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GB/T 34370.4-2017 (GB/T34370.4-2017)

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GB/T 34370.4-2017: PDF in English (GBT 34370.4-2017)

GB/T 34370.4-2017
ICS 97.200.40
Y 57
Nondestructive testing of amusement equipment -
Part 4. Penetrant testing
Issued by. General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and
Quarantine of the PRC;
Standardization Administration of the PRC.
Table of Contents
Foreword ... 3 
1 Scope ... 4 
2 Normative references ... 4 
3 Terms and definitions ... 5 
4 Method summary ... 5 
5 Safety requirements ... 6 
6 Personnel requirement ... 6 
7 Testing apparatus and accessories ... 6 
8 Testing process specification ... 10 
9 Testing ... 11 
10 Quality grading ... 17 
11 Penetrant testing report ... 18 
Nondestructive testing of amusement equipment -Part
4. Penetrant testing
1 Scope
This Part of GB/T 34370 specifies the penetrant testing method and quality
grading requirements for amusement equipment.
This Part applies to the testing of surface opening defects in non-porous
metallic or non-metallic materials, parts, and welded joints of amusement
2 Normative references
The following documents are indispensable for the application of this document.
For the dated references, only the editions with the dates indicated are
applicable to this document. For the undated references, the latest edition
(including all the amendments) are applicable to this document.
GB/T 5097 Non-destructive testing - Penetrant testing and magnetic particle
testing - Viewing conditions
GB/T 11533 Standard for logarithmic visual acuity charts
GB/T 12604.3 Non-destructive testing - Terminology - Terms used in
penetrant testing
GB/T 20306 Amusement devices terminology
GB/T 20737 Non-destructive testing - General terms and definitions
GB/T 34370.1 Nondestructive testing of amusement equipment - Part 1.
General requirement
JB/T 6064 Non-destructive testing - General Specification for penetrant
JB/T 7523 Non-destructive testing - Materials for penetrant testing
3 Terms and definitions
The terms and definitions defined in GB/T 12604.3, GB/T 20306, and GB/T
20737 and the following apply to this document.
3.1 Background
The workpiece surface which foils the indication of penetrant during penetrant
testing. It is generally a surface which covers the developer or a natural surface.
3.2 Relevant indication
Defect indication
The penetrant indication produced by the defect during penetrant testing.
3.3 Non-relevant indication
The penetrant indication caused by processing technology, part structure,
shape, or mechanical damage, etc..
3.4 False indication
The penetrant indication caused by penetrant contamination, etc..
3.5 Explanation
A process of analyzing the observed penetrant indication to determine the
cause and classification of the indication.
4 Method summary
Penetrant testing is a nondestructive testing method based on capillary
phenomenon for testing surface opening defects of non-porous metallic and
non-metallic test pieces. Its basic principle is to use the capillary action of the
liquid to infiltrate the penetrant into the surface opening defect of solid material.
The infiltrated penetrant is then precipitated by the developer to the surface to
indicate the presence of the defect. The schematic diagram of penetrant testing
is shown in Figure 1.
7.1.1 The penetration testing agent used in this Part shall be canned in a
complete set, including penetrant, cleaning agent, and developer.
7.1.2 The penetration testing agent shall indicate the date of manufacture and
the expiration date; and shall be accompanied by the product qualification
certificate and the instruction manual.
7.1.3 The penetration testing agent shall have good testing performance, no
corrosion to the workpiece, and basically no toxic effect on the human body.
7.1.4 Storage shall meet the manufacturer’s instructions. The surface of the
spray can shall not be rusted. The spray can shall not leak.
7.1.5 The fluorescence efficiency of fluorescent penetrant shall not be lower
than 75%. The test method shall be in accordance with the relevant regulations
in JB/T 7523.
7.1.6 When the wet developer used is turbid, discolored, or difficult to form a
thin and uniform imaging layer, it shall be discarded.
7.1.7 For austenitic stainless steel, the weight ratio of chlorine and fluorine in
the residue after evaporation of a certain amount of penetration testing agent
shall not exceed 1%. If there are higher requirements, it can be separately
agreed upon by the supplier and the purchaser.
7.1.8 The penetration testing agent shall be selected according to the specific
conditions of amusement equipment. For the same testing workpiece, different
types of penetration testing agents shall not be mixed.
7.2 Auxiliary testing apparatus
7.2.1 When performing fluorescent penetrant testing, the darkroom shall have
enough space to meet the requirements of testing. The visible light illumination
shall be no more than 20 lx.
7.2.2 The black light lamp (UV-A) used shall comply with the provisions of GB/T
5097. The irradiation intensity on the surface of the workpiece under test shall
be greater than or equal to 1000 μW/cm2. During self-development, the
irradiance of the surface of the workpiece under test shall be greater than or
equal to 3000 μW/cm2.
7.2.3 The black light irradiance meter is used to measure the irradiance of black
light. Its ultraviolet wavelength shall be in the range of 315 nm~400 nm. The
peak wavelength is 365 nm.
7.4.2 Every time a new batch of penetration testing agents is purchased, the
chrome-plated test block shall be used to inspect the sensitivity of penetration
testing agent system and the correctness of operation process. It shall be
inspected at any time as deemed necessary before testing, during testing, or
after testing.
7.4.3 Instruments such as black light lamp, black light irradiance meter,
fluorescence luminance meter, and illuminance meter shall be periodically
checked according to relevant regulations.
8 Testing process specification
8.1 General testing process specification
The organization engaged in penetrant testing of amusement equipment shall,
in accordance with the requirements of GB/T 34370.1 and this Part, prepare
general testing process specification. Its contents shall at least include the
following elements.
a) Document number;
b) Scope of application;
c) Executive standards, regulations;
d) Qualification of testing personnel;
e) Designation of penetration testing agent;
f) Surface state of the workpiece under test;
g) Testing timing;
h) Penetrant type and imaging mode;
i) Testing sensitivity check and test block name;
j) Operating conditions. including penetration temperature, penetration time,
drying temperature and time, time of developing;
k) Operating methods. including pre-cleaning method, penetrant application
method, removal method, drying method, developer application method,
observation method, and post-cleaning method;
l) Testing process and indication analysis explanation;
m) Evaluation of testing results;
testing quality. At the same time, care shall be taken to prevent insufficient
removal and to result in the difficulty in identifying defect indication. When a
fluorescent penetrant is used, under ultraviolet light, it can be removed while
being observed. The solvent removal type penetrant is removed with a cleaning agent.
Except places where it is particularly difficult to clean, generally, it shall firstly
use dry, clean and non-hair removal cloth to wipe in turn, until most of the
excess penetrant has been removed. Then USE a clean and non-hair removal
cloth or paper with cleaning agent to wipe, until all the excess penetrant on the
surface under test is removed. Do not wipe back and forth. Do not use the
cleaning agent to directly rinse the surface under test.
9.5.6 Drying treatment The testing surface shall be dried before application of developer. Generally, it can be dried by hot wind or dried naturally. When drying,
the temperature of the surface under test shall not exceed 50 °C. When using
a solvent to remove excess penetrant, it shall be dried naturally at room
temperature. The drying time is usually 5 min~10 min.
9.5.7 Apply a developer When a solvent suspension developer is used, after the surface under
test is dried, the developer is sprayed onto the surface under test; and then
naturally dried or blown dry with warm air (less than 50 °C). The suspension developer, before use, shall be shaken well. The
developer application shall be thin and uniform. It shall not be applied multiple
times at the same location. When spraying the developer, the distance between the nozzle and the
surface under test shall be 300 mm~400 mm; and the included angle between
the spraying direction and the surface under test shall be 30°~40°. The time of developing depends on the type of developer, the size of
the defect to be tested, and the temperature of the workpiece under test, etc..
Generally, it shall be no less than 7 min.
9.5.8 Observation The observation of indication shall be made within 7 min~60 min after
application of developer. If the size of indication does not change, the above
The indication of defects can be recorded by sketch method, photographic
method, video method, and strippable plastic film method. The tape method
cannot be used.
9.6 Result evaluation
9.6.1 The indication is divided into relevant indication, non-relevant indication,
and false indication. Non-relevant indication and false indication do not have to
be recorded and evaluated.
9.6.2 Indications less than 0.5 mm are not counted. Except for confirmation that
the indication is caused by external factors or improper operation, any other
indication shall be treated as a defect.
9.6.3 When the included angle BETWEEN the direction of the long axis of
defect AND the axis or the busbar of workpiece (shaft or tube) is greater than
or equal to 30°, it is treated as a transverse defect. The other is treated as a
longitudinal defect.
9.6.4 Defect indications with a ratio of length to width greater than 3 are treated
as linear defects. Defect indications with a ratio of length to width less than or
equal to 3 are treated as circular defects.
9.6.5 When two or more linear indications are on the same straight line and the
spacing is not more than 2 mm, they are treated as one indication. The length
is the sum of the two indications plus the spacing.
9.7 Testing records
The penetrant testing records shall include at least the contents specified in 8.2
and Clause 11.
10 Quality grading
10.1 Unacceptable defects
Unacceptable defects include. cracks; transverse defect indication of fasteners
and shaft parts.
10.2 Quality grading of welded joint
The quality grading of welded joints is carried out according to Table 3.
(Above excerpt was released on 2019-01-13, modified on 2021-06-07, translated/reviewed by: Wayne Zheng et al.)
Source: https://www.chinesestandard.net/PDF.aspx/GBT34370.4-2017