).
L.5 Technical requirements
L.5.1 General requirements
L.5.1.1 The replacement pollution control device shall be designed,
constructed and capable of being mounted so as to enable the vehicle to
comply with the provisions of this Standard, against which it originally complied
with, and that the pollutant emissions are effectively limited throughout the
normal life of the vehicle under normal conditions of use.
L.5.1.2 The installation of the replacement pollution control device shall be at
the exact position of the original equipment pollution control device, and the
position on the exhaust line of the oxygen probe(s) and other sensors, if
applicable, shall not be modified.
L.5.1.3 If the original equipment pollution control device includes thermal
protection, the replacement pollution control device shall include equivalent
protection.
L.5.1.4 The replacement pollution control device shall be durable, i.e. designed,
constructed and capable of being mounted so that reasonable resistance to
the corrosion and oxidation phenomena to which it is exposed is obtained,
having regard to the conditions of use of the vehicle.
L.5.2 Requirements regarding emissions
The vehicle(s) indicated in L.3.3.1, equipped with a replacement pollution
control device of the type for which approval is requested, shall be subjected to
a Type I test under the conditions described in the corresponding annex to this
Standard in order to compare its performance with the original equipment
pollution control device according to the procedure described below.
L.5.2.1 Determination of the basis for comparison
The vehicle(s) shall be fitted with a new original equipment pollution control
device (see L.3.3.1) which shall be run in with 12 extra urban cycles (Part 2).
After this preconditioning, the vehicle(s) shall be kept in a room in which the
temperature remains relatively constant between 293 and 303 K (20° C and
30° C). This conditioning shall be carried out for at least 6 hours and continue
until the engine oil and coolant temperature are within ± 2 K of the temperature
of the room. Subsequently 3 Type I tests shall be made.
L.5.2.2 Exhaust gas test with replacement pollution control device
The original equipment pollution control device of the test vehicle(s) shall be
replaced by the replacement pollution control device (see L.3.3.2) which shall
be run in with 12 extra urban cycles (Part 2).
After this preconditioning, the vehicle(s) shall be kept in a room in which the
temperature remains relatively constant between 293 and 303 K (20° C and
30° C). This conditioning shall be carried out for at least 6 hours and continue
until the engine oil and coolant temperature are within ± 2 K of the temperature
of the room. Subsequently 3 Type I tests shall be made.
L.5.2.3 Evaluation of the emission of pollutants of vehicles equipped with
replacement pollution control devices
The test vehicle(s) with the original equipment pollution control device shall
comply with the limit values according to the type-approval of the vehicle(s)
including, if applicable, the deterioration factors applied during the
type-approval of the vehicle(s).
The requirements regarding emissions of the vehicle(s) equipped with the
replacement pollution control device shall be deemed to be fulfilled if the
results meet, for each regulated pollutant (CO, THC, NMHC and PM) the
following conditions:
M≤0.85S+0.4G (1)
M≤G (2)
Where:
M: is the mean value of the emissions of one pollutant (CO, THC, NMHC, NOx
and PM) or the sum of two pollutants (THC+NOx) obtained from the three Type
I tests with the replacement pollution control device;
S: is the mean value of the emissions of one pollutant (CO, THC, NMHC, NOx
and PM) or the sum of two pollutants (THC+NOx) obtained from the three Type
I tests with the original equipment pollution control device;
G: is the mean value of the emissions of one pollutant (CO, THC, NMHC, NOx
and PM) or of the sum of two pollutants (THC+NOx) according to the
type-approval of the vehicle(s) divided by, if applicable, the deterioration
factors specified in Table 3 of 5.3.5.1.4.
Where approval is applied for different types of vehicles from the same car
manufacturer, and provided that these different types of vehicle are fitted with
the same type of original equipment pollution control device, the Type I test
may be limited to at least two vehicles selected after agreement with the
testing organization responsible for approval.
L.5.3 Requirements regarding noise and exhaust back-pressure
L.5.3.1 Noise requirements
When a replacement pollution control device is fitted in a vehicle as indicated
in L.3.3.1, the noise levels obtained using two methods (with the vehicle
stationary and in motion) shall not exceed the measured value when this
vehicle is equipped with the original equipment pollution control device.
Measurement methods shall be in accordance with GB 7258 and GB 1495.
L.5.3.2 Exhaust back-pressure requirements
Comparison shall be made by adopting means to measure exhaust
back-pressure. As specified in L.5.3.2.1.1 or L.5.3.2.1.2, the measured value
of the replacement pollution control device shall be no more than 25% of that
of the original equipment pollution control device.
L.5.3.2.1 Test method
L.5.3.2.1.1 Engine test method
Measurement shall be conducted on an engine as described in L.3.3.1 which is
linked to a dynamometer.
With the throttle fully open, and the bench adjusted, the engine shall reach a
speed equivalent to the maximum rated power of the engine.
When measuring back-pressure, the distance between the head of the
pressure measuring device and the exhaust manifold shall conform to the
specifications of Figures L.1, L.2 and L.3.
L.5.3.2.1.2 Vehicle test methods
Measurement shall be conducted on vehicles as described in L.3.3.1.
The test shall be conducted on a road or on a chassis dynamometer.
With the throttle fully open, the engine shall be loaded until the engine reaches
a speed equivalent to the maximum rated power of the engine.
When measuring back-pressure, the distance between the pressure
measuring point and the exhaust manifold shall conform to the specifications
of Figures L.1, L.2 and L.3.
Figure L.1 -- Back-pressure - Measuring point (1)
Figure L.2 -- Back-pressure - Measuring point (2) (1)
Figure L.3 -- Back-pressure - Measuring point (3)
L.5.4 Requirements regarding durability
The replacement pollution control device shall comply with the requirements of
5.3.5, i.e. Type V test.
L.5.5 Requirements regarding OBD compatibility
L.5.5.1 The compatibility of the replacement pollution control device with the
OBD system shall be demonstrated by using the procedures described in
Attachment IA.
L.5.5.2 The provisions of Attachment IA applicable to components other than
the pollution control device shall not be applied.
L.5.5.3 The aftermarket component manufacturer may use the same
preconditioning and test procedure as used during the original vehicle
type-approval. In this case, the type-approval authority shall provide, on
request and on a non-discriminatory basis, the number and type of
preconditioning cycles and the type of test cycle used by the original
equipment manufacturer for OBD testing of the pollution control device as
stated in Annex B.
L.5.5.4 In order to verify the correct installation and functioning of all other
components monitored by the OBD system, the OBD system shall indicate no
malfunction and have no stored fault codes prior to the installation of any of the
replacement pollution control devices. An evaluation of the status of the OBD
system at the end of the tests described in L.5.2.1 may be used for this
purpose.
L.5.5.5 The MI (see I.2.5) shall not activate during vehicle operation required
by L.5.2.2.
L.5.6 Requirements for replacement periodically regenerating systems
L.5.6.1 Requirements regarding emissions
L.5.6.1.1 The vehicle(s) indicated in L.3.3.1, equipped with a replacement
periodically regenerating system of the type for which approval is requested,
shall be subject to the I test described in Annex P, in order to compare its
performance with the original periodically regenerating system by following the
steps below.
L.5.6.2 Determination of the basis for comparison
L.5.6.2.1 The vehicle shall be fitted with a new original periodically
regenerating system. The emissions performance of this system shall be
determined following the test procedure set out in Annex P.
L.5.6.2.2 Upon request of the applicant for the approval of the replacement
component, the approval authority shall make available on a
non-discriminatory basis, the information referred to in points A.4.2.11.2.1.11
and A.4.2.11.2.6.4 of the information document contained in Annex A for each
vehicle tested.
L.5.6.3 Exhaust gas test with a replacement periodically regenerating
system
L.5.6.3.1 The original equipment periodically regenerating system of the test
vehicle(s) shall be replaced by the replacement periodically regenerating
system. The emissions performance of this system shall be determined
following the test procedure set out in Annex P.
L.5.6.3.2 To determine the D-factor of the replacement periodically
regenerating system, any of the engine bench methods referred to in Annex P
may be used.
L.5.6.4 Other requirements
The requirements of paragraphs L.4.2, L.5.2.3, L.5.3, L.5.4 and L.5.5 shall
apply to replacement periodically regenerating systems. In these paragraphs
the words ‘replacement pollution control device’ shall be understood to mean
‘replacement periodically regenerating system’.
L.6 Documentation
L.6.1 Each replacement pollution control device shall be accompanied by
the following information:
L.6.1.1 Name and trade mark of the manufacturer of pollution control device;
L.6.1.2 The vehicles (including year of manufacture) for which the replacement
pollution control device is approved, including, where applicable, a marking to
identify that the replacement pollution control device is suitable for fitting to a
vehicle that is equipped with an onboard diagnostic (OBD) system;
L.6.1.3 Installation instructions, where necessary.
L.6.2 This information shall be provided either:
- As a leaflet accompanying the replacement pollution control device; or
- On the packaging in which the replacement pollution control device is sold;
or
- By any other applicable means.
In any case, the information shall be available in the product catalogue
distributed to points of sale by the manufacturer of replacement pollution
control devices.
L.7 Modifications of the vehicle type
If there any alterations to replacement pollution control devices which have
already received type-approval with regard to the basic aspects specified in
L.2.3, type-approval shall be re-conducted in accordance with this annex.
L.8 Conformity of production
Conformity of production of replacement pollution control devices shall be
conducted in accordance with Annex M.
L.8.1 It shall be checked whether or not the basic aspects specified in L.2.1
have been complied with.
L.8.2 The tests described in L.5.2 (requirements regarding emissions) shall be
carried out. In this case, the holder of the approval may ask, as an alternative,
to use as a basis for comparison not the original equipment pollution control
device, but the replacement pollution control device which was used during the
type-approval tests (or another sample that has been proven to conform to the
approved type). The average value of the emissions measured with the
sample under verification shall not exceed 15% of the value measured when
installed with a reference pollution control device.
Attachment LA
(Normative)
Information about application for the type-approval of replacement
pollution control devices
The following information, if applicable, shall be supplied in triplicate and
include a list of contents.
Any drawings shall be supplied in appropriate scale and sufficient detail on
size A4 or on a folder of A4 format. Photographs, if any, shall show sufficient
detail.
If the systems, components or separate technical units have electronic controls,
information concerning their performance shall be supplied.
LA.1 General
LA.1.1 Make (trade name of manufacturer): ………………………………………
LA.1.2 Type: ………………………………………………………………………….
LA.1.3 Name and address of manufacturer: ………………………………………
LA.1.4 In the case of components and separate technical units, location and
method of affixing of the EC approval mark: ………………………………………
LA.1.5 Address(es) of assembly plant(s): …………………………………………
LA.2 Description of the device
LA.2.1 Make and type of the replacement pollution control device: …………….
LA.2.1.1 Content of precious metals in the replacement pollution control
device: ……………………...…(Accompanying the testing organization’s report)
LA.2.1.1 Proportion of precious metals in the replacement pollution control
device: ……………………...…(Accompanying the testing organization’s report)
LA.2.2 Drawings of the replacement pollution control device, identifying in
particular all the characteristics referred to under point L.2.3: …………………...
LA.2.3 Description of the vehicle type or types for which the replacement
pollution control device is intended: ………………………………………………...
LA.2.3.1 Number(s) and/or symbol(s) characterizing the engine and vehicle
type(s): ………………………………………………………………………………...
LA.2.3.2 Is the replacement pollution control device intended to be compatible
with OBD requirements (Yes/No)
LA.2.4 Description and drawings showing the position of the replacement
pollution control device relative to the engine exhaust manifold(s): …………….
Attachment LB
(Normative)
Type-approval certificate of the replacement pollution control device
(Maximum format: A4 (210 mm × 297 mm))
SECTION I
LB.1 Make (trade name of manufacturer): ………………………………………
LB.2 Type: …………………………………………………………………………….
LB.3 Means of identification of type if marked on the
vehicle/component/separate technical unit (1): …………………………………….
LB.3.1 Location of that marking: ……………………………………………………
LB.4 Content and proportion of precious metals in the replacement pollution
control device: ………………………………………………………………………...
LB.5 Category of the vehicle: ……………………………………………………….
LB.6 Name and address of manufacturer: …………………………………………
LB.7 In the case of components and separate technical units, location and
method of affixing approval mark: …………………………………………… ...
LB.8 Name and address(es) of assembly plant(s): ……………………………….
SECTION II
LB.9 Vehicle type(s) for which the pollution control device type qualifies as
replacement part: ………………………………………………………………… ...
LB.10 Type(s) of vehicles on which the replacement pollution control device
has been tested: ………………………………………………………………………
LB.10.1 Has the replacement pollution control device been demonstrated
compatibility with OBD requirements (Yes/No)
LB.11 Testing organization responsible for carrying out the tests: ……………...
LB.12 Date of test report: ……………………………………………………………
LB.13 Number of test report: ………………………………………………………..
LB.14 Remarks: ………………………………………………………………………
LB.15 Place: ……………………………………………………………………… ...
LB.16 Date: ……………………………………………………………………………
LB.17 Signature: ……………………………………………………………………...
Attachments: Information package.
Test report.
Annex M
(Normative)
Requirements for ensuring conformity of production
M.1 Summary
Conformity of production is to ensure the vehicles, systems, components and
separate technical units in mass production are in consistent with those of the
vehicle types already approved.
The type-approval authority requests of the manufacturer for ensuring
conformity of production, including evaluation of the quality management
system (as a part of the initial evaluation) and checks to confirm the holder of
the type-approval certificate and the control of the production process (as a
part of the plan to ensure conformity of production).
M.2 Initial evaluation
M.2.1 Before granting the type approval, the approval authority shall verify that
the manufacturer has been provided with plans and regulations to effectively
control the production process so as to ensure that the parts and components,
systems, separate technical unit or motor vehicles produced are consistent
with the types approved.
M.2.2 It shall be confirmed that the approval authority is satisfied with the
requirements of M.2.1.
The approval authority shall be satisfied with the initial evaluation and the initial
plan to ensure the conformity of production of M.3; if necessary, part of or all
contents in the assurance plan described in M.2.2.1 and M.2.2.2 shall be also
considered.
M.2.2.1 The actual initial evaluation and (or) the ratification of the plan for
assuring conformity of production can be conducted by the type-approval
authority or other inspecting institutions authorized by the type-approval
authority.
When considering the scope of the initial evaluation, the type-approval
authority can consider the following existing materials:
- The manufacturer’s certificate described in M.2.2.2 that has passed the
qualification ratification or acknowledgement according to this clause.
- As to the type-approval of parts and components or separate technical
units, with the consent of the motor vehicle manufacturer, the evaluation
on the quality system will be conducted at the manufacturing plant of the
parts and components or separate technical units.
M.2.2.2 It is also necessary for the type-approval authority to ratify the
manufacturer’s quality assurance system authentication certificate, which
accords with the requirements of GB/T 19001-2008, with the exception of the
requirements on design and development of 7.3 in GB/T 19001-2008. The
manufacturer shall provide details of the authentication certificate and promise
that the type-approval authority shall be notified of any revision concerning the
validity and scope.
M.2.3 As to the type-approval for complete vehicles, it is not necessary to
conduct initial evaluation repeatedly just for ratifying the type-approval of a
vehicle’s systems, parts and components, and separate technical units.
However, sites or activities relevant to the assembly of complete vehicles,
which have never been involved in any evaluation, shall be evaluated.
M.3 Plan to ensure conformity of production
M.3.1 When being manufactured, each type, system, part and component or
separate technical unit ratified according to the type-approval of this Standard
shall accord with the requirements of this Standard, making it consistent to that
of the type which has already been type-approved.
M.3.2 When ratifying the type-approval, the type-approval authority shall verify
whether the manufacturer has been provided with assurance plans and written
control plans prepared for each type-approval and conduct necessary tests or
relevant checks within a time interval prescribed so as to verify whether the
consistency to the type which has already been type-approved can be
constantly maintained. If applicable, specially prescribed tests shall also be
included.
M.3.3 The holder of the type-approval certificate shall:
M.3.3.1 Have and implement regulations that can effectively control the
consistency of the products (vehicles, systems, parts and components, or
separate technical units) to the types already type-approved;
M.3.3.2 Have access to use necessary test equipment or other corresponding
equipment to check the consistency of each type approved;
M.3.3.3 The documents generated from recording test and check results shall
be preserved and obtainable within the time limit prescribed by the
type-approval authority. The time limit required for preservation may not be
more than 10 years;
M.3.3.4 Analyze the test or check results of each type so as to validate and
ensure the stability of the products’ emission characteristics, and to develop
the tolerance for the control of the production process;
M.3.3.5 Ensure that the respective conformity checks and tests specified in
this Standard have been conducted on each vehicle type; and check the initial
working capacity and duality of the pollution control device.
M.3.3.6 Ensure that the sampling and test or check would be conducted once
again in case that a group of samples or test samples were considered to fall
short of the conformity in the test or check required, and take necessary
measures to resume the conformity of production;
M.3.3.7 In the type-approval for complete vehicles, the checks involved in
M.3.3.5 are limited to verify whether the data relevant to the type-approval,
especially that relevant to the specifications of Annex A, is correctly set.
M.4 Plan for regular verifying
M.4.1 The type-approval authority may verify the conformity controlling
methods that the respective production sections use at any time.
M.4.1.1 A normal assurance plan shall supervise the continuous validity of the
regulations instituted in M.2.2 (initial evaluation and conformity of production).
M.4.1.1.1 The supervision conducted by an appraisal institution (that has
gained the qualification authorization or recognition as required in M.2.2.1)
shall be accepted when having met the requirement of M.4.1.1 on the
regulations set during the initial evaluation stage (M.2.2.2).
M.4.1.1.2 The normal frequency for verifying by the type-approval authority
shall ensure that relevant control items applied according to Section M.2 and
Section M.3 of this attachment would be counterchecked within the period
fixed through coordination with the type-approval authority in an atmosphere of
mutual trust.
M.4.2 Whenever a countercheck is conducted, the checking officer shall be
able to obtain the test or check records as well as the production records,
especially the test or check records as required in M.2.2.
M.4.3 If the test conditions are appropriate, the checking officer can select
samples randomly and conduct tests in the manufacturer’s laboratory (or have
the tests conducted by the testing organization). The minimum number of
samples can be fixed according to the result of the manufacturer’s
self-examination.
M.4.4 If the control level is not satisfactory or it may be necessary to verify the
validity of the test conducted according to M.4.2, the checking officer shall
select samples and deliver samples to the testing organization for testing.
M.4.5 The type-approval authority can conduct any check or test specified in
this Standard.
M.4.6 If dissatisfactory results were found when checking or supervising the
countercheck, it shall be necessary for the type-approval authority to supervise
and urge the manufacturer to take any necessary measures to resume the
conformity of production as quickly as possible.
Attachment MA
(Normative)
Procedure for verifying the conformity of production
MA.1 This attachment describes the procedure to be used to verify the
production conformity for the Type I test when the manufacturer's production
standard deviation is satisfactory.
MA.1.1 With a minimum sample size of 3, the sampling procedure is set so
that the probability of a lot passing a test with 40 percent of the production
defective is 0.95 (producer's risk = 5 percent) while the probability of a lot being
accepted with 65 percent of the production defective is 0.1 (consumer's risk =
10 percent).
MA.1.2 For each of the pollutants given in paragraph 5.3.1.4, the following
procedure is used (see Figure 2).
Taking:
L - the natural logarithm of the limit value for the pollutant,
xi - the natural logarithm of the measurement for the ith vehicle of the sample,
s - an estimate of the production standard deviation (after taking the natural
logarithm of the measurements),
n - the current sample number.
MA.1.3 Compute for the sample the test statistic quantifying the sum of the
standard deviations from the limit and defined as:
MA.1.4 If the test statistic is greater than or equal to the pass decision number
for the sample size given in Table MA.1, the pollutant is passed. If the test
statistic is less than the fail decision number for the sample size given in Table
MA.1, the pollutant is failed; otherwise, an additional vehicle is tested and the
calculation reapplied to the sample with a sample size one unit greater in
accordance with 7.1.2.4.
Table MA.1
MA.2 The following procedure shall be used to verify the production conformity
requirements for the Type I test when the manufacturer's evidence of
production standard deviation is either unsatisfactory or unavailable.
MA.2.1 With a minimum sample size of 3, the sampling procedure is set so
that the probability of a lot passing a test with 40% of the production defective
is 0.95 (producer's risk = 5%) while the probability of a lot being accepted with
65% of the production defective is 0.1 (consumer's risk = 10%).
MA.2.2 The measurements of the pollutants given in Section 5.3.1.4 are
considered to be log normally distributed and shall first be transformed by
taking their natural logarithms. Let m0 and m denote the minimum and
maximum sample sizes respectively (m0 = 3 and m = 32) and let n denote the
current sample number.
MA.2.3 If the natural logarithms of the measurements in the series are x1,
Cumulative number of tested
vehicles (current sample size) Pass decision threshold Fail decision threshold
x2 ... , xj and L is the natural logarithm of the limit value for the pollutant,
then define:
MA.2.4 Table MA.2 shows values of the pass (An) and fail (Bn) decision
numbers against current sample number. The test statistic is the ratio d n/vn
and shall be used to determine whether the series has passed or failed as
follows:
For m0≤n≤m:
- pass the series if d n /vn≤ An,
- fail the series if d n /vn > Bn,
- take another measurement if An < d n /vn ≤ Bn,
MA.2.5 The following recursive formulae are useful for computing successive
values of the test statistic:
Table MA.2
Note: The minimum number of sample vehicles is 3.
Number of sample vehicles Pass decision threshold Fail decision threshold
Annex N
(Normative)
In-service conformity
N.1 Introduction
This annex sets out the procedure for audit of in-service conformity as
described in section 8.
N.2 Audit of in-service conformity
N.2.1 The audit of in-service conformity by the approval authority shall be
conducted on the basis of any relevant information provided by the
manufacturer.
N.2.2 Figure NA.1 in Attachment NA and Figure NB.1 in Attachment NB
illustrate the procedure for in-service conformity check of exhaust emission.
Attachment NC describes the responsibility for in-service conformity check.
N.2.3 As part of the information provided for the in-service conformity control,
at the request of the approval authority, the manufacturer shall report to the
type-approval authority on warranty claims, warranty repair works and OBD
faults recorded at servicing. The information shall detail the frequency and
substance of faults for emissions related components and systems. The
reports shall be filed at least once a year for each vehicle type during the
period prescribed in 8.3 of this Standard.
N.2.4 Parameters defining the exhaust emission in-service family
The in-service family may be defined by basic design parameters which shall
be common to vehicles within the family. Accordingly, vehicle types may be
considered as belonging to the same in-service family if they have in common,
or within the stated tolerances, the following parameters:
- Combustion process (two stroke, four stroke);
- Number of cylinders;
- Configuration of the cylinder block (in-line, V, radial, horizontally opposed,
other. The inclination or orientation of the cylinders is not a criteria);
- Method of engine fuelling (e.g. indirect or direct injection);
- Type of cooling system (air, water, oil);
- Method of aspiration (naturally aspirated, pressure charged);
- Fuel for which the engine is designed (petrol, diesel, NG, LPG, etc.).
Bi-fuel vehicles may be grouped with dedicated fuel vehicles providing one
of the fuels is common;
- Type of catalytic converter (three-way catalyst, lean NOX trap, SCR, lean
NOX catalyst or others);
- Particulate trap (with or without);
- Exhaust gas recirculation (with or without, cooled or non-cooled); and
- Engines in the family between 0.7-1.0 times the maximum displacement.
N.2.5 The information supplied by the manufacturer shall include in
particular, the following:
N.2.5.1 The name and address of the manufacturer;
N.2.5.2 The name, address, telephone and fax numbers and e-mail address of
the authorized representative within the areas covered by the manufacturer's
information;
N.2.5.3 The model name(s) of the vehicles included in the manufacturer's
information;
N.2.5.4 Where appropriate, the list of vehicle types covered within the
manufacturer's information, i.e. the in-service family shall be checked for
exhaust emissions in accordance with N.2.4; for checking OBD and IUPR, the
OBD family shall be subject to the requirements in Attachment IB;
N.2.5.5 Where appropriate, the vehicle identification number (VIN) codes (VIN
prefix) applicable to these vehicle types within the in-service family;
N.2.5.6 The numbers of the type approvals applicable to these vehicle types
within the in-service family, including, where applicable, the numbers of all
extensions and field fixes/recalls (re-works);
N.2.5.7 Details of extensions, field fixes/recalls to those type approvals for the
vehicles covered within the manufacturer's information (if requested by the
approval authority);
N.2.5.8 The period of time over which the manufacturer's information was
collected;
N.2.5.9 The vehicle build period covered within the manufacturer's information
(e.g. vehicles manufactured during the 2012 calendar year);
N.2.5.10 The manufacturer's in-service conformity checking procedure,
including:
a) The method of determining the vehicle location;
b) Vehicle selection and rejection criteria;
c) Test items and procedures used for the programme;
d) The manufacturer's acceptance/rejection criteria for the in-service family
group;
e) Geographical area(s) within which the manufacturer has collected
information;
f) Sample size and sampling plan used.
N.2.5.11 The results from the manufacturer's in-service conformity procedure,
including:
(a) Identification of the vehicles included in the programme (whether tested
or not). The identification shall include the following:
- Model name;
- Vehicle identification number (VIN);
- Vehicle registration number;
- Date of manufacture;
- Region of use (where known);
- Tyres fitted (for exhaust emission only);
(b) The reason(s) for rejecting a vehicle from the sample;
(c) Service history for each vehicle in the sample (including any reworks);
(d) Repair history for each vehicle in the sample (where known);
(e) Test data, including the following:
- Date of test;
- Location of test;
- Distance indicated on vehicle odometer;
(f) Test data relating to exhaust emissions:
- Test fuel specifications (e.g. test reference fuel or market fuel);
- Test conditions (temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure);
- Dynamometer settings (e.g. dynamometer inertia weight, power
setting);
- Test results (from at least three different vehicles per family);
(g) Test data relating to IUPR:
- All data required to be downloaded from the vehicle;
- The IUPRM of each monitoring required to be reported.
N.2.5.12 Records of indication from the OBD system.
N.2.5.13 Sampling of IUPR check includes:
- Mean value of IUPRM for each monitoring of all sampled vehicles;
- Percent of sampled vehicles with IUPRM greater than or equal to 0.1.
N.3 Selection of sample vehicles for in-service conformity check
N.3.1 The information gathered by the manufacturer shall be sufficiently
comprehensive, in order to assess whether the in-service vehicles comply with
the normal conditions of use specified. The manufacturer's sample vehicles
shall be drawn from at least two areas with substantially different vehicle
operating conditions. Factors such as differences in fuels, ambient conditions,
average road speeds, and urban/highway driving split shall be taken into
consideration in the selection of the source of sample vehicles.
As for IUPR check, only vehicles meeting the requirements of NA.2.2.1 can be
selected as sample vehicles.
N.3.2 In selecting the areas for sampling vehicles, the manufacturer may
select vehicles from an area that is considered to be particularly representative.
In this case, the manufacturer shall demonstrate to the approval authority that
the selection is representative (e.g. by the market having the largest annual
sales of a vehicle family within the applicable area). When an in-service family
requires more than one sample lot to be tested as defined in N.3.5, the
vehicles in the second and third sample lots shall reflect different vehicle
operating conditions and mileages from those selected for the first sample.
N.3.3 The emissions testing may be done at a test facility which is loca......
Related standard:   GB 18352.6-2016  GB 15618-2018
Related PDF sample:   GB 18352.6-2016  GB 36886-2018
   
 
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