Powered by Google www.ChineseStandard.net Database: 189759 (16 Jun 2024)

GB/T 36276-2023 PDF in English


GB/T 36276-2023 (GB/T36276-2023, GBT 36276-2023, GBT36276-2023)
Standard IDContents [version]USDSTEP2[PDF] delivered inName of Chinese StandardStatus
GB/T 36276-2023English815 Add to Cart 0-9 seconds. Auto-delivery. Lithium ion battery for electrical energy storage Valid

PDF Preview

Standards related to: GB/T 36276-2023

GB/T 36276-2023: PDF in English (GBT 36276-2023)

GB/T 36276-2023
GB
NATIONAL STANDARD OF THE
PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF CHINA
ICS 27.180
CCS F 19
Replacing GB/T 36276-2018
Lithium ion battery for electrical energy storage
ISSUED ON: DECEMBER 28, 2023
IMPLEMENTED ON: JULY 01, 2024
Issued by: State Administration for Market Regulation;
Standardization Administration of PRC.
Table of Contents
Foreword ... 3
1 Scope ... 7
2 Normative references ... 7
3 Terms, definitions, symbols... 7
4 Encoding ... 10
5 Technical requirements ... 12
6 Test methods ... 23
7 Inspection rules ... 76
8 Marking, packaging, transportation, storage ... 84
Appendix A (Normative) Battery operating parameters ... 86
Appendix B (Informative) Battery specification parameters ... 90
Lithium ion battery for electrical energy storage
1 Scope
This document specifies the appearance, size and mass, electrical performance,
environmental adaptability, durability performance, safety performance and other
requirements of lithium-ion batteries for electric energy storage (referred to as "lithium-
ion batteries"); describes the corresponding test methods; stipulates coding, normal
working environment, inspection rules, marking, packaging, transportation and storage,
etc.
This document applies to the design, manufacturing, testing, inspection, operation,
maintenance, and overhaul of lithium-ion batteries for electrical energy storage.
2 Normative references
The contents of the following documents constitute essential provisions of this
document through normative references in the text. Among them, for dated reference
documents, only the version corresponding to the date applies to this document; for
undated reference documents, the latest version (including all amendments) applies to
this document.
GB/T 191 Packaging - Pictorial marking for handling of goods
GB/T 2828.1 Sampling procedures for inspection by attributes - Part1:Sampling
schemes indexed by acceptance quality limit (AQL) for lot-by-lot inspection
GB/T 4857 (all parts) Packaging - Transport packages
GB/T 5398 Test methods for large transport packages
GB/T 16471 Dimensional and weight constraints for transport package
DL/T 2528 Basic terminology of electric energy storage
3 Terms, definitions, symbols
3.1 Terms and definitions
The terms and definitions as defined in DL/T 2528, as well as the following terms and
definitions, apply to this document.
f) The initial charge energy range is not greater than 4.0% of the average initial
charge energy under 25 °C;
g) The initial discharge energy range is not greater than 4.0% of the average initial
discharge energy under 25 °C.
5.3.1.2 Battery module
The initial charge-discharge performance of the battery module under rated power
conditions shall meet the following requirements:
a) The initial charge energy is not less than the rated charge energy;
b) The initial discharge energy is not less than the rated discharge energy;
c) The initial charge-discharge energy efficiency is not less than 85.0% under 5 °C;
d) The initial charge-discharge energy efficiency is not less than 94.0% under 25 °C;
e) The initial charge-discharge energy efficiency is not less than 94.0% under 45 °C;
f) The initial charge energy range is not greater than 4.5% of the average initial
charge energy under 25 °C;
g) The initial discharge energy range is not greater than 4.5% of the average initial
discharge energy under 25 °C.
5.3.1.3 Battery cluster
The initial charge-discharge performance of the battery cluster under rated power
conditions shall meet the following requirements:
a) The initial charge energy is not less than the rated charge energy;
b) The initial discharge energy is not less than the rated discharge energy;
c) The initial charge-discharge energy efficiency is not less than 95.0%;
d) The battery cell voltage range at the end of charge is not greater than 250 mV;
e) The battery cell voltage range at the end of discharge is not greater than 300 mV;
f) The temperature range of the battery cells at the end of charge shall not be greater
than 6 °C;
g) The temperature range of the battery cells at the end of discharge shall not be
greater than 6 °C;
h) The voltage range of the battery module at the end of charge is not greater than
5.0% of the nominal voltage of the battery module;
i) The voltage range of the battery module at the end of discharge shall not be greater
than 5.0% of the nominal voltage of the battery module.
5.3.2 Power characteristics
5.3.2.1 Battery cells
The power characteristics of the battery cell shall meet the following requirements:
a) The charge energy under different charge-discharge powers is not less than the
rated charge energy;
b) The discharge energy under different charge-discharge powers is not less than the
rated discharge energy;
c) The energy efficiency under different charge-discharge powers is not less than
93.0%.
5.3.2.2 Battery module
Battery module power characteristics shall meet the following requirements:
a) The charge energy under different charge-discharge powers is not less than the
rated charge energy;
b) The discharge energy under different charge-discharge powers is not less than the
rated discharge energy;
c) The energy efficiency under different charge-discharge powers is not less than
94.0%.
5.3.3 Rate charge-discharge performance
5.3.3.1 Battery cells
The battery cell's rate charge-discharge performance shall meet the following
requirements:
a) The energy retention rate of 2Prc charge energy, as relative to Prc charge energy, is
not less than 95.0%;
b) The energy retention rate of 2Prd discharge energy, as relative to Prd discharge
energy, is not less than 95.0%;
c) The energy efficiency of constant power charge-discharge of 2Prc and 2Prd is not
less than 90.0%.
b) The discharge energy is not less than the rated discharge energy;
c) Energy efficiency is not less than 93.0%.
5.4.1.2 Battery module
The charge-discharge performance of the battery module, after returning to room
temperature from a high temperature environment, shall meet the following
requirements:
a) The charge energy is not less than the rated charge energy;
b) The discharge energy is not less than the rated discharge energy;
c) Energy efficiency is not less than 94.0%.
5.4.2 Low temperature adaptability
5.4.2.1 Battery cells
The charge-discharge performance of the battery cell, after returning to room
temperature from a low temperature environment, shall meet the following
requirements:
a) The charge energy is not less than the rated charge energy;
b) The discharge energy is not less than the rated discharge energy;
c) The energy efficiency is not less than 93.0%.
5.4.2.2 Battery module
The charge-discharge performance of the battery module, after returning to room
temperature from a low temperature environment, shall meet the following
requirements:
a) The charge energy is not less than the rated charge energy;
b) The discharge energy is not less than the rated discharge energy;
c) The energy efficiency is not less than 94.0%.
5.4.3 Initial charge-discharge performance at high altitude
In high-altitude environments, the initial charge-discharge performance of battery cells
under rated power conditions shall meet the following requirements:
a) The initial charge energy is not less than the rated charge energy;
b) The initial discharge energy is not less than the rated discharge energy;
c) The energy efficiency is not less than 93.0%.
5.5 Durability
5.5.1 Storage performance
5.5.1.1 Battery cells
Battery cells shall meet the following requirements, after being stored at 50% energy
state for 30 days:
a) The charge energy recovery rate is not less than 96.5%;
b) The discharge energy recovery rate is not less than 96.5%.
5.5.1.2 Battery module
The battery module shall meet the following requirements, after being stored at 50%
energy state for 30 days:
a) The charge energy recovery rate is not less than 97.0%;
b) The discharge energy recovery rate is not less than 97.0%.
5.5.2 Cycle performance
5.5.2.1 Battery cells
The cycle performance of the battery cell under rated power conditions shall meet the
following requirements:
a) The average energy loss in a single cycle of charge is not greater than the average
energy loss in a single cycle of charge, based on the rated charge energy;
b) The average value of energy loss in a single cycle of discharge is not greater than
the average value of energy loss in a single cycle of discharge, based on the rated
discharge energy;
c) The range of energy efficiency between all charge-discharge cycles is no more
than 2%.
5.5.2.2 Battery module
The cycle performance of the battery module under rated power conditions shall meet
the following requirements:
a) The average energy loss in a single cycle of charge is not greater than the average
5.6.1.3 Overload performance
5.6.1.3.1 Battery cells
When the battery cells are charged and discharged under the conditions of 4Prc and 4Prd,
they shall not leak, smoke, catch fire, explode, or rupture at locations other than
explosion-proof valves or pressure relief points.
5.6.1.3.2 Battery module
When the battery module is charged and discharged under the conditions of 4Prc and
4Prd, there shall be no leakage, smoke, fire, or explosion.
5.6.1.4 Short circuit performance
5.6.1.4.1 Battery cells
After the battery cells are subject to initial charge, the battery cells shall be short-
circuited to an external circuit of 1 mΩ for 10 minutes. They shall not catch fire, explode,
or rupture at locations other than explosion-proof valves or pressure relief points.
5.6.1.4.2 Battery module
After the battery module is subject to initial charge, it shall not catch fire or explode, if
it is short-circuited to an external circuit of 1 mΩ for 10 minutes or short-circuited to
an external circuit of 30 mΩ for 30 minutes.
5.6.1.5 Insulation performance
5.6.1.5.1 Battery module
The ratio -- of the insulation resistance to the nominal voltage between the positive
electrode of the battery module and the external exposed conductive part, and between
the negative electrode of the battery module and the external exposed conductive part,
shall not be less than 1000 Ω/V.
5.6.1.5.2 Battery cluster
The ratio -- of the insulation resistance to the nominal voltage between the positive
electrode of the battery cluster and the external exposed conductive part, and between
the negative electrode of the battery cluster and the external exposed conductive part,
shall not be less than 1000 Ω/V.
5.6.1.6 Withstanding voltage
5.6.1.6.1 Battery module
Apply corresponding voltage between the positive electrode of the battery module and
the external exposed conductive part, and between the negative electrode of the battery
module and the external exposed conductive part. Breakdown or flashover shall not
occur, meanwhile the DC withstand voltage leakage current shall be less than 10 mA.
5.6.1.6.2 Battery cluster
Apply corresponding voltage between the positive electrode of the battery cluster and
the external exposed conductive part, and between the negative electrode of the battery
cluster and the external exposed conductive part. Breakdown or flashover shall not
occur, meanwhile the DC withstand voltage leakage current shall be less than 10mA.
5.6.2 Mechanical safety performance
5.6.2.1 Extrusion resistance
5.6.2.1.1 Battery cells
After the battery cells are subject to initialized charge, they shall be kept under a
squeezing force of 50 kN for 10 minutes. There shall be no leakage, smoke, fire,
explosion, or rupture at locations other than the explosion-proof valve or pressure relief
point.
5.6.2.1.2 Battery module
After the battery module is subject to initialized charge, it shall be kept under a
squeezing force of 50 kN for 10 minutes. There shall be no leakage, smoke, fire, or
explosion.
5.6.2.2 Drop performance
5.6.2.2.1 Battery cells
After the battery cell is subject to initialized charge, it shall be dropped freely to the
concrete floor from a height of 1.5 m. It shall not smoke, catch fire, explode, or rupture
at locations other than the explosion-proof valve or pressure relief point.
5.6.2.2.2 Battery module
After the battery module is subject to initialized charge, it shall be freely dropped from
a height of 2 m to the concrete floor. It shall not catch fire or explode.
5.6.2.3 Vibration performance
After initialized charge, the battery module vibrates randomly in the three directions of
X, Y, Z axes. It shall not leak, smoke, catch fire, or explode. The insulation performance
shall meet the requirements of 5.6.1.5.1. The voltage resistance shall meet the
requirements of 5.6.1.6.1.
5.6.3.4.2 Battery cluster
In high-altitude environments, the withstanding voltage performance of battery clusters
shall meet the requirements of 5.6.1.6.2.
5.6.4 Thermal safety performance
5.6.4.1 Adiabatic temperature rise characteristics
The adiabatic temperature rise characteristics of battery cells shall meet the following
requirements:
a) When the surface temperature is less than or equal to the first-level high-
temperature alarm temperature of the battery cell, the temperature rise rate is less
than 0.02 °C/min;
b) No fire, no explosion, no rupture outside the explosion-proof valve or pressure
relief point.
5.6.4.2 Thermal runaway performance
During the entire life cycle of the battery cell, the surface temperature of the battery cell
shall be greater than 90 °C during thermal runaway. After thermal runaway, the battery
cell shall not catch fire, explode, or rupture at locations other than the explosion-proof
valve or pressure relief point.
5.6.4.3 Thermal runaway diffusion performance
When the temperature of any battery cell in the battery module rises, it shall not trigger
thermal runaway in other battery cells, cause fire, or explode. The insulation
performance shall meet the requirements of 5.6.1.5.1.
5.6.5 Alarm and protection functions
When the voltage, current, temperature, voltage range, temperature range, insulation
resistance and other parameters reach alarm values during the operation of the battery
cluster, an alarm signal shall be sent out and corresponding protection actions shall be
performed.
6 Test methods
6.1 Test conditions
6.1.1 Test environment
Unless otherwise specified, the test shall be conducted in an environment at a
temperature of 15 °C to 40 °C, a relative humidity of ≤ 80%, an atmospheric pressure
f) The test sample is connected to the test device through an external connector. The
external connector can withstand the maximum current during the test without
fusing;
g) Before the test, prepare a test plan and formulate safety protection measures based
on the safety risks of the test sample. During the electrical performance test,
environmental adaptability test, durability performance test process, if the test
sample has expansion, rupture, leakage, smoke, fire, explosion, etc., it shall
terminate all inspection items corresponding to the test sample.
6.2.2 Test line connection
6.2.2.1 Battery cells
Unless otherwise specified, battery cell's test circuit connections shall comply with the
following requirements:
a) Select test equipment based on test temperature, humidity, battery cell size,
voltage, power and other parameters;
b) The positive and negative poles of the battery cells are connected to the test
equipment through input and output cables, to form a current loop;
c) The positive and negative electrodes of the battery cells are connected to the test
equipment through voltage data sampling lines, to form a voltage data collection
loop;
d) The battery cell temperature sampling point and the test equipment are connected
through the temperature data sampling line, to form a temperature data collection
loop. For inspection items that do not use fixtures, the temperature sampling point
of the battery cell is the center position of the plane with a larger surface area of
the battery cell. For inspection items using fixtures, the temperature sampling
point of the battery cell is the center position of the side of the battery cell.
6.2.2.2 Battery module
Unless otherwise specified, battery module's test circuit connections shall comply with
the following requirements:
a) Select test equipment based on test temperature, humidity, battery module size,
voltage, power and other parameters;
b) The positive and negative poles of the battery module are connected to the test
equipment through input and output cables, to form a current loop;
c) The positive and negative poles of the battery module and battery cell are
connected to the test equipment through voltage data sampling lines, to form a
voltage data collection loop;
d) The battery module's temperature sampling point and the test equipment are
connected through a temperature data sampling line, to form a temperature data
collection loop. The battery module's temperature sampling point includes fixed
sampling points of the positive electrode busbar and negative electrode busbar of
the battery module and no less than 2 representative random sampling points;
e) For battery modules using liquid cooling, the liquid cooling system can work
during the power characteristic test, rate charge-discharge performance test, cycle
performance test. During the cycle performance test, the liquid inlet temperature
at the sample end is consistent with the test temperature. The high temperature
adaptability test, low temperature adaptability test, storage performance test,
liquid cooling pipeline pressure resistance performance test before draining the
coolant, filling other test items with coolant and disconnecting the liquid cooling
system before testing.
6.2.2.3 Battery cluster
Unless otherwise specified, battery cluster's test circuit connections shall comply with
the following requirements:
a) Select test equipment based on test temperature, humidity, battery cluster size,
voltage, power and other parameters;
b) The positive and negative poles of the battery cluster are connected to the test
equipment through input and output cables, to form a current loop;
c) The test equipment and the battery management system of the battery cluster are
connected through communication lines, to form a control and protection loop;
d) The positive and negative electrodes of battery clusters, battery modules and
battery cells are connected to the test equipment through voltage data sampling
lines, to form a voltage data collection loop;
e) The battery cluster's temperature sampling point and the test equipment are
connected through a temperature data sampling line, to form a temperature data
collection loop.
6.2.3 Test parameter setting
Battery test parameter settings shall meet the following requirements:
a) The test parameter setting values meet the requirements of Table A.1;
b) The working parameter values of the battery cells, battery modules, battery
clusters are unique and consistent with the working parameter values of the
......
 
Source: Above contents are excerpted from the PDF -- translated/reviewed by: www.chinesestandard.net / Wayne Zheng et al.