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GB/T 7233.1-2009 (GB/T7233.1-2009)

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GB/T 7233.1-2009English85 Add to Cart 0-9 seconds. Auto-delivery. Steel castings -- Ultrasonic examination -- Part 1: Steel castings for general purposes Valid

Newer version: GB/T 7233.1-2023

GB/T 7233.1-2009: PDF in English (GBT 7233.1-2009)

GB/T 7233.1-2009
ICS 77.040.20; 77.140.80
J 31
Replacing GB/T 7233.1-1987
Steel Castings - Ultrasonic Examination –
Part 1. Steel Castings for General Purposes
(ISO 4992-1.2006, MOD)
Jointly Issued by. General Administration of Quality Supervision,
Inspection and Quarantine of the People's Republic of
Standardization Administration of the People's
Republic of China.
Table of Contents
Foreword ... 3 
1 Scope ... 5 
2 Normative References ... 5 
3 Terms and Definitions ... 6 
4 General Requirements ... 7 
5 Examination... 9 
Appendix A ... 21 
Appendix B ... 23 
Appendix C ... 35 
Appendix D ... 38 
GB/T 7233 "Steel Castings - Ultrasonic Examination" is divided into two parts.
— Part 1. Steel Castings for General Purposes;
— Part 2. Steel Castings for Highly Stressed Components.
This Part is the part 2 of GB/T 7233.
This Part modifies and adopts ISO 4992-1.2006; standard structure and technical
contents of this Part are basically the same as ISO 4992-1.2006. Compared with ISO
4992-1.2006, normative references in this Part was mostly changed, except that ISO
5577 was reserved; the others were revised correspondingly according to the actual
conditions of China.
For ease of use, the following editorial amendments are also made in this Part.
— Some formatting was revised according to Chinese habit;
— Revise some expressions that are applicable to international standard TO BE
ones that are applicable to national standards in China;
— Replace the decimal-comma "," with decimal ".".
This Part replaces corresponding proportion of GB/T 7233-1987 "Methods for
Ultrasonic Testing and for Specifying Severity levels of Steel Castings".
Compared with GB/T 7233-1987, main technical content changes of this Part are as
— Scope of application was revised ((see Chapter 1);
— Add order information (see 4.1);
— Requirements on quality grade were changed (see 4.3);
— Test method was revised;
— Add new Appendix A, Appendix B, Appendix C and Appendix D; the Appendix A,
Appendix B and Appendix C in previous edition were deleted from this Part.
Appendix A, Appendix B, Appendix C and Appendix D of this Part are informative.
This Part was proposed by the Standardization Administration of China.
This Part shall be under the jurisdiction of National Technical Committee 54 on
Casting of Standardization Administration of China( SAC/TC 54).
Drafting organizations of this Part. Shenyang Research Institute of Foundry,
Shenyang Blower Works Group Corporation, and Northern Heavy Industries Group
Co., Ltd.
Chief drafting staffs of this Part. Sun Chungui, Zhang Zhaoqian, Qi Xing, Li Lengxi,
Wang Lihua, and Li Xingjie.
The previous edition replaced by this Part is as follows.
— GB/T 7233-1987.
Steel Castings - Ultrasonic Examination -
Part 1. Steel Castings for General Purposes
1    Scope 
This Part of GB/T 7223 specifies the requirements for the ultrasonic examination of
steel castings (non-austenitic steel) for general purposes, and the methods for
determining internal discontinuities by the pulse-echo technique.
This Part is applicable to the ultrasonic examination of steel castings (non-austenitic
steel) which have usually received a grain-refining heat treatment, and which have
wall thicknesses up to and including 600 mm. For greater wall thicknesses, special
agreements shall be in place for the test procedure and recording levels.
This Part does not apply to austenitic steels and joint welds.
2    Normative References 
The following normative documents contain provisions which, through reference in
this text, constitute provisions of this Part of GB/T 7233. For dated references, the
subsequent amendments or revisions of these publications do not apply. However,
parties to agreements based on this Part are encouraged to investigate the possibility
of applying the most recent editions of the normative documents indicated below. For
undated references, the latest edition of the normative document referred to applies.
GB/T 5616 Non-destructive Testing - Guidelines for Application
GB/T 9445 Non-destructive Testing - Qualification and Certification of Personnel
(GB/T 9445-2008, ISO 7912.2005, IDT)
GB/T 12604.1 Non-destructive Testing - Terminology - Terms Used in Ultrasonic
Testing (GB/T 12604.1-2005, ISO 5577.2000 Non-destructive Testing - Ultrasonic
Inspection - Vocabulary, IDT)
GB/T 15056 Evaluation Method on Cast Surface Roughness
GB/T 18694 Non-destructive Testing - Ultrasonic Inspection - Characterization of
Search Unit and Sound Field (GB/T 18694-2002, eqv ISO 10375.1997(E))
GB/T 19799.1 Non-destructive Testing - Ultrasonic Inspection- Calibration Block
No.1 (GB/T 19799.1-2005, ISO 2400.1972 Welds in Steel - Reference Block for the
Calibration of Equipment for Ultrasonic Examination, IDT)
GB/T 19799.2 Non-destructive Testing - Ultrasonic Inspection- Specification for
Calibration Block No.2 (GB/T 19799.2-2005, ISO 7963.1985 Specification for
Calibration Block No. 2 for Ultrasonic Examination of Welds, IDT)
JB/T 9214 Practice for Evaluating Performance Characteristics of A Scope
Ultrasonic Pulse - Echo Testing Systems
JB/T 10061 Commonly Used Specification for A-mode Ultrasonic Flaw Detector
Using Pulse Echo Technique
3    Terms and Definitions 
For the purposes of this Part of GB/T 7233, the terms and definitions defined in GB/T
12604 AND the followings apply.
3.1 Reference discontinuity echo dimension
The smallest discontinuity to be recorded during the assessment phase of an
ultrasonic examination, usually expressed as an equivalent flat-bottomed hole
3.2 Point discontinuity
The discontinuity of which the dimensions are smaller than or equal to the
sound-beam width.
Note. Dimensions in this part of ISO 4992 relate to length, width and/or dimension in the
through-wall direction.
3.3 Complex discontinuity
The discontinuity of which the dimensions are larger than the sound-beam width.
Note. Dimensions in this Part relate to length, width and/or dimension in the through-wall
3.4 Planar discontinuity
The discontinuity having two measurable dimensions.
3.5 Volumetric discontinuity
The discontinuity having three measurable dimensions.
of the casting; it shall clearly indicate on drawings that.
— accurate areas and dimensions;
— weld preparation zones and the thickness of special rim zone.
Severity level 1 is only applied to weld preparation zones and special rim zones.
Unless otherwise agreed during ordering, otherwise, the finishing-welding zone and
base-material shall be all of these zones shall be inspected and accepted according
to same-level.
5    Examination 
5.1 General rules
The basic rules of ultrasonic examination are given in GB/T 5616.
5.2 Materials
The suitability of material for ultrasonic examination is assessed by comparing the
echo height of a reference reflector (usually the first backwall echo) WITH the noise
signal. This assessment shall be carried out on selected casting zones which are
representative of the surface finis. The assessment areas shall have parallel surfaces
and shall be at the largest thickness.
The reference echo height, according to Table 2, shall be at least 6 dB above the
noise signal.
If the echo height of this smallest detectable flat-bottomed or equivalent side-drilled
hole diameter at the end of the test range to be assessed is less than 6 dB above the
grass level, then the ultrasonic testability is reduced. In this case, the flat-bottomed or
side-drilled hole diameter which can be detected with a signal-noise ratio of at least 6
dB shall be noted in the test report, and the additional procedure shall be agreed
between the manufacturer and the purchaser.
Note. For the definition of an adequate flat-bottomed hole dimension, the distance gain
dimension system (DGS) or a test block of identical material, heat treatment condition and
section thickness containing flat-bottomed holes with a diameter according to Table 2 or
equivalent side-drilled holes, can be used.
The following formula is used for converting the flat-bottomed hole diameter into the
side-drilled hole diameter.
 2
The ultrasonic examination equipment shall be checked regularly by the operator in
accordance with JB/T 9214.
5.3.4 Coupling medium
A coupling medium in accordance with JB/T 9214 shall be used. The coupling medium
shall wet the examination area to ensure satisfactory sound transmission. The same
coupling medium shall be used for calibration and all subsequent examination
Note. The sound transmission can be checked by ensuring one or more stable backwall
echoes in areas with parallel surfaces.
5.4 Preparation of cast...
(Above excerpt was released on 2015-05-30, modified on 2021-06-07, translated/reviewed by: Wayne Zheng et al.)
Source: https://www.chinesestandard.net/PDF.aspx/GBT7233.1-2009