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GB/T 40801-2021 (GB/T40801-2021)

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GB/T 40801-2021
ICS 25.160.10
CCS J 33
Welding Procedure Qualification Tests for Titanium,
Zirconium and Their Alloys
(ISO 15614-5:2004, Specification and Qualification of Welding Procedures for
Metallic Materials – Welding Procedure Test – Part 5: Arc Welding of
Titanium, Zirconium and Their Alloys, MOD)
Issued by: State Administration for Market Regulation;
Standardization Administration of the People’s Republic of China.
Table of Contents
Foreword ... 4
1 Scope ... 7
2 Normative References ... 7
3 Terms and Definitions ... 8
4 Pre-Welding Procedure Specification (pWPS) ... 8
5 Evaluation Test of Welding Process ... 8
6 Test Piece ... 8
6.1 General ... 8
6.2 Shape and size of test pieces ... 9
6.2.1 General ... 9
6.2.2 Full penetration plate butt welds ... 9
6.2.3 Full penetration pipe butt welds ... 10
6.2.4 T-joints ... 10
6.2.5 Branch pipe connection ... 11
6.3 Welding of test pieces ... 12
7 Test and Inspection ... 12
7.1 Test content ... 12
7.2 Sampling location of specimen ... 13
7.3 Non-destructive testing ... 16
7.4 Destructive test ... 16
7.4.1 General ... 16
7.4.2 Transverse tensile test ... 16
7.4.3 Bending test ... 17
7.4.4 Macrostructure/microstructure metallography test ... 18
7.5 Qualification level ... 18
7.6 Color and luster ... 18
7.7 Retest ... 18
8 Approval Range ... 19
8.1 Overview ... 19
8.2 Conditions related to the manufacturer ... 19
8.3 Conditions related to materials ... 19
8.3.1 Mother metal group ... 19
8.3.2 Mother metal thickness and tube diameter ... 20
8.3.3 angle of branch pipe ... 21
8.4 General of welding process ... 22
8.4.1 Welding method ... 22
8.4.2 Welding location ... 22
8.4.3 Types of joints ... 22
8.4.4 Welding materials and models ... 23
8.4.5 Type of current ... 23
8.4.6 Inter-pass temperature ... 23
8.4.7 Post-weld heat treatment ... 23
8.4.8 Back gas protection ... 23
8.4.9 Welding with protective chamber ... 23
8.5 Special requirements for different welding methods ... 23
8.5.1 Metal inert-gas arc welding ... 23
8.5.2 Tungsten Inert gas arc welding ... 24
8.5.3 Plasma arc welding ... 24
9 Welding Procedure Qualification Report (WPQR) ... 24
Appendix A (Informative) Guide to Classification of Titanium, Zirconium and Their
Alloys Materials ... 25
Appendix B (Informative) Format of Welding Procedure Qualification Report (WPQR)
... 26
Appendix C (Informative) Correspondence of EN Documents and ISO Documents in
ISO 15614-5:2004 ... 30
Bibliography ... 31
Welding Procedure Qualification Tests for Titanium,
Zirconium and Their Alloys
1 Scope
This Document specifies the test methods and requirements for welding procedure evaluation
for titanium, zirconium and their alloys.
This Document applies to welding procedure evaluation for arc welding of titanium, zirconium
and their alloys (metal inert-gas welding, tungsten inert gas welding, and plasma arc welding).
2 Normative References
The provisions in following documents become the essential provisions of this Document
through reference in this Document. For the dated documents, only the versions with the dates
indicated are applicable to this Document; for the undated documents, only the latest version
(including all the amendments) is applicable to this Document.
GB/T 2651 Tensile Test Method on Welded Joints (GB/T 2651-2008, ISO 4136:2001, IDT)
GB/T 2653 Bend Test Methods on Welded Joints (GB/T 2653-2008, ISO 5173:2000, IDT)
GB/T 3323.1 Non-Destructive Testing of Welds - Radiographic Testing - Part 1: X- and
Gamma- Ray Techniques with Film (GB/T 3323.1-2019, ISO 17636-1:2013, MOD)
GB/T 3323.2 Non-Destructive Testing of Welds - Radiographic Testing - Part 2: X- and
Gamma- Ray Techniques with Digital Detectors (GB/T 3323.2-2019, ISO 17636-2:2013,
GB/T 16672 Welds-Working Positions-Definitions of Angles of Slope and Rotation (GB/T
16672-1996, ISO 6947:1990, IDT)
GB/T 18851.1 Non-Destructive Testing - Penetrant Testing - Part 1: General Principles
(GB/T 18851.1-2012, ISO 3452-1:2008, IDT)
GB/T 19805 Qualification Test of Welding Operators (GB/T 19805-2005, ISO 14732:1998,
GB/T 19866 Specification and Qualification of Welding Procedures for Metallic Materials
- General Rules (GB/T 19866-2005, ISO 15607:2003, IDT)
GB/T 19867.1 Welding Procedure Specification for Arc Welding (GB/T 19867.1-2005,
ISO 15609-1:2004, IDT)
GB/T 19868.4 Welding Procedure Qualification Based on Pre-Production Welding Test
(GB/T 19868.4-2005, ISO 15613:2004, IDT)
GB/T 26955 Destructive Tests on Welds in Metallic Materials - Macroscopic and
Microscopic Examination of Welds (GB/T 26955-2011, ISO 17639:2003, MOD)
GB/T 32259 Non-Destructive Testing of Welds - Visual Testing of Fusion-Welded Joints
(GB/T 32259-2015, ISO 17637:2003, MOD)
GB/T 36234 Qualification Testing of Welders for Fusion Welding on Titanium and
Titanium Alloys, Zirconium and Zirconium Alloys (GB/T 36234-2018, ISO 9606-5:2000,
GB/T 39255 Gases and Gas Mixtures for Welding and Cutting Processes (GB/T 39255-
2020, ISO 14175:2008, MOD)
3 Terms and Definitions
For the purposes of this Document, the terms and definitions given in GB/T 19866 apply.
4 Pre-Welding Procedure Specification (pWPS)
The pre-welding procedure specification shall be formulated according to GB/T 19867.1.
5 Evaluation Test of Welding Process
Welding and testing of test pieces shall comply with the provisions of Clauses 6 and 7 of this
On the premise that the relevant test requirements are met, the welder or welding operator who
has passed the welding procedure qualification test in accordance with this Document shall
obtain the qualification for the corresponding scope of GB/T 36234 or GB/T 19805.
6 Test Piece
6.1 General
The test piece shall be a standard test piece; and its processing shall comply with the relevant
provisions of 6.2. The welding process used in the preparation of the test piece shall be
consistent with the pre-welding process specification and be representative of actual production.
When the standard test piece is not applicable, the pre-production welding test piece shall be
For pipes with an outer diameter greater than 50mm, the reinforcement on the inner and outer
surfaces of the pipe shall be removed so that the thickness of the specimen is the same as that
of the pipe wall.
For pipes with an outer diameter less than or equal to 50mm, when taking the overall sampling
by a small pipe, the reinforcement on the inner surface of the pipe may be retained.
Unless otherwise specified, the tensile strength of the specimen shall be no lower than the lower
limit of the relevant mother metal.
The tensile strength of dissimilar material joints shall be no lower than the lower limit of the
lower mother metal.
7.4.3 Bending test
Bending specimens and tests of butt joints shall comply with the provisions of GB/T 2653.
When the thickness is less than 12mm, two normal bend and root bend specimens shall be made,
respectively. When the thickness is greater than or equal to 12 mm, it is recommended to make
4 side bending specimens instead of the normal bend and root bend specimens.
For butt joints of dissimilar metals or dissimilar materials, two longitudinal bend specimens
(one normal bend and root bend) may be used instead of four transverse bend specimens.
Except for Group 51 materials, which shall adopt be 4t, the bend diameter (or drum diameter)
of other materials shall be 6t during the bending test. When the mother metal elongation A ≥
20%, the bending angle is 180°. When the mother metal elongation A < 20%, the following
Formula shall be used:
d – bend diameter or drum diameter;
ts – thickness of bend specimen;
A – minimum elongation specified by the material specification.
The specimen shall be bent evenly during the test; and the weld, heat-affected zone and mother
metal shall be evenly attached to the bending surface of the bending tool.
During the test, the specimen shall not have cracks larger than 3mm in any direction; and the
cracks in the corners of the specimen shall be ignored during the evaluation.
7.4.4 Macrostructure/microstructure metallography test
The specimen shall be prepared according to the provisions of GB/T 26955 and etched on one
side to clearly show the fusion line, the heat affected zone and the weld bead of each layer.
Macrostructure metallography test shall include unaffected mother metal; and at least one
macrostructure metallography record shall be made for each process test.
The qualification levels specified in 7.5 shall be used.
Care shall be taken to avoid crack-like indications when eroding certain alloys.
7.5 Qualification level
If the defect in the test piece is within the range of the Level-B limit specified in GB/T 19418,
the welding process is judged to be qualified (except for the following defect types, such as:
excessive weld metal, excessive bulge, excessive weld thickness and collapse, the limit of these
defects shall be Level-C).
NOTE: See GB/T 34628 for the relationship between the quality grades of GB/T 19418 and the
qualification levels of different non-destructive testing methods.
7.6 Color and luster
Qualified colors for the weld metal surface are silver and yellow. Narrow dark bands are
permitted near the shielding gas boundary. Dark brown, purple, blue, gray or off-white are
7.7 Retest
If the test piece does not meet the requirements for visual inspection or non-destructive testing
specified in 7.5, another test piece shall be welded and the same test shall be carried out. If this
additional test piece still fails to meet these requirements, the welding procedure qualification
test fails.
If the specimen does not meet the destructive test requirements specified in 7.4 only because of
welding defects, two additional specimens shall be attached for each non-conformance item.
These additional specimens can be taken from the same test piece (if the material is large
enough), or from a newly welded test piece. Each additional specimen shall be for the original
test that failed. If any one of the additional specimens fails to meet the requirements, the
welding procedure evaluation fails.
When the tensile test does not meet the requirements of 7.4.2, two identical tensile specimens
shall be additionally made for each unqualified specimen. These two additional tensile tests
shall meet the requirements of 7.4.2 to be considered qualified.
conditions of α ≤ α1 ≤ 90 °; it shall be applied to all branch pipe angles, α1.
8.4 General of welding process
8.4.1 Welding method
The degree of mechanization shall be evaluated alone (manual, partial mechanization, full
mechanization and automation).
Evaluation is only effective to the welding method used in the welding procedure qualification
For the process with a variety of welding methods, welding procedure evaluation can be
performed using separate welding procedure qualification tests for each method. A welding
procedure qualification including multiple methods can also be used. Such test evaluation is
only valid for the sequence of welding methods used in the multi-method process evaluation
NOTE: Avoid using a variety of methods to evaluate any single method, unless this method test is carried
out in accordance with the provisions of this Document.
8.4.2 Welding location
Welding test on any location (board or pipe) is suitable for welding of all locations (plates or
pipes), except for the vertical-down (PG) and 45 ° tilted-pipe vertical-down (J-L045) locations,
these locations need to make a separate evaluation.
8.4.3 Types of joints
In addition to being limited by other terms (such as diameter, thickness), the evaluation of joint
types also includes the following additional conditions:
a) Butt welds are approved for full-penetration and semi-penetration butt welds and fillet
welds. When the product welds are mainly fillet welds, fillet weld evaluation shall be
carried out.
b) The butt joint of the pipe is approved for a branch pipe joint (branch pipe angle ≥ 60°).
c) Butt welds of T-joints are only approved for butt welds and fillet welds of T-joints, see a).
d) The single-sided butt welding without backing is approved for the double-sided welding
and single-sided welding with backing.
e) The single-sided welding with backing is approved for double-sided welding.
f) Fillet welds are only approved for fillet welds.
g) It is not allowed to change multi-pass welding to single-pass welding (or double-sided
single-pass welding), and vice versa is not allowed.
8.4.4 Welding materials and models
Welding materials can replace other types of welding materials as long as they have the same
mechanical properties and the same nominal composition as specified in the relevant welding
8.4.5 Type of current
The approval range is the type of current (AC, DC, pulsed current) and polarity used in the
welding procedure qualification test.
8.4.6 Inter-pass temperature
The approved upper limit is the highest temperature reached between weld passes during the
welding procedure qualification test.
8.4.7 Post-weld heat treatment
It is not allowed to add or cancel post-weld heat treatment.
Unless otherwise specified, the effective temperature range of heat treatment is ± 20 ℃ of the
holding temperature during the process evaluation test. If necessary, the heating rate, cooling
rate and holding time shall be consistent with the actual production.
8.4.8 Back gas protection
No back gas protection is approved with back gas protection, and vice versa is not allowed.
8.4.9 Welding with protective chamber
Welding without a protective chamber is approved for welding with a protective chamber, and
vice versa is not allowed.
8.5 Special requirements for different welding methods
8.5.1 Metal inert-gas arc welding The approvals of protective gas for front, tail cover and back are limited to the gas types
specified in GB/T 39255. The approval range for non-standard protective gases is limited to the
nominal composition used in the test. The approval of welding materials is limited to the welding wire configuration (e.g.,
single-wire or multi-wire) used in the welding procedure qualification test. For solid welding wire, short-circuit transitions are only approved for short-circuit
transitions. Jet transition and particle transition recognize both transition methods.
(Above excerpt was released on 2022-04-20, modified on 2022-04-20, translated/reviewed by: Wayne Zheng et al.)
Source: https://www.chinesestandard.net/PDF.aspx/GBT40801-2021