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GB/T 37930-2019 PDF in English

GB/T 37930-2019 (GB/T37930-2019, GBT 37930-2019, GBT37930-2019)
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GB/T 37930-2019: PDF in English (GBT 37930-2019)

GB/T 37930-2019
ICS 19.100
N 78
Non-destructive Testing Instruments - Technical
Specifications of X-ray Real-time Imaging System for
Automobile Wheel
Issued by: State Administration for Market Regulation;
Standardization Administration of the People’s Republic of
Table of Contents
Foreword ... 3 
1 Scope ... 4 
2 Normative References ... 4 
3 Terms and Definitions ... 4 
4 Testing Personnel ... 8 
5 X-ray Real-time Imaging Testing System ... 8 
6 Imaging Technology ... 10 
7 Image Quality ... 14 
8 Image Display and Observation ... 16 
9 Image Evaluation ... 17 
10 Test Report ... 17 
11 Image Storage ... 17 
12 Process Evaluation ... 18 
Appendix A (Normative) Standard Image Grayscale Test Paper ... 20 
Appendix B (Normative) Testing Methods for Resolution and Image
Unsharpness ... 21 
Appendix C (Normative) Process Evaluation ... 24 
Non-destructive Testing Instruments - Technical
Specifications of X-ray Real-time Imaging System for
Automobile Wheel
1 Scope
This Standard stipulates the system composition, X-ray detector, testing environment,
testing technology, imaging technology, image quality, image display and observation,
image evaluation, test report, image storage and process evaluation of X-ray real-time
imaging testing instrument for automobile wheel.
This Standard is applicable to X-ray real-time imaging testing instrument for automobile
2 Normative References
The following documents are indispensable to the application of this document. In
terms of references with a specified date, only versions with a specified date are
applicable to this document. In terms of references without a specified date, the latest
version (including all the modifications) is applicable to this document.
GB 18871 Basic Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety
of Radiation Sources;
GB/T 23903 Resolution Indicators for Ray Image;
JB/T 4730.2-2016 Non-destructive Testing of Pressure Equipment - Part 2:
Radiographic Testing;
JB/T 7902 Non-destructive Testing - Specification for Wire-type Image Quality
ASTM E155 Reference Radiographs for Inspection of Aluminum and Magnesium
3 Terms and Definitions
The following terms and definitions are applicable to this document.
3.1 X-ray Digital Radioscopy
X-ray digital radioscopy refers to an imaging method, which adopts photoelectric
Flat panel detector refers to an X-ray detector which receives and converts into image
data output through flat panel two-dimensional image detector array after X-ray is
converted into optical (electric) signal through a conversion screen.
3.8 Linear Diode Array; LDA
Linear diode array refers to an X-ray detector which receives and converts into digital
signals through linear array image sensor after X-ray is converted into optical (electric)
signal through a conversion screen.
NOTE: linear diode array needs to utilize the relative motion with objects to form a digital
image of the testing zone.
3.9 Image Intensifier Tube; IIT
Image intensifier tube refers to a device which utilizes the method of photoelectric
multiple to obtain high-brightness visible light image on the output screen after X-ray
is converted into visible light through a scintillator.
NOTE: generally speaking, it couples with CCD (charge coupled device) or CMOS
(complementary metal oxide semiconductor), then, outputs video electrical signals
or direct digital signals.
3.10 Sensitivity
Sensitivity refers to the minimum diameter of image quality indicator that is visible to
the naked eyes in the displayed perspective image.
NOTE: it shall be expressed in image quality indicators.
3.11 Dynamic Range
Dynamic range refers to the ratio of the maximum value that a detector can output to
the dark field signal standard deviation under the condition of conducting no calibration.
3.12 Pixel
Pixel refers to the minimum constitutional unit of digital image and the minimum
geometric dimension that can be identified in display image.
NOTE: different grayscale values of various pixels constitute different brightness of digital
3.13 Line Pair
Line pair is constituted of a line and a spacing, and the width of the spacing equals to
the width of the line.
NOTE: the number of identifiable line pairs within the range of each millimeter of width is
NOTE: signal to noise ratio is used to evaluate digital image’s noise amplitude; it is a
decisive influencing factor in sensitivity testing.
4 Testing Personnel
Personnel engaged in X-ray digital imaging testing shall obtain non-destructive testing
qualification of corresponding items and grades, then, they may be allowed in
corresponding work.
Testing personnel shall possess knowledge related with the testing technology and
grasp corresponding basic computer operating methods.
Testing personnel shall be able to identify 25 pieces of full data on the image in
Appendix A from a digital imaging system display within 1 min.
5 X-ray Real-time Imaging Testing System
5.1 System Composition
X-ray real-time imaging system is mainly constituted of X-ray machine, X-ray detector,
computer image processing system, mechanical transmission system and testing
equipment and tooling, etc.
5.2 X-ray Machine
In accordance with the thickness and texture of the tested part of automobile wheel,
and the focal length, select X-ray machine’s energy range. The dimension of X-ray
tube focus shall be not more than 3.0 mm.
5.3 X-ray Detector
In accordance with different testing requirements and testing conditions, the following
X-ray detectors may be selected:
---Flat panel detector;
---Linear diode array detector;
---Image intensifier tube;
---Other detectors that have similar functions as mentioned above.
5.4 X-ray Air Kerma Rate
Under the rated working conditions, the leaking ray air Kerma rate of X-ray device at a
distance of 1 m from X-ray tube focus shall comply with the requirements in Table 1.
20 lp/mm ~ 28 lp/mm, static sensitivity is superior to 2.5% and dynamic sensitivity is
superior to 3.5%. When resolution is excessively low, image sharpness might become
worse; when resolution is excessively high, the signal to noise ratio and dynamic range
of images would become lower.
NOTE: 1 in = 25.4 mm.
Or, in accordance with detailed requirements, flat panel detector and other detectors
may be adopted.
5.6.2 Testing of system resolution
After a system is determined or altered, its resolution shall be tested.
Adopt the radiographic testing system resolution indicator described in GB/T 23903 to
test system resolution. Please refer to Appendix B for system resolution testing method.
5.6.3 Validation of system resolution
Under the condition of unchanged system, in every 30 d, system resolution shall be
validated at least once; validation record shall also be kept. When abnormal image
quality is found, system resolution shall be validated at any time.
6 Imaging Technology
6.1 X-ray Tube Voltage
X-ray energy shall select relatively low tube voltage. Figure 1 stipulates the maximum
X-ray tube voltage that is allowed to be adopted under different materials and different
transillumination thicknesses.
6.5.3 Imaging mode Static imaging
Under the static state of automobile wheel, the detector absorbs a larger radiation dose,
then, generates image data, which obtains testing images through multi-frame
overlaying (or uniform) processing. The testing images shall be considered as a basis
for original image data storage and quality evaluation. Dynamic imaging
When automobile wheel is in uniform motion, dynamically observe the testing images.
This method may be applied to general quality inspection beyond the testing range.
Due to the relatively small absorbed dose, large noise and low sharpness of the
detector, dynamic real-time image cannot be considered as a basis for the grading of
welding quality.
6.5.4 Image marking On the testing images, information that is advantageous to image evaluation
and validation, such as workpiece No., base metal thickness, external diameter, testing
personnel and testing date, shall at least be marked. When the same welding seam is
saved as multiple testing image files, each image shall contain the above-mentioned
information. In image storage, marking information shall be directly written into image
files by software and shall be irreversible; there is no need to use typeface images
here. When the same test part is under continuous testing, the serial No. of multiple
testing images shall be continuous and automatically set up by system software. Through system software, provide positioning indication of the central position
of testing images and the range of one-time transillumination length. In the images,
center marking, and typeface image, which overlaps and connects the marking are
6.5.5 Shielding of unwanted rays and scattered rays
Unwanted rays and scattered rays shall be shielded as much as possible. Proper
measures, such as lead plate, copper filter plate and collimator (grating) may be
adopted to shield unwanted rays and scattered rays; restrict the range of the irradiation
7 Image Quality
7.1 Sensitivity of Image Quality Indicator
7.1.1 Requirements of image quality indicator
7.3 Image Grayscale Distribution Range
Grayscale range of testing images within the valid evaluation zone should be controlled
between 40% ~ 90% of the system’s maximum grayscale range.
Through image grayscale histogram, directly measure image grayscale distribution
7.4 Timing of Image Evaluation
After the quality of testing images satisfies the stipulated requirements, defect grading
evaluation of the test parts may be conducted.
7.5 Testing Environment
Protection against ionizing radiation shall comply with the stipulations in GB 18871.
Temperature in operating chamber: 15 °C ~ 25 °C; relative humidity ≤ 80%.
Temperature in X-ray exposure chamber: 5 °C ~ 30 °C; relative humidity ≤ 80%; there
shall be air ventilation device inside the exposure chamber.
The fluctuation of power source and voltage shall be not more than ± 10%.
The outer shell of the testing equipment shall have favorable ground connection.
X-ray source high-voltage generator shall have independent ground electrode;
resistance ≤ 4 .
8 Image Display and Observation
8.1 Image Display
Testing images may be displayed on black-and-white display or color display through
the mode of positive image or negative image. Through the adjustment of the
brightness and contrast ratio of display, it shall guarantee that all data in the image in
Appendix A can be identified.
8.2 Image Observation
Under the environment of soft light, observe testing images. Image display screen shall
be clean; there shall be no obvious light reflection.
8.3 Paper Print Output of Images
Use high-definition printer to output paper testing images. The size of the printed
images shall be identical to the full size of the test part, so as to make it convenient for
on-site validation of defect locations and on-site quality analysis. Paper testing images
12 Process Evaluation
12.1 Through process test and evaluation, determine process parameters that can
satisfy the requirements of image quality, as it is shown in Appendix C.
12.2 After process conditions are changed, process evaluation shall be re-conducted.
12.3 There shall be necessary testing process files, which shall include the following
---Basis of testing;
---Scope of application;
---Personnel requirements;
---Equipment conditions;
---Parameters of workpieces;
---Spot check proportion;
---Timing of testing;
---System performance;
---Image quality requirements;
---Selection of image quality indicator;
---Stipulations of image quality indicator placement;
---Resolution tester;
---Mode of transillumination;
---Method of transillumination;
---Direction of transillumination;
---Geometric parameters and sketch maps;
---Parameters of transillumination;
---One-time transillumination length;
---Number of image frames;
B.3 Testing Methods for Image Resolution and Unsharpness
B.3.1 Testing methods
Place the resolution indicator for X-ray testing images in the position of the test part.
B.3.2 Determination of image resolution
On the display screen, observe images of the resolution indicator for X-ray testing
images. When a line pair with separated grid is observed, then, the corresponding
value of this line pair shall be image resolution.
B.3.3 Determination of image unsharpness
On the display screen, observe images of the resolution indicator for X-ray testing
images. When a line pair with superposed grid is observed, then, the corresponding
grid width of this line pair shall be image unsharpness.
B.4 Relations between System Resolution and Image Resolution
System resolution is image resolution when magnification equals to or approaches 1.
It eliminates the influence of process factors on image quality and purely reflects the
resolution of X-ray digital imaging equipment itself. When magnification is larger than
1, if the X-ray source adopts small focus, then, image resolution is generally higher
than system resolution; if focus dimension is relatively large, image resolution might
be lower than system resolution due to the influence of geometric unsharpness.
B.5 Conversion Relations between Image Resolution and Image Unsharpness
The conversion relations of image resolution and image unsharpness in magnitude is
“one-half of the reciprocal”.
Source: Above contents are excerpted from the PDF -- translated/reviewed by: www.chinesestandard.net / Wayne Zheng et al.