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GB/T 5008.1-2023 PDF in English


GB/T 5008.1-2023 (GB/T5008.1-2023, GBT 5008.1-2023, GBT5008.1-2023)
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GB/T 5008.1-2023: PDF in English (GBT 5008.1-2023)

GB/T 5008.1-2023
GB
NATIONAL STANDARD OF THE
PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF CHINA
ICS 29.220.20
CCS K 84
Replacing GB/T 5008.1-2013
Lead-Acid Starter Batteries – Part 1: Technical Conditions
and Methods of Test
(IEC 60095-1:2018, Lead-Acid Starter Batteries – Part 1: General
Requirements and Methods of Test, MOD)
ISSUED ON: NOVEMBER 27, 2023
IMPLEMENTED ON: JUNE 1, 2024
Issued by: State Administration for Market Regulation;
Standardization Administration of the People’s Republic of China.
Table of Contents
Foreword ... 3
Introduction ... 6
1 Scope ... 7
2 Normative References ... 7
3 Terms, Definitions, Symbols and Classification ... 7
4 Technical Requirements ... 9
5 Test Methods ... 12
6 Inspection Rules ... 25
7 Marking, Packaging, Transportation and Storage ... 29
Appendix A (Informative) Comparison of Structural Numbers between this Document
and IEC 60095-1:2018 ... 31
Appendix B (Informative) Technical Differences and Causes between this Document
and IEC 60095-1:2018 ... 33
Appendix C (Normative) Sign of Lead-Acid Battery ... 36
Lead-Acid Starter Batteries – Part 1: Technical Conditions
and Methods of Test
1 Scope
This Document specifies the classification, technical requirements, inspection rules and
marking, packaging, transportation and storage requirements of lead-acid starter batteries
(hereinafter referred to as batteries), and describes the corresponding test methods.
This Document is applicable to vented (flooded) batteries and valve-regulated (with gas
composite function) batteries with a rated voltage of 12V for starting, ignition and lighting of
various automobiles, tractors and other internal combustion engines.
This Document does not apply to batteries used for other purposes, such as batteries for starting
railway internal combustion engines.
2 Normative References
The provisions in following documents become the essential provisions of this Document
through reference in this Document. For the dated documents, only the versions with the dates
indicated are applicable to this Document; for the undated documents, only the latest version
(including all the amendments) is applicable to this Document.
GB/T 2900.41 Electrotechnical terminology - Primary and secondary cells and batteries
(GB/T 2900.41-2008, IEC 60050-482:2003, IDT)
GB/T 5008.2 Lead-acid starter batteries - Part 2: Dimensions of batteries and dimensions
and marking of terminals (GB/T 5008.2-2023, IEC 60095-2:2021, MOD)
GB/T 5008.3 Lead-acid starter batteries - Part 3: Kinds of products and specifications and
dimensions and marking of terminals for heavy vehicles (GB/T 5008.3-2023, IEC 60095-
4:2021, MOD)
3 Terms, Definitions, Symbols and Classification
3.1 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this Document, the terms and definitions given in GB/T 2900.41 and the
following apply.
3.1.1 Vented battery/flooded battery
A battery with one or more exhaust devices on the battery cover that can release gaseous
products.
NOTE: Including normal water loss batteries, low water loss batteries and low water loss batteries.
3.1.2 Valve regulated battery/gas recombination battery
The battery is sealed under normal conditions, but has a device to allow gas to escape when the
internal pressure exceeds a predetermined value.
NOTE: This kind of battery cannot normally add water or electrolyte. In this type of battery, the
electrolyte is stagnant.
3.1.3 Maintenance-free battery
A low-water loss battery that does not require maintenance during its service life, provided that
specified conditions are met.
3.2 Symbol
Ce –actual capacity at 20-hour rate, in A·h;
Cn –rated capacity at 20-hour rate, in A·h;
Crch - charging capacity, in A·h;
Crn - rated reserve capacity, in min;
Cre - actual reserve capacity, in min;
In – discharge current at 20-hour rate, the value is Cn/20, in A;
Icc - starting current at -18℃ low temperature, see GB/T 5008.2 for the value, in A;
Icc,L- starting current at -29℃ low temperature, the value is 0.8Icc, in A;
Io - discharge current of charge acceptance test, in A;
Ica – current in charging acceptance ability test when charging for 10 min, in A.
3.3 Classification
3.3.1 Batteries are classified according to performance as follows:
--- Class A: ordinary type of battery;
--- Class B: long-life, vibration-resistant battery;
--- Class C: high temperature (75℃) starter battery;
--- Class D: parking vehicle battery.
3.3.2 Batteries are classified according to structure as follows:
--- vented battery;
--- valve regulated battery.
3.3.3 Batteries are classified according to water loss as follows:
--- Normal water loss battery;
--- Low water loss battery;
--- Micro water loss battery (maintenance-free battery).
4 Technical Requirements
4.1 Battery model, size, terminal size and polarity
The battery model, size, terminal size and polarity shall comply with the provisions of GB/T
5008.2 and GB/T 5008.3.
4.2 Battery electrolyte density and open circuit voltage
4.2.1 For a fully charged vented battery, the electrolyte density shall be maintained within the
range of 1.27g/cm3~1.30g/cm3 at 25°C.
4.2.2 When a fully charged battery is kept open circuit for at least 24 h at a temperature of 25°C,
the terminal voltage shall meet the following requirements:
--- Vented batteries are maintained within the range of 12.70V~12.90V;
--- Valve-regulated batteries shall be no less than 12.80V.
4.2.3 The manufacturer may also specify the electrolyte density or open circuit voltage at its
own discretion.
4.3 Capacity
4.3.1 capacity at 20-hour rate
The battery shall meet the following requirements when tested according to 5.4.1:
a) The capacity at 20-hour rate Cn complies with the provisions of GB/T 5008.2 and GB/T
5008.3;
b) The actual capacity at 20-hour rate Ce reaches the rated capacity Cn at the third or previous
20-hour rate capacity test.
4.3.2 Reserve capacity
The battery is tested according to 5.4.2. The actual reserve capacity Cre shall reach the rated
reserve capacity Crn during the third or previous reserve capacity test.
4.4 Low temperature starting capability
4.4.1 Starting capability at -18℃ low temperature
When the battery is tested according to 5.5.1, and the battery is discharged, the terminal voltage
is no less than 7.5V for 10s, the terminal voltage is no less than 7.2V for 30s, and the terminal
voltage is no less than 6.0V for 90s (the terminal voltage at 90s is a reference value and can be
selected by the manufacturer).
4.4.2 Starting capability at -29℃ low temperature
When the battery is tested according to 5.5.2, and the battery is discharged, the terminal voltage
is no less than 7.5V for 10s, the terminal voltage is no less than 7.2V for 30s, and the terminal
voltage is no less than 6.0V for 90s (the terminal voltage at 90s is a reference value and can be
selected by the manufacturer).
4.5 Charging acceptance capability
When batteries are tested in accordance with 5.6, the ratio of charging current Ica to Io for Class
A, B and C batteries shall be no less than 2.0; and the ratio of charging current Ica to Io for Class
D batteries shall be no less than 2.5.
4.6 Charge retention capability
When the battery is tested according to 5.7, discharge with a current of 0.6Icc (A) for 30 s, and
the battery terminal voltage should be no less than 8.0V.
4.7 Electrolyte retention capability
When the battery is tested according to 5.8, there shall be no leakage or splashing of electrolyte
on the surface.
4.8 Cycle endurance capability
4.8.1 Corrosion at high temperature
When the battery is tested according to 5.9.1, the cycle period shall be no less than 4 cycles.
4.8.2 Cycle endurance I
When the battery is tested according to 5.9.2, the number of cycles shall be no less than 120
times.
4.8.3 Cycle endurance II
When the battery is tested according to 5.9.3, the number of cycles: vented battery ≥ 60 cycles,
valve-regulated battery ≥ 250 cycles.
4.8.4 Cycle endurance III
When the battery is tested according to 5.9.4, the number of cycles shall be no less than
(2.8Cn+82) times (applicable to vented batteries with a capacity at 20-hour rate of
60A·h~220A·h).
4.8.5 Cycle endurance IV
When the battery is tested according to 5.9.5, the number of cycles should be no less than
(34Crn-581) times (applicable to batteries with Crn between 40min and 150min).
4.9 Water loss
4.9.1 Low water loss battery
When the battery is tested according to 5.10, it shall be calculated based on the rated capacity
at a 20-hour rate Cn, the battery mass loss shall be no greater than 4.0g/A·h.
4.9.2 Micro water loss battery (maintenance-free battery)
When the battery is tested according to 5.10, it shall be calculated based on the rated capacity
at a 20-hour rate Cn, the battery mass loss shall be no greater than 1.0g/A·h.
4.10 Vibration resistance
When the battery is tested according to 5.11 and discharged with Icc (A) current, the terminal
voltage of the battery, when it is discharged for 30 s, shall be no less than 7.2V.
4.11 Dry charged (or wet charged) battery starting capability
When the battery is tested according to 5.12 and discharged with Icc (A) current, the terminal
voltage of the battery, when it is discharged for 30 s, shall be no less than 7.2V.
4.12 Air tightness
When the battery is tested according to 5.13, it shall have good air tightness.
4.13 Storage of dry charged (or wet charged) battery without electrolyte injection
5.1.2 Electrolyte density measurement
The density meter used to measure the density of the electrolyte shall have an appropriate range,
the graduation value shall be at least 0.005g/cm3, and the calibration accuracy of the density
meter shall be at least 0.005g/cm3.
5.1.3 Temperature measurement
The thermometer used to measure temperature shall have an appropriate range, its graduation
value shall be no greater than 1°C, and the calibration accuracy of the thermometer shall be no
less than 0.5°C.
5.1.4 Time measurement
The instrument used to measure time shall be graduated in hours, minutes and seconds, and
shall have an accuracy of at least ±1%.
5.1.5 Dimension measurement
The measuring tool for measuring the external dimensions of the battery shall have an accuracy
of more than 1 mm.
5.1.6 Mass weighing
The scale used to measure the mass of the battery shall have an accuracy of ±0.05% or above.
5.2 Preparation of test
5.2.1 Test sample
5.2.1.1 Unless otherwise specified in this Document, the test shall be conducted with a new
battery.
"New" sample batteries shall satisfy the following conditions:
--- Filled battery, the exit-factory time shall be no greater than 45 days;
--- For dry-charged (or wet-charged) batteries, the exit-factory time shall be no more than
60 days.
Those that pass the expiration dates shall be determined by the manufacturer and the user.
5.2.1.2 All batteries shall be fully charged before testing, and dry-charged or wet-charged
batteries need to be activated.
5.2.1.3 For fully charged batteries, the battery electrolyte density and open circuit voltage shall
meet the requirements of 4.2.
above the water surface. If there are multiple batteries in the same constant temperature water
bath, the distance between the batteries and the tank wall shall be no less than 25mm.
5.3 Inspection of battery model, size, terminal size and polarity
5.3.1 Use a ruler with an accuracy of 1 mm or a measuring tool with equal or higher accuracy
to measure the battery appearance dimensions and terminal dimensions.
5.3.2 Use visual method and reverse polarity meter to check the battery model and terminal
polarity.
5.4 Capacity test
5.4.1 Capacity test at 20-hour rate
Within 1h~5h after the battery is fully charged according to 5.2.2, and maintained at an ambient
temperature of 25℃±2℃ according to the method of 5.2.4, discharge at In (A) current. The
change in current value during the discharge time shall be no greater than ±2%, record the
battery voltage every 2h during the discharge process; and record the battery temperature every
4h. When the voltage reaches 10.80V, record the battery voltage every 5min. When the voltage
reaches 10.50V±0.05V, stop discharge and record the discharge time and temperature; and
convert it to the actual capacity at the reference temperature of 25°C according to Formula (1):
Where:
Ce25°C – actual capacity at 25°C, in A·h;
t – discharging time, in h;
T – final temperature, in °C;
λ – 0.01°C-1.
5.4.2 Reserve capacity test
Within 1h~5h after the battery is fully charged according to 5.2.2, and maintained at an ambient
temperature of 25℃±2℃ according to the method of 5.2.4, discharge at a current of 25A. The
change in the current value during the discharge time shall be no greater than ±1 %; record the
battery voltage every 10 min during the discharge process. When the voltage reaches 11.00V,
record the battery voltage every 1 min. When the voltage reaches 10.50V±0.05V, stop
discharging and record the discharge time and temperature; and convert it to the actual reserve
capacity at the reference temperature of 25°C according to Formula (2):
time shall be no greater than ±0.5%. Record the battery terminal voltage discharging for
10 s and 30 s, respectively;
b) Stop discharging and stay still for 20 s;
c) Discharge at 0.6Icc(A) current for 40s. The change in current value during the discharge
time shall be no greater than ±0.5%. Record the battery terminal voltage at 40s;
d) All tests are completed within 90 s.
5.5.2 Starting capability test at -29 ℃ low temperature
After the battery is fully charged for 24 h according to 5.2.2, it shall be placed in a low-
temperature box or low-temperature chamber with air circulation. When the temperature is
maintained at -29℃±1℃, and the time is no be less than 24h, or the temperature of any
intermediate compartment of the battery reaches -29℃±1℃, the battery shall be discharged
according to the following requirements within 2 minutes after being taken out of the low
temperature box or low temperature chamber:
a) Discharge at Icc,L (A) current for 30 s. The change in current value during the discharge
time shall be no greater than ±0.5%. Record the battery terminal voltage discharging for
10 s and 30 s, respectively;
b) Stop discharging and stay still for 20 s;
c) Discharge at 0.6Icc,L (A) current for 40 s. The change in current value during the discharge
time shall be no greater than ±0.5%. Record the battery terminal voltage discharging for
40 s;
d) All tests are completed within 90 s.
5.6 Charging acceptance test
5.6.1 Calculate the discharge current of the battery according to Formula (5):
Where:
Ce - actual capacity at the maximum 20-hour rate among three capacity discharges, in A·h;
10h – discharge time.
NOTE: When conducting the reserve capacity test, the actual capacity of the battery is calculated at a 20-
hour rate according to 5.4.3.
d) Observe visually to see if there is any splashing of electrolyte.
5.9 Cyclic endurance test
5.9.1 High temperature corrosion test
5.9.1.1 Test conditions
The battery is charged for 10 h according to 5.2.2.2 constant voltage and limited current; and
kept at an ambient temperature of 60°C ± 2°C according to the method in 5.2.4.
5.9.1.2 Test process
The battery is tested according to the following procedures:
a) The battery is charged at a constant voltage of 14.00V±0.01V for 13 days in an ambient
temperature of 60℃±2℃;
b) The battery remains open circuit for 13 days at an ambient temperature of 60℃±2℃;
c) Reduce the battery temperature to 25℃±2℃, and adjust the electrolyte level in each
single battery to the specified position if necessary;
d) After the battery is charged for 6 h according to 5.2.2.2 constant voltage and limited
current, it is left open circuit and stands still for 20 h at an ambient temperature of
25℃±2℃;
e) The battery is discharged at a current of 0.6Icc (A) for 30s at an ambient temperature of
25℃±2℃. The change in current value during the discharge time shall be no greater than
±0.5%. Record the battery terminal voltage at 30s.
The above constitutes a complete test cycle from a) to e). When the battery terminal voltage at
30 s is lower than 7.2V, the test shall be terminated.
5.9.2 Cycle endurance I test
5.9.2.1 Test conditions
After the battery is fully charged according to 5.2.2, it shall be kept at an ambient temperature
of 25℃±2℃ according to the method of 5.2.4. At the same time, for normal water loss batteries,
the electrolyte level in each single battery shall be adjusted to the specified position; but for
low water loss batteries, micro water loss batteries, and valve-regulated batteries, the electrolyte
level shall not be adjusted.
5.9.2.2 Test process
The battery is tested according to the following procedures:
a) The battery is discharged at 5In(A) for 2 h. The change in current value during the
discharge time shall be no greater than ±1%, and the discharge voltage shall be no less
than 10.50V, otherwise the test shall be terminated;
b) Charge at U (V) constant voltage in Table 4 for up to 5 h; with a maximum current limit
of 5 In (A), and record the charging capacity Crch (A·h); once the charge-discharge ratio
CR reaches the value specified in Table 4, then Charging stops;
c) If after procedure b), the value of the charge-discharge ratio is lower than the value
specified in Table 4, continue to supplement the charge with the current I (A) specified
in Table 4 until the required charge-discharge ratio is reached; or until reach the
maximum 1h charging cycle.
The above constitutes a complete test cycle from a) to c). The terminal voltage of the battery
shall be no lower than 10.50V during cyclic discharge; otherwise, the test shall be terminated,
or until the number of cycles reaches the number specified in 4.8.3;
After that, the battery does not need to be recharged; and is started and discharged at -18 ℃ ±
1 ℃ low temperature according to the method in 5.5.1. When the discharge current is 0.6Icc (A),
and the discharge time is 30s, then the battery terminal voltage shall be no less than 7.2V.
After recharging according to method 5.2.2, conduct a 20-hour rate capacity test according to
method 5.4.1. It is required that the discharge capacity shall be no less than 0.5Cn.
5.9.4 Cycle endurance III test
5.9.4.1 Test conditions
After the battery is fully charged according to 5.2.2, it shall be kept at an ambient temperature
of 40℃±2℃ according to the method of 5.2.4. At the same time, the height of the electrolyte
level in each single battery shall be adjusted to the specified position if necessary.
5.9.4.2 Test process
The battery is tested according to the following procedures:
a) Discharge for 1 h with the current in Table 5;
b) Charge for 5 h with the current in Table 5;
c) The above constitutes a complete test cycle from a) to b); 25-time cycling are one cycle.
After completing one cycle, fully charge with the current in Table 5; and then conduct a
capacity test with the current in Table 5, with a termination voltage of 10.2V;
d) Calculate the discharge capacity. When the battery capacity is higher than 0.4Ce, conduct
the next cycle test. Otherwise, the test is terminated and cannot be included in the test
cycle.
......
 
Source: Above contents are excerpted from the PDF -- translated/reviewed by: www.chinesestandard.net / Wayne Zheng et al.