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CJJ 1-2008 (CJJ1-2008)

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Standard ID CJJ 1-2008 (CJJ1-2008)
Description (Translated English) Code for construction and quality acceptance of road works in city and town
Sector / Industry Urban Construction Industry Standard
Classification of Chinese Standard P51
Classification of International Standard 93.080
Word Count Estimation 251,270
Date of Issue 2008-04-02
Date of Implementation 2008-09-01
Older Standard (superseded by this standard) CJJ 1-1990
Drafting Organization Beijing Urban Construction Engineering Co., Ltd.
Administrative Organization ?Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development
Regulation (derived from) Bulletin of the Ministry of Housing and Urban No. 11
Summary This standard specifies the urban construction, reconstruction, expansion of roads and squares, parking lots and other construction and quality inspection, acceptance, raw materials, semi-finished or finished product quality standards, should current national standards, urban construction and road works quality inspection in addition to the implementation of this specification, there should be consistent with existing national provisions of the standard,

Standards related to: CJJ 1-2008

CJJ 1-2008
P CJJ 1-
Code for Construction and Quality Acceptance of Road
Works in City and Town
Issued by: Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development (MOHURD) of the
People's Republic of China
Table of Contents
1 General Provisions ... 8
2 Terms and Codes... 9
2.1 Terms ... 9
2.2 Codes ... 9
3 Basic Requirements ... 9
4 Construction Preparation ... 12
5 Measurement ... 14
5.1 General Requirements ... 14
5.2 Plane Control Measurement ... 14
5.3 Elevation Control Measurement ... 19
5.4 Construction Positioning Measurement ... 20
6 Subgrade ... 23
6.1 General Requirements ... 23
6.2 Drainage and Dewatering in Construction ... 23
6.3 Earthwork Subgrade ... 24
6.4 Stonework Subgrade ... 27
6.5 Road Shoulder ... 28
6.6 Construction Processing ... 28
6.7 Special Soil Subgrade ... 29
6.8 Inspection Standard ... 34
7 Base ... 43
7.1 General Requirements ... 43
7.2 Lime Stabilized Soil Base ... 43
7.3 Base of Lime and Pulverized Fuel Ash Stabilized Gravels ... 46
7.4 Stabilized Soil Base of Lime, Pulverized Fuel Ash, and Steel Slag ... 48
7.5 Cement Stabilized Soil Base ... 49
7.6 Graded Sand Gravel and Graded Gravel Base ... 51
7.7 Graded Crashed Stone and Graded Crashed Gravel Base ... 52
7.8 Inspection Standard ... 54
8 Mixed Charge Level of Bitumen ... 60
8.1 General Requirements ... 60
8.2 Hot Mixed Bituminous Mixed Surface Course... 71
8.3 Cold Mixed Bituminous Mixed Surface Course ... 77
8.4 Prime Coat, Tack Coat and Seal Coat ... 77
8.5 Inspection Standard ... 79
9 Bituminous Penetration Type and Bituminous Surface Treatment Surface Course
... 84
9.1 General Requirements ... 84
9.2 Bituminous Penetration Surface Course ... 84
9.3 Bituminous Surface Treatment Surface Course ... 86
9.4 Inspection Standard ... 88
10 Cement Concrete Surface Course ... 91
10.1 Raw Materials ... 91
10.2 Concrete Mix Proportion Design ... 95
10.3 Construction Standard ... 101
10.4 Shuttering and Reinforcement ... 102
10.5 Stirring and Transportation of Concrete ... 105
10.6 Concrete Paving ... 106
10.7 Surface Coarse Curing and Joint Filling ... 109
10.8 Inspection Standard ... 110
11 Paved Surface Course ... 114
11.1 Rock Surface Course ... 114
11.2 Precast Concrete Block Surface Course ... 115
11.3 Inspection Standard ... 116
12 Surface Course of Squares and Parks ... 119
12.1 Construction Technology ... 119
12.2 Inspection Standard ... 119
13 Sidewalk Paving... 124
13.1 General Requirements ... 124
13.2 Paved Surface Course for Sidewalk by Dressed Stone and Precast Block ... 124
13.3 Sidewalk Surface Course Paved by Bituminous Mixture ... 125
13.4 Inspection Standard ... 125
14 Pedestrian Underpass Structure ... 129
14.1 General Requirements ... 129
14.2 Cast-in-place Reinforced Concrete Pedestrian Underpass ... 129
14.3 Pre-casting and Installation of Reinforced Concrete Structure Pedestrian Underpass
... 134
14.4 Masonry Wall and Reinforced Concrete Top Plate Structure Pedestrian Underpass
... 135
14.5 Inspection Standard ... 136
15 Retaining Wall ... 141
15.1 General Requirements ... 141
15.2 Cast-in-place Reinforced Concrete Retaining Wall ... 141
15.3 Assembled Reinforced Concrete Retaining Wall ... 141
15.4 Masonry Retaining Wall ... 141
15.5 Reinforced Earth Retaining Wall ... 142
15.6 Inspection Standard ... 142
16 Auxiliary Structure... 149
16.1 Curb ... 149
16.2 Rain Drainage Branch Pipe and Gully ... 151
16.3 Drainage Ditch or Intercepting Ditch ... 151
16.4 Inverted Siphon and Culvert ... 152
16.5 Slope Protection ... 152
16.6 Isolation Pier ... 153
Code for Construction and Quality Acceptance of Road
Works in City and Town
1 General Provisions
1.0.1 This code is formulated with a view to strengthening the construction technology
management of roads in city and town, standardizing construction requirements, unifying
inspection and acceptance standard of construction and quality as well as improving
engineering quality.
1.0.2 This code is applicable to the inspection and acceptance of the construction and quality
of constructed, renovated or extended roads, squares, parks in city and town.
1.0.3 The quality standard of materials, semi-finished products and or finished products shall
be in accordance with the relevant national current standards.
1.0.4 The construction and quality acceptance of road works in city and town shall not only
meet the requirements stipulated in this code, but also comply with those in the current relevant
ones of the nation.
4 Construction Preparation
4.0.1 Before commencement, the development organization shall make technical disclosure
to the relevant personnel from construction, supervision and design organizations, and prepare
relevant documents.
4.0.2 Before commencement, the development organization shall provide the construction
organization with detailed information on the site conditions of underground pipelines at or
around the construction site as well as geological, meteorologic and hydrographic observation
information; The relevant facility management organization shall make detailed technical
disclosure to the relevant technical management personnel; the removal, relocation, protection
or strengthening schemes of overground and underground pipelines within the construction area
shall be studied and determined, and relevant documents shall be prepared and implemented.
4.0.3 Before commencement, the development organization shall organize the design and
survey organizations to hand over site measurement control piles as well as bench marks to the
construction organization, and relevant documents shall be prepared. The construction
organization shall formulate a construction measurement scheme and determine measurement
control network, lines and points according to the actual conditions.
4.0.4 The construction organization shall organize relevant personnel to make comprehensive
and deep investigation on the construction site according to information provided by the
development organization, learn about the topographic, landform and environmental conditions
on site, master the supply conditions of such resources as water, electricity, manpower and
equipment, and verify the conditions of pipelines, structures, rivers and lakes, landscapes, poles
and lines as well as cultural relics and historic sites within the construction coverage.
4.0.5 Before commencement, the construction technology personnel shall make careful
review on the construction drawings. If any problem is discovered, the construction technology
personnel contact the designer promptly for change, and relevant documents shall be prepared.
4.0.6 Before commencement, the construction organization shall prepare construction
organization design. The construction organization design shall be prepared according to the
contracts, bidding documents, design documents, relevant construction laws and regulations,
standards, codes and specifications as well as site conditions. The construction organization
design shall include construction arrangement, construction plan, guaranteed quality, safe
guarantee systems and technical measures, necessary special construction design as well as
environment protection and traffic dispersion measures.
4.0.7 Before construction, the measuring instruments and tools shall be verified and the
materials shall be inspected.
4.0.8 Before construction, the quality guarantee plan as well as the unit engineering,
subsection engineering, subitem engineering and inspection lot for engineering quality control
shall be determined according to the construction organization design and submitted to the
supervision engineer for approval before implementation; moreover, they shall be regarded as
the foundation of construction and quality control.
4.0.9 Before commencement, safe technology training shall be carried out on the site
operation personnel according to the engineering characteristics, and qualification training shall
be carried out for the personnel for special work.
5 Measurement
5.1 General Requirements
5.1.1 Before construction measurement, the following preparation shall be made:
1 The development organization shall organize the design and survey organizations to
hand over the pile points to the construction organization., provide control network, point grade
and initial numerical data in construction drawings as well as prepare relevant documents. The
construction organization shall carry out site survey and rechecking.
2 The construction organization shall organize relevant personnel to learn about the
design documents and corresponding technical standards, as well as prepare construction
measurement plan according to the engineering needs.
3 Compliance inspection shall be carried out on measuring instruments, equipment and
tools before using them so as to ensure they meet relevant requirements. The instruments,
equipment and tools which are not verified or calibrated, or exceed the verified validity period
or fails to pass the verification must not be used.
5.1.2 Before commencement, the construction organization shall carry out office and site
rechecking on datum point, datum line and height measurement control data specified in
construction drawings. During rechecking, if any unconformity or link-up problem with
adjacent road section or bridge under construction is discovered, it shall be reported to the
development organization for enquiry so as to obtain an accurate result.
5.1.3 Before commencement, the construction organization shall submit a written
measurement rechecking report to the development organization within the period specified in
contracts. Upon signature and approval by the supervision engineer, it may be regarded as a
reference to construction control pile positioning measurement and determination of
construction control network, lines and points.
5.1.4 The control pile for construction measurement shall be protected and calibrated.
5.1.5 The measuring record shall be prepared in a special form. The record shall be legible
and must not be altered.
5.1.6 During construction, a technical quality assurance for construction measurement and a
sound measurement rechecking system shall be established. The operation personnel for
construction measurement shall receive professional training and take the post with certificates
after passing the examination.
5.1.7 The control network shall be ready to link up with adjacent road and bridge control
5.1.8 The construction measurement shall not only meet the requirements stipulated in this
code, but also comply with those in the current relevant ones of the nation.
5.2 Plane Control Measurement
5.2.1 During plane measurement, the local uniform urban coordinate system shall be followed.
Where it is difficult to adopt the local uniform urban coordinate system, the false coordinate
system adopted for a small measuring area shall be approved by the superior competent
administrative and planning department.
5.2.2 The layout of plane control network shall adapt to local conditions, guarantee accuracy,
to the procedure.
5.4.2 Before and after measurement, the calculation processes and calculation results of data
collected from drawings and actual measured data shall be checked by different data acquisition
personnel respectively, and the validity of the measuring results shall be judged hereby.
5.4.3 Before construction pile arrangement and positioning measurement, plane and elevation
control networks shall be established, and they shall be firmly embedded with good visibility
according to the actual conditions. The theodolite for road construction positioning shall be
greater than or equal to Grade DJ6.
Where Grade III traverse plane control measurement is adopted, the azimuth misclosure
is ±24 n (″); where construction plane control measurement is adopted, the azimuth
misclosure is ±40 n (″);they shall be reported to the development organization for acceptance
and confirmation.
5.4.4 Before subgrade construction, the positions of underground pipelines and other
structures which may be exposed, touched or damaged in subgrade construction shall be
measured and indicated according to the drawings, data and site conditions.
5.4.5 Where the scope of land occupancy and relocation is checked during construction
preparation, the border line of the road construction scope shall be measured on site.
5.4.6 Where the engineering scale is large and the measuring pile may be damaged during
construction, auxiliary plane measuring baseline and elevation control pile shall be arranged.
5.4.7 During construction, the center line pile shall be recovered and calibrated in time.
5.4.8 The elevation control of roads in city and town shall meet the following requirements:
1 The sight length of height measurement should be controlled at 50~80m.
2 The level gauge at Grade DS3 or above shall be adopted for leveling;
3 The leveling misclosure is ±12 L mm
(L refers to the spacing between adjacent control points, in km).
5.4.9 The control measurement of roads in city and town shall meet the following
1 The traverse misclosure of construction control shall meet the relevant requirements
of Article 5.2.6 in this code.
2 Where Grade DJ2 is adopted, the angle shall be measured for at least once. Where
Grade DJ6 instrument is adopted, the angle shall be measured for twice.
3 The distance shall be measured round-trip with common steel ruler. If electromagnetic
distance measuring instrument is used, one-way measurement may be carried out.
4 Where the total station is observed, it shall meet the relevant requirements of Articles
5.2.9 and 5.3.4 in this code. Where the total station is used to measure the fixed points of
coordinates, different methods shall be used for coordinate calculation and the given points
shall be rechecked; moreover, work and rechecking records shall be made. Before measurement,
it shall be signed and confirmed by the supervisor.
5 The deviation of distance measurement with lofting measuring straight shall be in
accordance with those specified in Table 5.2.9-3.
6 The permissible deviation M of construction lofting point, relative to adjacent control
points, shall be in accordance with those specified in Table 5.4.9 while lofting by polar
coordinate method.
6 Subgrade
6.1 General Requirements
6.1.1 Control pile for center line of road, side line pile and elevation control pile and others
shall be re-inspected before construction. Confirming no mistake before construction is
6.1.2 The original drainage system which was damaged under construction shall be processed
with efficient measures.
6.1.3 Traffic leading or road leading schemes shall be established and implemented according
to site and surrounding environment conditions and traffic conditions. Communication with the
road traffic management department is necessary. Measures shall be taken to guarantee and
flowing and safety of pedestrians traffic where the existing pedestrians were influenced or
interrupted during construction
6.1.4 According to engineering geological investigation report, subgrade soil shall be tested
for natural moisture content, liquid limit, plastic limit, standard compaction, CBR; if necessary,
organic content, lyotropic salt content, jelly expansion and swelling capacity etc. shall be
inspected for particle size analysis.
6.1.5 Temporary construction road shall be made according to project scale and
environmental conditions before construction. Temporary construction road shall meet
requirements of allocation and transportation for construction machinery and travel safety
without disturbing the construction.
6.1.6 Underground structures such as underground utilities, pedestrian tunnel etc. within
range of town road construction should be constructed in advance. For light buried underground
utilities which may be damaged in operation, scheme of strengthening or removing measures
shall be put forward to construction organization and design organization. Implementation
should be after going through procedures.
6.1.7 If cultural relics, historic site, unknown substance are discovered during construction,
the constructor shall stop construction immediately, protect the site well, notice the construction
organization and ask the relevant management departments to process at site.
6.2 Drainage and Dewatering in Construction
6.2.1 Drainage and dewatering schemes shall be compiled according to engineering geology,
hydrology, meteorological data, construction period and site environment before construction.
Drainage facility shall be maintained and cleaned in time to guarantee unobstructed condition
of drainage in construction period.
6.2.2 Drainage and dewatering construction shall not disturb the natural structure of subgrade
soil to guarantee the safety of adjacent structures and constructions.
6.2.3 Drainage and dewatering facilities in construction must not destroy the original ground
drainage system and should adjoin with the site surface drainage and permanent drainage
system of road engineering.
6.2.4 Section and longitudinal slope of drain ditch shall be in accordance with terrain, soil
quality and water discharge in open drainage. Where draining pump is needed, it shall be
selected according to execution conditions, water percolating capacity, delivery lift and suction
lift. Drainage water of construction shall lead to farther place from subgrade.
6.2.5 Measures to prevent quicksand shall be taken for dewatering in fine sand and silt soil.
6.2.6 Cross section and longitudinal slope shall be determined through water conservancy
calculation for outside sewer on top of cutting; bottom width and ditch depth should not be less
than 50 cm. Adequate anti-seepage safety distance or anti-seepage measures shall be made
between drain ditch and the top edge of cutting; a cross slope with 2% leaning to drain ditch
shall be made on the top edge. Measure against erosion shall be taken for drain ditch.
6.3 Earthwork Subgrade
6.3.1 Before subgrade construction, water accumulated on ground shall be eliminated and
drained; tree root pit, well point, tomb pit etc. shall be technically handled; the ground shall be
6.3.2 Designs shall be changed according to Article 3.0.5 of this code for sections with soft
soil layer or poor soil layer and side slope within subgrade range, which are not processed in
the design. Special construction plan shall be made based on the actual conditions.
6.3.3 Earthwork operation under cooperation between man and machine shall order special
person to command. The cooperating operation personnel are strictly prohibit strictly prohibited
within range of operation and working space for machines during machine operation period.
When cooperating personnel work in the operation and working space for machines, the
machine must stop working.
6.3.4 At the end filling and digging of subgrade, center line of road, subgrade side line shall be
recovered; the subgrade shall be shaped and rolled to survival. Compaction degree shall meet
relevant requirements of Table 6.3.12-2.
6.3.5 Measures must be taken to process frost boiling. Where limestone soil is used to process
frost boiling, the soil should be taken from local.
6.3.6 Miscellaneous fills, silt soil and so on shall be determined based on test before being
used as fillings. Construction shall meet relevant regulations of Section 7.2 in this code.
6.3.7 Cutting method of cutting, side slope shall be determined in accordance with terrain,
cutting size and soil types.
6.3.8 Slope of cutting and side slope shall meet the design requirement; design alteration shall
be transacted timely when geology condition does not match with the original design or easy
landslide soil are in the formation.
6.3.9 Safe and economical scheme of earth excavation shall be made in accordance with face
gradient, excavated section, lengthwise strength, and unearthed direction etc. combined with
earthwork mix condition.
6.3.10 Excavation construction shall comply with the following requirements:
1 Earth excavation shall be from top to down by layering; potholing excavation is strictly
prohibited. Excavated surface shall be made to the stabilized side slope during or after
interruption or operation.
2 Mechanical excavation operation must keep clear of built grains, pipeline; within 1 m
range of the pipe edge, manual excavation shall be adopted; within 2 m range of buried directly
underground cabled yarn, manual excavation must be adopted.
3 Operation of excavator and other mechanical machines under power overhead line is
degree and determined after site test.
4) Measures shall be taken to protect safety of land down tube line and construction
during the compacting process.
5) Rolling shall be from edge to center line of the subgrade; outer-edge of road roller
wheel shall be kept from safety width of subgrade edge; compaction degree shall meet the
requirements. And Surface shall be free from notable wheel-mark frost boiling, peeling, wave
6) Compacting shall be carried out where the soil moisture content is close to optimum
water content. Deviation degree of water content shall be determined be determined on test.
7) Where the pipe locates at within range of subgrade, compaction degree of backfilling
soil for all trenches shall meet current national standard the relevant requirements of GB 50268
"Code for Construction and Acceptance of Water and Sewerage Pipeline Works" and road roller
must not be used within range of 50 cm above nose. Where the thickness value between pipe
construction top surface and earth covering of road bed is not greater than 50 cm, the
construction of pipe shall be strengthened. Where the thickness value between top surface of
pipe construction and earth covering of road bed is within 50~80 cm, pipe construction shall be
protected or strengthened during compacting process.
6.3.13 Where the road is widened, the same soil with original subgrade or soil with better
water permeability shall be selected.
6.4 Stonework Subgrade
6.4.1 Construction equipment shall be selected according to geologic condition, construction
operation environment.
6.4.2 If rock character of cutting is discovered mutated, report and ask the design organization
to transact altered design timely.
6.4.3 Construction of stonework with blasting procedure must meet the relevant requirements
of the current national standard "Safety Regulations for Blasting" GB 6722 and the following
1 Before construction, blast design shall be carried out, blast design book or instruction
shall be complicated, rotation construction plan shall be established, corresponding safety
technical measures shall be specified and all of the above shall be approved by the municipality
and district government competent departments.
2 Mute blasting should be used in downtown and densely resident area; there, throw
blasting is prohibited.
3 Blasting shall be in accordance with approved time; safety protection of building,
construction and equipment in blasting influenced zone, traffic control and leading shall be
completed; people and livestock etc. of security watch and explosion area have been removed
to safety zone; the command and operation system personal have been in position before
4 Blasting personal must confirm that charging, leading explosion and priming system
are correctly and effectively installed.
6.4.4 Blasting construction shall be done by qualified enterprise with professional blasting
skills; blasters shall have been technically trained and take the post with certificate. Special
person must be assigned to command on site.
6.4.5 Stonework filling of subgrade shall meet the following requirements:
1 ground surface shall be cleaned during embankment construction, start from the edge
part, then filling stone horizontally layer by layer to guarantee slope stabilization.
2 Test section shall be constructed before construction in order to ensure the following:
thickness of loose paving shall meet the maximum compacted dry density to combine with the
compacting plant and other construction parameters such as corresponding compactor pass,
differential settlement etc.
3 Stone filling embankment should adopt vibro-roller above 12 t, tyre roller above 2 5 t
or rammer above 2.5 t to compact (tamp)solid.
4 Pipeline, trenches around construction within range of subgrade should back-fill soil.
6.5 Road Shoulder
6.5.1 Construction of road shoulder shall be in parallel construction with subgrade, subbase,
surface layer etc.
6.5.2 Road shoulder shall be flattening and solid; shoulder line of straight section shall be
straight and smooth; curve section shall be smooth.
6.6 Construction Processing
6.6.1 Where underground utilities and other construction existing within range of subgrade,
construction shall meet the following requirements:
1 Influence degree by construction shall be analyzed and calculated according to vertical
rise between pipelines, top of construction and road bed combined with structure condition of
construction before construction. Corresponding protective measures shall be taken.
2 Removal and renovation of construction or strengthening protection and processing
measures shall be concealing inspected and accepted with construction organization,
management organization; the subsequent processing can only be carried out after confirmation
to meet requirements and documentation.
3 Temporary hardened facility of construction shall be kept in effective work state under
4 Permanent strengthening of structure shall reach specified strength before bearing
construction load.
6.6.2 Where contradiction occurs between the newly-built pipeline and other structure or
between the newly-built pipeline and the existing pipeline and structures, the situation shall be
reported to the development organization. Measures shall be determined by the pipeline
management organization and design organization. The measures shall be made into documents
and the construction shall be in accordance with the documents.
6.6.3 Trench backfilling construction shall meet the following requirements:
1 Back-filling shall not destroy culvert (pipe),structure safety of underground structure
and external waterproof layer and protective layer.
2 As long as foundation strength of cast-in-place concrete with prefabricate culvert and
2) Pervious soil shall be selected as filling. For filling below normal water level, non-
pervious soil shall be used.
3) Filling shall be done from road center to both sides layer by layer and compacted as
required. Layer thickness should be 15 cm.
4) Segment filling, joint shall be made into foot step in accordance with layering; the
foot step width should not be less than 2 m.
4 Soft soil layer with thickness less than 3.0 m and underwater or sludge with higher
water content could be squeezed by rip-rapping and shall meet the following requirements:
1) Unease weathered stone shall be adopted; content of particles less than 30 cm in stone
shall not be greater than 20%.
2) Direction of filling shall be in accordance with cross section of road and slope of soft
underlying soil formation. Where the slop is flat, filling shall be from middle to both sides of
foundation; where slope is greater than 1: 10, filling from high side to lower side and fill more
in lower side to make a 2 m wide top surface platform of the low side.
3) Riprap out of water surface or soft soil surface shall be filled smaller stone blocks and
rolled compacted; repave inverted filter with soil to compact.
5 Where sand cushion is used for replacement, sand cushion shall be 0.5 ~ 1.0 wider
than subgrade side; the both sides shall be protected by protection laying.
6 Berm and subgrade should be filled simultaneously during loading berm. Where
respectively filling, loading berm construction can only be constructed as long as the subgrade
reaches the critical height of subgrade, compaction degree shall meet design requirements and
the maximum dry density shall not be less than 90%.
7 Soft soil subgrade processed with soil engineering materials shall meet the following
1) Geomaterial shall be made by polymeric material which is with high temperature
resistance, corrosion resistance; ageing resistance and unease to break up. Tensile strength,
bursting strength, load percentage of elongation and others shall meet requirements of design
and relevant product quality standard.
2) Before paving of geo-material, layer shall be compacted to level. And a 30 ~ 50 cm
sand cushion shall be paved on the surface of the original foundation. Construction, auxiliary
material, transportation equipment must not travel on the surface of the paved geo-material.
3) Geo-material paving can only be done after the compaction degree, plainness of every
compacted layer inspected qualified. Geo-material shall be in good condition and be repaired
or replaced when being damaged.
4) Paving of geo-material shall be in unfolded along vertical to axes of road. Select the
satisfactory anchorage nail to fix and straighten up in accordance with the filling layer thickness.
Phenomenon such as distortion and pinching shall not exist. Longitudinal overlapping width of
geo-material shall not be less than 30 cm; overlapping width in anchor connecting shall not be
less than 15 cm; cementing width in cementation shall not be less than 5 cm; cementing strength
shall not be less than tensile strength of the geo-material. Transversal overlapping width in
adjacent geo-material shall not be less than 30 cm.
5) Unreeling geo-material indwelled in subgrade side slope, length shall not be less than
2 m.