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TB/T 1632.1-2014 PDF in English


TB/T 1632.1-2014 (TB/T1632.1-2014, TBT 1632.1-2014, TBT1632.1-2014)
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TB/T 1632.1-2014: PDF in English (TBT 1632.1-2014)

TB/T 1632.1-2014
TB
RAILWAY INDUSTRY STANDARD OF
THE PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF CHINA
ICS 45.120
S 17
Replacing TB/T 1632.1-2005
Welding of rails - Part 1: General specification
ISSUED ON: OCTOBER 30, 2014
IMPLEMENTED ON: MAY 01, 2015
Issued by: Ministry of Railway of PRC
Table of Contents
Foreword ... 3
1 Scope ... 5
2 Normative references ... 5
3 Terms and definitions ... 5
4 Requirements for rails for welding ... 8
5 Requirements for flaw detection of welded joints ... 8
6 Requirements for straightness and surface quality of welded joints ... 9
7 Inspection methods for straightness and surface quality of welded joints ... 11
8 Flaw detection method ... 12
9 Drop weight test method ... 12
10 Static bending test method ... 12
11 Fatigue test method ... 13
12 Tensile test method ... 14
13 Impact test method ... 15
Appendix A (Normative) Technical specification for ultrasonic flaw detection of rail
welded joints ... 17
Appendix B (Normative) Rail drop weight testing machine ... 24
Appendix C (Normative) Rail static bending test machine ... 25
Appendix D (Normative) Fatigue testing machine ... 27
Welding of rails - Part 1: General specification
1 Scope
This Part of TB/T 1632 specifies the terms and definitions, requirements for welding
rails, flaw detection requirements for welded joints, straightness and surface quality
requirements for welded joints of railway rail welding; inspection methods for
straightness and surface quality for welded joints, flaw detection inspection methods,
drop weight, static bending, fatigue, tensile, impact test methods.
This Part is applicable to new steel rails of 50 kg/m ~ 75 kg/m, which is welded by
methods such as flash welding, thermite welding, gas pressure welding.
2 Normative references
The following documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For
dated references, only the dated version applies to this document. For undated reference
documents, the latest version (including all amendments) applies to this document.
GB/T 228.1-2010 Metallic materials - Tensile testing - Part 1: Method of test at room
temperature
GB/T 229-2007 Metallic materials - Charpy pendulum impact test method
GB/T 2650-2008 Impact test methods on welded joints
GB/T 2651-2008 Tensile test method on welded joints
JB/T 10061-1999 Commonly used specification for A-mode ultrasonic flaw detector
using pulse echo technique
JB/T 10062-1999 Testing methods for performance of probes used in ultrasonic flaw
detection
TB/T 2344-2012 Technical specifications for the procurement of 43 kg/m ~ 75 kg/m
as rolled rails
TB/T 3276-2011 Rails for high speed railway
3 Terms and definitions
The following terms and definitions apply to this document.
4 Requirements for rails for welding
The hot-rolled rails or on-line heat-treated rails used for welding shall comply with the
requirements of TB/T 2344-2012. The high-speed rails used for welding shall comply
with the requirements of TB/T 3276-2011.
5 Requirements for flaw detection of welded joints
5.1 Qualification requirements for flaw detection personnel
Flaw detectors shall have technical qualifications of level II or above for non-
destructive testing in the railway industry, AND have passed technical training on flaw
detection of rail welded joints.
5.2 Ultrasonic flaw detection requirements
5.2.1 After the rails are welded, the welded joints shall be subjected to ultrasonic flaw
detection; the flaw detection records shall be filled in. The records shall include flaw
detection personnel, flaw detection date, instruments, probes, welding joint numbers,
test data, flaw detection results, treatment opinions.
5.2.2 The flaw detection of new welded joints is carried out after trimming, grinding,
heat treatment. The temperature of the joints shall be cooled to below 40 °C or the
natural rail temperature.
5.2.3 Check the surface condition of the detection surface before scanning, there shall
be no rust and welding slag; the grinding surface shall be flat and smooth; the grinding
range shall meet the needs of flaw detection and scanning. The burr at the welding rib
of the thermite welding joint and the residual burr at the root of the riser shall be cleaned.
5.2.4 For the requirements of ultrasonic flaw detector and probe, see A.1 of Appendix
A. The echo frequency of probes for flaw detection of thermite welding joints is greater
than or equal to 2.5 MHz; the echo frequency of probes for flaw detection of flash
welding and gas pressure welding joints is greater than or equal to 4 MHz.
5.2.5 The detection system shall be calibrated before the flaw detection. See A.2 and
A.5 of Appendix A, for the calibration of the test block and flaw detection sensitivity.
5.2.6 Double-probe and single-probe methods shall be used to scan the welded joints.
For the scanning method, see A.4 of Appendix A. It should use a special flaw detector
and scanning device for welded joints (see A.3 of Appendix A), to realize the storage
and playback of dynamic waveforms.
5.2.7 During flaw detection, the flaw detection sensitivity can be increased by 4 dB ~ 6
dB for scanning.
5.2.8 When using the 0° probe to detect the thermite welded joint, if the bottom wave
is 16 dB or more lower than the normal welded joint OR if the welded joint has the
following defects, the welded joint shall be rejected:
a) Dual-probe flaw detection:
Rail bottom corner (20 mm) ≥ Φ3 ~ 6 dB flat-bottomed hole equivalent
Other parts: ≥ Φ3 flat-bottomed hole equivalent
b) Shear wave single probe flaw detection:
Rail head and rail waist: ≥ Φ3 long and horizontal hole equivalent
Rail bottom: ≥ Φ4 vertical hole equivalent
Rail bottom angle (20 mm): ≥ Φ4 ~ 6dB vertical hole equivalent
c) Thermite welding 0° probe flaw detection: ≥ Φ5 long and horizontal hole
equivalent
d) Planar defects in welded joints.
e) The defect equivalent is 3dB or less than the defects specified in a), b), c), but the
extension length is greater than 6 mm.
5.2.9 See Appendix A for other requirements of ultrasonic flaw detection.
5.3 Requirements for surface flaw detection requirements
It should use surface flaw detection methods, such as magnetic particle, penetration,
eddy current, to detect cracks on the surface of joints.
6 Requirements for straightness and surface quality of
welded joints
6.1 Straightness requirements
See Table 1 for the straightness requirements of the 1 m length of the rail head working
face of the rail welding joint; no low joints shall appear.
measure the flatness graph of the top surface of the rail. Detect the fluctuation
difference of the high and low points of the graph, in any 200 mm and 100 mm
section, within 1 m from the weld seam as the center, as the surface roughness.
8 Flaw detection method
The method of flaw detection shall be carried out, in accordance with the provisions in
Appendix A.
9 Drop weight test method
9.1 Test piece
9.1.1 The straightness and surface quality of the test piece shall comply with the
provisions in Chapter 6.
9.1.2 The test piece shall be subject to flaw detection. The test pieces that pass the flaw
detection shall be used for the drop weight test.
9.1.3 The length of the test piece is 1.2 m ~ 1.6 m. The center of the weld is located in
the center of the test piece. The two ends shall be sawed. The rail head of the test piece
is up; it is placed flat on the two fixed supports of the testing machine, with a support
distance of 1 m; the weld seam is centered.
9.2 Test temperature
The temperature of the test piece is 10 °C ~ 50 °C. When the test environment
temperature is lower than 10 °C, the temperature of the test piece shall be close to 50 °C.
9.3 Drop weight testing machine
The requirements for the drop weight testing machine shall comply with the provisions
in Appendix B.
9.4 Test records
Each test piece is numbered, according to the sequence of the drop weight test; the
number shall correspond to the welding sequence number. It shall record the test piece
number, deflection after hammering, test temperature, fracture, etc.
10 Static bending test method
10.1 Test piece
10.1.1 The straightness and surface quality of the test piece shall comply with the
provisions in Chapter 6.
10.1.2 The test piece shall be subject to flaw detection. Use the test pieces, that pass the
flaw detection inspection, shall be used for the static bending test.
10.1.3 The length of the test piece is 1.2 m ~ 1.3 m. The center of the weld shall be
located in the center of the test piece. Both ends are sawed. The test piece is placed on
a support, which has a support distance of 1 m; the weld is centered; the center of the
weld bears a concentrated load.
10.2 Test temperature
The temperature of the test piece is 10 °C ~ 40 °C. The test is carried out at room
temperature.
10.3 Static bending testing machine
The static bending testing machine shall comply with the provisions of Appendix C.
10.4 Loading rate
The movement rate of the indenter shall not be greater than 1.0 mm/s (or: the loading
rate shall not be greater than 80 kN/s).
10.5 Test records
10.5.1 Each test piece is numbered, according to the sequence of the static bending test;
the number shall correspond to the welding sequence number.
10.5.2 Record the number of the test piece, the corresponding deflection of the center
of the load and support distance, test temperature, fracture, etc.
11 Fatigue test method
11.1 Test piece
11.1.1 The straightness and surface quality of the test piece shall comply with the
requirements in Chapter 6.
11.1.2 The test pieces shall be subject to flaw detection. Use the test pieces, that pass
the flaw detection, shall be used for the fatigue test.
11.1.3 The center of the weld shall be located in the center of the test piece, which has
an allowable deviation of ±10 mm. The length of the test piece shall not exceed 100
mm outside the support distance; the shortest length shall exceed 50 mm outside the
support distance.
Appendix A
(Normative)
Technical specification for ultrasonic flaw detection of rail welded joints
A.1 Ultrasonic flaw detector and probe
A.1.1 Ultrasonic flaw detector
Ultrasonic flaw detectors shall meet the following conditions; others shall meet the
requirements of JB/T 10061-1999:
a) Total amount of attenuator: ≥ 80 dB (relative error of attenuator: In the working
frequency band, it does not exceed 1 dB for every 12 dB error);
b) Amplifier bandwidth: Not less than 1 MHz ~ 8 MHz;
c) Sensitivity margin: ≥ 55dB (2.5 MHz longitudinal wave);
d) Resolution: ≥ 26 dB (2.5 MHz longitudinal wave);
e) Dynamic range: ≥ 26 dB;
f) Vertical linearity error: ≤ 4%;
g) Blockage range: ≤ 10 mm;
h) Horizontal linearity error: ≤ 2% (analog flaw detector);
i) Sampling frequency of digital flaw detector: ≥ 100 MHz.
A.1.2 Ultrasonic probe
Ultrasonic probe performance test shall be carried out, according to JB/T 10062-1999.
It shall meet the following conditions:
a) There are no double peaks and waveform jitter; the length of the front edge of the
probe shall be able to meet the needs of the scanning range of the flaw detection.
b) Echo frequency and its error
Echo frequency:
Thermite welding: ≥ 2.5 MHz;
Flash-butt welding and gas pressure welding: ≥ 4 MHz.
Echo frequency error: ≤ 10%.
c) Refraction angle error
When the refraction angle is between 37° ~ 45°: ≤ 1.5°;
When the refraction angle is ≥ 60°: ≤ 2°;
d) Shear wave probe resolution
Probe above 4 MHz: ≥ 22 dB;
2.5 MHz probe: ≥ 20 dB.
e) The initial wave width of the shear wave single probe (R100 arc surface gain 40
dB)
Probe above 4 MHz: ≤ 20 mm;
2.5 MHz probe: ≤ 25 mm.
f) Relative sensitivity
Longitudinal wave straight probe: ≥ 55 dB;
Shear wave probe above 4 MHz: ≥ 60 dB (R100 arc surface);
2.5 MHz shear wave probe: ≥ 65 dB (R100 arc surface).
g) Combination probe or array probe
The relative deviation of the incident point of each sub-probe: ≤ 2 mm;
Relative sensitivity deviation of each sub-probe: ≤ 4 dB.
A.2 Test block
A.2.1 Standard test block
Standard test blocks include CS-1-5 test block and CSK-1A test block.
A.2.2 Comparative test block
The comparative test block includes GHT-1 double-probe comparative test block and
GHT-5 single-probe comparative test block:
a) GHT-1 dual-probe comparative test block:
Artificial defects on the test block can be processed at both ends of the test block,
as shown in Figure A.1 a) and Figure A.1 b).
from both sides of the rail bottom.
A.4.2 Single probe method
A.4.2.1 It should use K0.8 ~ K1 probes to scan the rail head, rail waist to the bottom of
the rail, from the top of the rail head.
A.4.2.2 It should use a K ≥ 2 probe to scan the rail head, from the top or side of the rail
head.
A.4.2.3 It should use a K ≥ 2 probe to scan the bottom of the rail, from the slope of the
rail bottom.
A.4.2.4 Use the 0° probe to scan thermite welded rail head, rail waist, rail bottom, from
the top of the rail.
A.5 Sensitivity calibration for flaw detection
A.5.1 Double probe method
A.5.1.1 Rail waist: The reference hole for serial scanning is the 4# flat-bottomed hole
of GHT-1a test block; the reference hole for K-type scanning is the 3# flat-bottomed
hole of GHT-1a test block.
A.5.1.2 Rail head position: The reference hole for K-type scanning is the 2# flat-
bottomed hole of GHT-1b test block.
A.5.1.3 Rail bottom position: The reference hole for K-type scanning is the 5# flat-
bottomed hole of GHT-1a test block.
A.5.2 Single probe method
A.5.2.1 Rail head and rail waist: The reference hole for K0.8 ~ K1 probe scanning is
the 8# horizontal hole in area B of GHT-5 test block.
A.5.2.2 Rail head position: The reference hole scanned by the K ≥ 2 probe is the 5#
horizontal hole in the B area of the GHT-5 test block.
A.5.2.3 Rail bottom position: The reference hole scanned by the K ≥ 2 probe is the
upper corner of the 2# vertical hole in area C of the GHT-5 test block.
A.5.3 The reference hole for 0° probe flaw detection of the thermite weld is the 7#
horizontal hole in area A of the GHT-5 test block.
A.5.4 Sensitivity compensation
When the detection surface is rough, surface coupling compensation can be performed,
wherein the compensation amount is generally 2 dB ~ 6 dB.
Appendix B
(Normative)
Rail drop weight testing machine
B.1 Hammer head
The standard mass of the hammer head is 1000 kg ± 5 kg. The radius of the arc on the
bottom surface of the newly made hammer head is 100 mm; it shall be disabled when
the radius is greater than 300 mm. Hammer head hardness is 300 HBW10/3000 ~ 350
HBW10/3000.
B.2 Foundations
The drop weight testing machine uses a rigid foundation without springs. The mass of
the anvil shall not be less than 10000 kg. The rail support structure shall effectively
prevent the test piece from turning over. The radius of the newly made rail support arc
is 100 mm; it shall be disabled when the radius is greater than 300 mm. The distance
between the centerlines of the two supports is mm. The surface hardness of
the support is not less than 350 HBW10/3000.
B.3 Frame
The frame of the drop weight testing machine shall be stable. The guide rails shall not
be inclined and shall be greased frequently, to reduce the friction between the hammer
head guide rails.
B.4 Safety
Protective facilities shall be installed.
B.5 Drop hammer height
The drop hammer height is the vertical distance -- between the bottom surface of the
hammer head and the top surface of the rail head of the rail drop hammer test piece --
when the hammer head falls, expressed in "h".
......
 
Source: Above contents are excerpted from the PDF -- translated/reviewed by: www.chinesestandard.net / Wayne Zheng et al.