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GB/T 5137.1-2020 PDF in English


GB/T 5137.1-2020 (GB/T5137.1-2020, GBT 5137.1-2020, GBT5137.1-2020)
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GB/T 5137.1-2020: PDF in English (GBT 5137.1-2020)

GB/T 5137.1-2020
NATIONAL STANDARD OF THE
PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF CHINA
ICS 43.040.60
T 34
Replacing GB/T 5137.1-2002
Test methods of safety glazing materials used on road
vehicles - Part 1: Mechanical properties tests
(ISO 3537:2015, Road vehicles - Safety glazing materials -
Mechanical tests, MOD)
ISSUED ON: MARCH 31, 2020
IMPLEMENTED ON: FEBRUARY 01, 2021
Issued by: State Administration for Market Regulation;
Standardization Administration of the PRC.
Table of Contents
Foreword ... 3 
1 Scope ... 5 
2 Normative references ... 5 
3 Terms and definitions ... 5 
4 Test conditions ... 5 
5 Impact resistance test (227 g steel ball test) ... 6 
6 Penetration resistance test (2260 g steel ball test) ... 10 
7 Abrasion resistance test ... 11 
8 Fragmentation test ... 18 
9 Head-form impact test ... 20 
10 Cross-cut test ... 28 
11 Flexibility and folding test ... 29 
Annex A (Informative) Structural changes of this Part compared with ISO
3537:2015 ... 32 
Annex B (Informative) Technical differences between this Part and ISO
3537:2015 and their causes ... 34 
Test methods of safety glazing materials used on road
vehicles - Part 1: Mechanical properties tests
1 Scope
This Part of GB/T 5137 specifies the test methods for impact resistance test,
penetration resistance test, abrasion resistance test, fragmentation test, head-
form impact test, cross-cut test, and flexibility and folding test of safety glazing
materials used on road vehicles.
This Part applies to the tests of safety glazing materials used on road vehicles.
2 Normative references
The following documents are indispensable for the application of this document.
For the dated references, only the editions with the dates indicated are
applicable to this document. For the undated references, the latest edition
(including all the amendments) are applicable to this document.
QC/T 1119 Road vehicles - Glazing materials - Terminology (QC/T 1119-
2019, ISO 3536:2016, MOD)
ISO 6487 Road vehicles - Measurement techniques in impact tests -
Instrumentation
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in QC/T 1119
apply.
4 Test conditions
Unless otherwise specified, the tests shall be carried out under the following
ambient conditions:
a) Ambient temperature: 20 °C±5 °C;
b) Atmospheric pressure: 8.60×104 Pa~1.06×105 Pa;
c) Relative humidity: 40%~80%.
the sample in the fixture, it shall be clamped to ensure that the movement of
the sample during test shall not exceed 2 mm at any point along the inside
periphery of the fixture. Impact height refers to the distance from the lower
surface of the steel ball to the upper surface of the sample.
The ball shall strike the face of the sample which represents the outside face of
the safety glazing material when mounted on the vehicle. The ball shall be
allowed to make only one impact.
After the impact, evaluate the damage form and degree of the sample. If there
is a requirement for the mass of the detached fragments on the reverse side of
the impact surface, it shall weigh and record the total mass of the detached
fragments.
6 Penetration resistance test (2260 g steel ball test)
6.1 Test purpose
Evaluation of the penetration resistance of the safety glazing material.
6.2 Test devices
6.2.1 Steel ball
Hardened steel ball, with a mass of 2260 g±20 g and a diameter of
approximately 82 mm.
6.2.2 Means for dropping
Means for dropping the ball freely from a height to be specified. The impact
point of the steel ball shall be within a circle with a radius of 25 mm at the center
of the sample.
6.2.3 Sample supporting fixture
Same as 5.2.3.
6.3 Sample
USE the special flat test piece prepared under the same material and process
conditions as the product or the test piece cut from the flattest part of the
product AS the sample. The size is mm× mm. When applicable,
the product can also be a sample.
Before the test, the laminated glass test sample shall be placed at a
temperature of 20 °C±5 °C and a relative humidity of 40%~80% for at least 4 h.
The sample of plastic-glass composite material shall be placed at a temperature
of 23 °C±2 °C and a relative humidity of 45%~55% for at least 48 h. The sample
of plastic-glass composite material shall be tested within 30 s of leaving the
placement condition.
6.4 Test procedure
PLACE the sample in the supporting fixture as described in 5.2.3. The impact
plane of the sample shall be perpendicular, within 3°, to the incident direction
of the ball. In the case of curved samples, it shall make sure that the sample
can fully contact the edge of the supporting fixture. When necessary to retain
the sample in the fixture, it shall be clamped to ensure that the movement of
the sample during test shall not exceed 2 mm at any point along the inside
periphery of the fixture. The impact height is 4000 mm; the tolerance range is 0
mm~25 mm, which refers to the distance from the lower surface of the steel ball
to the upper surface of the sample.
The ball shall strike the face of the sample which represents the internal face of
the safety glazing material when mounted on the vehicle. The ball shall be
allowed to make only one impact.
After the impact, evaluate whether the steel ball penetrates the sample within 5
s.
7 Abrasion resistance test
7.1 Test purpose
Determination of whether the safety glazing material has a certain minimum
resistance to abrasion at ambient temperature.
7.2 Test devices
7.2.1 Abrading instrument, shown diagrammatically in Figure 2, and consisting
of the following:
a) A horizontal turntable and center clamp which revolves counter-clockwise.
The turntable shall rotate steadily and be kept on a horizontal surface. The
runout of the end face at 1.6 mm from the periphery of the turntable shall
be no more than ±0.05 mm. Its speed is 55 r/min~75 r/min.
b) Two weighted parallel arms, each carrying a special abrasive wheel freely
rotating on a ball bearing horizontal spindle. The distance between the
inner surfaces of the two abrasive wheels is (52.4±1.0)mm (corresponding
to the centerline distance 65.1 mm between the two abrasive wheels). The
horizontal offset distance between the centerline of the two abrasive wheel
spindles and the axis of the rotary table is (19.05±0.30)mm, as shown in
7 - Filter;
8 - Photodetector;
9 - Light trap;
10 - Reflectance standard.
Figure 3 -- Diagram of hazemeter
Calibrate the hazemeter before the initial measurement of the haze with no
sample present and verify that the reading of the hazemeter is zero. The whole
apparatus shall be checked at regular intervals by means of calibration
standards of defined haze.
If haze measurements are made using equipment or methods differing from the
above, the results shall be corrected in order to agree with those obtained by
the apparatus described above.
7.3 Ambient conditions for test
The test shall be conducted under the following ambient conditions:
a) Ambient temperature: 23 °C±2 °C;
b) Atmospheric pressure: 8.60×104 Pa~1.06×105 Pa;
c) Relative humidity: 45%~55%.
7.4 Sample
USE a square special flat test piece with a side length of 100 mm prepared
under the same material and process conditions as the product or a test piece
cut from a flat product AS a sample. The two surfaces shall be flat and parallel
enough; if necessary, drill a fixed hole with a diameter of about 7 mm±0.5 mm
in the center. When both the inner and outer surfaces need to be tested for
abrasion, the number of samples is doubled. For sandwich products with a
thickness of more than 20 mm, only the outer material may be tested.
Before the abrasion test, the sample shall be placed at a temperature of
23 °C±2 °C and a relative humidity of 45%~55% for at least 48 h. The test shall
be started within 5 min of leaving the environment. The abrasive wheels, when
not in use, shall also be stored under the above conditions.
7.5 Test procedure
7.5.1 Determination of test surface and number of grinding revolutions
START the abraser and subject the sample to abrasion for a selected number
of cycles. For outer surfaces, subject the sample to alternatively 100 cycles or
500 cycles or 1000 cycles (depending on the specification of the material to be
tested). For inner surfaces, subject the sample to 100 cycles, using new
samples.
After abrasion, handle the samples by their edges to prevent contamination of
their surfaces. Using a soft bristle, anti-static brush, lightly brush off any debris
adhered to the surface of the samples. Or clean the samples following the
procedure described in 7.5.2.
7.5.5 Final haze measurement and calculation
PLACE the abraded sample with the abraded side facing the entrance port of
the integrating sphere. MEASURE the final haze of the abraded track. Each
sample is measured at least 4 equally spaced points along the abrasion track.
TAKE the average. If the abrasion track is not homogeneous, up to 16 equally
spaced points along the track can be measured. TAKE the average. The angle
between the normal to the surface of the sample and the axis of the beam shall
not exceed 8°. The haze measurement and calculation methods are the same
as 7.5.3.
7.5.6 Calculation of haze caused by abrasion
The initial haze value is subtracted from the final haze value, to obtain the haze
value caused by abrasion.
8 Fragmentation test
8.1 Test purpose
Assessment of the nature of fragmentation resulting from the fracture of
tempered glass.
8.2 Test devices
Instrument capable of causing the glazing material to break from the impacted
surface, such as a hammer with a pointed head or other equivalent tools. The
radius of curvature of the pointed head shall be 0.2 mm±0.05 mm.
8.3 Sample
USE the product or special test piece as the sample.
8.4 Impact point
c - Impact point 2.
Figure 4 -- Diagram of location of impact points
8.5 Test procedure
8.5.1 The sample shall not be rigidly fixed; but measures shall be taken to
ensure that the fragments do not fall or splash after breaking. It is possible to
fix the sample tightly on top of second sample of the same shape and
dimensions by means of transparent adhesive tape around the periphery.
8.5.2 IMPACT the impact point of the sample to break it.
8.5.3 Within 10 s to 3 min after the impact, use the photographic paper method
or other effective measures to complete the retention record of the
fragmentation. Retention measures shall ensure the counting accuracy and the
accurate identification of the maximum area of fragments.
8.5.4 The area of 20 mm around the sample and 75 mm radius around the
impact point is the non-evaluation area. In the evaluation area, count the
minimum number of fragments within the range of 50 mm×50 mm. Fragment,
which extends beyond the side of the counting area, is counted as half piece.
RECORD whether there are fragments with an area of more than 3 cm2 and
the length of the longest strip fragment. If the fragment exceeds the evaluation
area, the area and length of the fragment in the evaluation area are measured
only. For the strip fragments, also record whether their tips are blade-shaped.
If it enters the 20 mm area of the sample edge, is the angle between itself or its
extension and the edge of the sample greater than 45°.
9 Head-form impact test
9.1 Head-form impact test without deceleration measurement
9.1.1 Test devices
9.1.1.1 Head-form
Head-form, a spherical or semi-spherical head made of laminated hard wood
covered with replaceable felt cover and a cross-beam made of wood. The
thickness of the felt cap is 5 mm±1 mm. Between the spherical part and the
cross-beam, there is a neck-shaped intermediate piece and on the other side
of the cross-beam, a mounting rod. The total mass of the head-form is 10
kg±0.2 kg. Its dimensions are shown in Figure 5.
9.2 Head-form impact test with deceleration measurement
9.2.1 Test purpose
Evaluate the minimum strength and broken state of plastic or glass materials
under the impact of large blunt objects at normal temperature; USE the
calculated HIC (Head Injury Criterion) value to assess the risk of craniocerebral
injury.
9.2.2 Test devices
9.2.2.1 Head-form
The total mass of the head-form is kg. Its structure diagram is shown
in Figure 7. In the middle of the steel base plate (21), a three-axis mounting
block (24) is installed at the center of gravity, to fix the acceleration sensor (25)
measuring the x, y, and z directions. The x and y direction sensors are arranged
horizontally and perpendicular to each other. The z direction sensor is arranged
vertically and perpendicular to the x and y direction sensors.
The nylon impact basin (17) and the butadiene rubber cover (18) are located
under the steel base plate (21). By adjusting the hardness and thickness of the
intermediate ring (12) and the nylon impact basin (17), adjust the elastic
properties of the impact of the head-form.
Wireless transmission can be used instead of coaxial cable; but it shall be
ensured that, the additionally-installed electronic components do not affect the
mass, center of gravity, and elasticity of the head-form. Electronic components
can only be mounted on a steel base plate (21). If necessary, mass correction
can be performed; but the correction must also be on the surface of the base
plate facing the cavity in the head-form.
9.2.2.2 Measuring equipment
It is used to record and evaluate the measured deceleration curves ax(t), ay(t),
and az(t). The data is obtained from the acceleration sensor of the head-form
through wired or wireless transmission. The measuring and recording device
shall meet the requirements of ISO 6487. The channel amplitude (CAC) is 5000
m/s2. The channel frequency (CFC) is 1000 Hz.
9.2.2.3 Means for dropping
Means for dropping the head-form freely from a height to be specified. The
impact point of the head-form must be within a circle with a radius of 40 mm at
the center of the sample.
9.2.2.4 Sample supporting fixture
......
 
Source: Above contents are excerpted from the PDF -- translated/reviewed by: www.chinesestandard.net / Wayne Zheng et al.