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GB/T 41344.4-2022 PDF in English

GB/T 41344.4-2022 (GB/T41344.4-2022, GBT 41344.4-2022, GBT41344.4-2022)
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Standards related to: GB/T 41344.4-2022

GB/T 41344.4-2022: PDF in English (GBT 41344.4-2022)

GB/T 41344.4-2022
ICS 13.110
CCS J 09
Safety of machinery -- Risk early-warning -- Part 4:
Issued by: State Administration for Market Regulation;
Standardization Administration of PRC.
Table of Contents
Foreword ... 3
Introduction ... 5
1 Scope ... 7
2 Normative references ... 7
3 Terms and Definitions ... 7
4 Process of early-warning measures ... 8
5 Input of the early-warning level ... 9
6 Early-warning measures ... 9
6.1 Types of measures ... 9
6.2 Levels of the measures ... 11
7 Upgrade of the early-warnings ... 12
8 Evaluation of the measures ... 12
9 Cancellation of the early-warnings ... 12
Appendix A (Informative) Application example of the early-warning measures ... 13
References ... 19
Safety of machinery -- Risk early-warning -- Part 4:
1 Scope
This document specifies the process of early-warning measures, the input of early-
warning levels, the early-warning measures, the upgrade of the early-warning, the
evaluation of measures, and the cancellation of early-warnings.
This document applies to risk reduction measures or protective measures in risk early-
warning related to the safety of machinery.
2 Normative references
The following documents are essential to the application of this document. For the dated
documents, only the versions with the dates indicated are applicable to this document;
for the undated documents, only the latest version (including all the amendments) is
applicable to this standard.
GB/T 30174-2013 Safety of machinery -- Terms
GB/T 41344.1-2022 Safety of machinery -- Risk early-warning -- Part 1: General
GB/T 41344.3-2022 Safety of machinery -- Risk early-warning -- Part 3:
3 Terms and Definitions
The terms and definitions defined in GB/T 30174-2013, GB/T 41344.1-2022 and the
followings apply to this document.
3.1 Light signal
Visual identification signs of different levels of risk represented by lights of specific
3.2 Acoustical signal
An auditory alarm emitted by the risk early-warning system according to the level after
The types of early-warning measures mainly include information measures, manual
measures, and mechanical measures. Select one or more types as required to achieve
the purpose of hazard elimination or risk reduction.
Note: See Appendix A for examples of the application of early-warning measures.
6.1.2 Information measures
Information measures mainly include visual signals, auditory signals, text files, etc.
a) Visual signals shall be selected according to different risk levels, and shall have a
great degree of discrimination; at the same time, it is necessary to consider the
definition of the display of the signal in the environment. Visual signals include
but are not limited to:
1) Light signals: lights or combinations of different colors, for example,
2) Screen display: display warning graphics on the screen;
3) Warning signs: highlight the warning signs set in place.
b) Auditory signal: Select the corresponding acoustical signal according to different
risk levels, and the signal shall have a high degree of identification; at the same
time, it is necessary to consider some influencing factors, such as the acoustical
signal’s capability of passing through obstacles, the duration, and hearing
threshold of human. The influencing factors include at least, but are not limited
1) Sound of the alarm;
2) Voice warning.
c) The text file is used to release the early-warning information; the content of the
file includes the early-warning time, the information on which the early-warning
is classified, the method of early-warning classification, the result of early-
warning classification, etc. The documents shall be archived, and the enterprise
can determine the retention period and the scope of use of the documents
according to its own conditions for subsequent use.
6.1.3 Manual measures Immediate measures
Immediate measures shall be taken for manual intervention when the following
situations occur:
--- When the risk is low, but the manual operation is necessary;
--- When the early-warning hasn’t been responded to and the risk upgrades;
--- When automatic measures are insufficient to prevent the dangers.
Manual intervention measures include, but are not limited to:
--- Manually issue the warnings, etc.;
--- Manually and forcibly control the machines and equipment to perform an
emergency stop, power-off, and other operations. Non-immediate measures
Non-immediate measures mainly include behavior management measures, equipment
management measures, etc.
a) Behavior management measures include, but are not limited to:
1) Safety education: enable personnel to consciously wear protective equipment
as required and operate according to operating procedures;
2) Skill training;
3) Establish a sound safety management system.
b) Equipment management measures include, but are not limited to:
1) Set up warning signs on residual risk equipment;
2) Give information about the use of equipment;
3) Inspect and maintain the equipment regularly.
6.1.4 Mechanical measures
Mechanical measures mainly refer to the measures taken by the machine itself, such as
deceleration and shutdown of the robots, the operation of avoiding obstacles by the
automatic guided vehicles (AGVs) automatically after encountering people.
6.2 Levels of the measures
According to the early-warning levels classified in GB/T 41344.3-2022, the early-
warning measures shall be divided into four levels: level-IV measures, level-III
measures, level-II measures, and level-I measures; see Table 1 for details.
robot fixture will cause the workpiece to fly out and hurt people; the strength of
the holding force can be judged by monitoring the air supply pressure;
d) Workplace’s ambient temperature (θ) and humidity (H): Abnormalities of θ and
H will accelerate the wear of robot parts and cause the occurrence of the
malfunction of the robot; the ambient temperature and humidity of the workplace
can be monitored through the temperature and humidity sensor.
A.4 Determination of models and weights
Select the risk value calculation model of formula (1) of GB/T 41344.3-2022. By
analyzing historical data and using the expert consultation weight method, determine
the weight of each element as shown in Table A.2. Among them, if the limiting cases
are monitored, such as the distance between the person and the machine is 0
mm< L< 1000 mm, the vibration acceleration value of the robot fastening screw is
a≥10×10-3 m/s2, the air supply pressure of the fixture is 0 kPa< P≤470 kPa or 530
kPa≤P< 1000 kPa, the temperature is θ< 5 °C or θ>45 °C, and the relative humidity is
95%≤H< 100%, then the risk value RvN=1; at this time, the early-warning level is level-
The calculation of the risk value (Rvi) of the single factor according to formula (A.1):
M1 --- Element of the index;
M2 --- Early-warning index;
M3 --- Risk value of the factor;
M4 --- Monitored value; if an element is monitored, then M4=1; if it is not monitored,
then M4=0.
Except for the limiting case where the risk value is RvN=1, the real-time risk value (Rvi)
can be calculated by applying formula (1), formula (A.1), and Table A.2 of GB/T
41344.3-2022; see formula (A.2).
When α1, β1, β2, γ1, γ2 is taken as the maximum value respectively, the maximum risk
value is Rvmax=0.75.
When α1, β1, β2, γ1, γ2 is taken as the minimum value respectively, the minimum risk
Source: Above contents are excerpted from the PDF -- translated/reviewed by: www.chinesestandard.net / Wayne Zheng et al.