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GB/T 34370.2-2017 (GB/T34370.2-2017)

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GB/T 34370.2-2017: PDF in English (GBT 34370.2-2017)

GB/T 34370.2-2017
GB
NATIONAL STANDARD OF THE
PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF CHINA
ICS 97.200.40
Y 57
Nondestructive testing of amusement equipment -
Part 2. Visual examination
ISSUED ON. SEPTEMBER 29, 2017
IMPLEMENTED ON. APRIL 01, 2018
Issued by. General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and
Quarantine of the PRC;
Standardization Administration of the PRC.
Table of Contents
Foreword ... 3 
1 Scope ... 4 
2 Normative references ... 4 
3 Terms and definitions ... 4 
4 Overview ... 5 
5 Safety requirements ... 6 
6 Examiner ... 6 
7 Equipment and apparatus ... 6 
8 Examination process specification ... 7 
9 Examination ... 9 
10 Result evaluation ... 12 
11 Visual examination report ... 13 
Appendix A (Informative) Typical visual deficiencies in steel fusion welded joints
... 15 
Appendix B (Informative) Pictures for typical visual deficiencies in steel fusion
welded joints ... 18 
Foreword
GB/T 34370 “Nondestructive testing of amusement equipment” is divided into
the following 6 parts.
- Part 1. General requirement;
- Part 2. Visual examination;
- Part 3. Magnetic particle testing;
- Part 4. Penetrant testing;
- Part 5. Ultrasonic testing;
- Part 6. Radiographic testing.
This Part is Part 2 of GB/T 34370.
This Part is drafted in accordance with the rules given in GB/T 1.1-2009.
This Part was proposed by and shall be under the jurisdiction of National
Standardization Technology Committee on the Ropeway and Amusement
Device (SAC/TC 250).
Drafting organizations of this Part. China Special Equipment Inspection and
Research Institute, Special Equipment Safety Supervision Inspection Institute
of Jiangsu Province, Shanghai Xidu Amusement Equipment Manufacturer,
Beijing SBL Amusement Equipment Co., Ltd., Special Equipment Safety
Inspection and Research Institute of Henan Province.
Main drafters of this Part. Shen Gongtian, Liang Chaohu, Li Xiangdong, Zhang
Yong, Zhou Xiaojun, Li Yong, Hu Bin, Wu Zhanwen, Gao Guangxing, Hu
Zhenlong, Liu Aiguo.
Nondestructive testing of amusement equipment -Part
2. Visual examination
1 Scope
This Part of GB/T 34370 specifies the method of visual examination for
amusement equipment.
This Part applies to visual examination of manufactured and in-use amusement
equipment.
This Part does not apply to visual observation activities in other nondestructive
testing methods such as magnetic particle and penetration.
2 Normative references
The following documents are indispensable for the application of this document.
For the dated references, only the editions with the dates indicated are
applicable to this document. For the undated references, the latest edition
(including all the amendments) are applicable to this document.
GB/T 11533 Standard for logarithmic visual acuity charts
GB/T 20306 Amusement devices terminology
GB/T 20737 Non-destructive testing - General terms and definitions
GB/T 20968 Non-destructive testing - Aids to visual inspection - Selection of
low-power magnifiers
GB/T 34370.1 Nondestructive testing of amusement equipment - Part 1.
General requirement
3 Terms and definitions
The terms and definitions defined in GB/T 20306 and GB/T 20737 and the
following are applicable to this document.
3.1 Visual examination
does not rely on auxiliary tools (except for lighting sources and magnifiers) for
direct observation with the naked eye. Remote visual examination can be
performed by means of mirrors, telescopes, endoscopes, optical fibers,
cameras, video systems, automatic systems, robots, and other suitable visual
aids. Translucent visual examination allows the examination of the interior of
transparent, semitransparent materials.
5 Safety requirements
Safety requirements during examination shall include at least.
a) The examiner shall comply with the safety requirements of the site of the
piece under test; according to the requirements of the location of
examination, wear protective overalls and wear relevant protective
equipment;
b) Care shall be taken to avoid various safety hazards such as bruises,
electric shock, falling, extrusion, shearing, twining, slipping, drowning,
scalds, etc..
This Clause does not list all the safety requirements for examination. Users
using this Part shall, before examination, establish safety criteria.
6 Examiner
Personnel engaged in visual examination of amusement equipment shall, in
addition to complying with the relevant provisions of GB/T 34370.1, have an
uncorrected or corrected visual acuity of not less than 5.0 (The decimal is
recorded as 1.0). The test method shall be in accordance with GB/T 11533. The
examiner shall, every 12 months, have an examination of visual acuity.
If the examination has special requirements for color discrimination, the
examiner shall supplement the test of color discrimination, to ensure the
necessary color discrimination.
7 Equipment and apparatus
7.1 Equipment and apparatus used for visual examination include. apparatus
used for direct visual examination, remote visual examination, and translucent
visual examination.
7.2 Apparatus for direct visual examination mainly includes. lighting sources
and low-power magnifiers.
n) Signature and date of developers, reviewers, and approvers.
8.2 Verification of examination process
It shall use verification samples to verify the visual examination process
specification. The verification sample may be a thin wire having a width of less
than or equal to 0.8 mm or other similar artificial defects. The verification sample
shall be placed on the surface of the piece under test, or on the surface with
similar lighting condition, surface structure, contrast ratio, and accessibility, etc.
as the piece under test; and shall be placed on the position of the area under
test which is most difficult to be observed.
When the FACTORS of examination technique, observation method, surface
structure of the piece under test, surface lighting requirement of the piece under
test, or verification sample which have a serious influence on the examination
sensitivity CHANGE, the process specification shall be re-verified.
8.3 Examination process card
For the visual examination of each type of equipment or workpiece, based on
the actual situation, in accordance with GB/T 34370.1, this Part, and the general
examination process specification, a visual examination process card shall be
developed. The process card shall include at least the following.
a) Process card number;
b) Executive standard for examination;
c) Information of the workpiece under test. name, model, number, material,
specifications, welding type, etc.;
d) Examination position and accessibility;
e) Surface state of the piece under test;
f) Examination equipment and apparatus;
g) Lighting conditions;
h) Examination timing;
i) Verification of examination process;
j) Examination procedures (steps);
k) Signature and date of developers and reviewers.
Direct visual examination can use mirrors to improve the observation angle; and
can use low-power magnifiers to distinguish small deficiencies. The selection
of low-power magnifiers is carried out according to GB/T 20968.
9.2.3 Lighting conditions
In order to achieve the best examination results, the lighting conditions shall
meet the following requirements.
a) MAKE the direction of lighting ray reach the best angle relative to the
observation point;
b) Avoid surface glare;
c) Optimize the color temperature of light source;
d) USE an illumination level which is compatible with the surface reflected
light;
e) At least 500 lx of illumination shall be achieved on the surface of the piece
under test. For areas which must be carefully observed or are found to be
abnormal and require further observation and examination, at least 1000
lx of illumination shall be achieved.
9.2.4 Visual examination of welded joint
For newly-manufactured welded joints, attention shall be paid to solder skips,
cracks, burn-through, incomplete penetration, porosity, collapse, severe
undercuts, incompletely filled weld, slag inclusions, and other appearance
deficiencies. Special attention shall be paid to the deficiencies which may arise
from welding of dissimilar materials and special welding processes. See
Appendix A for typical visual deficiencies in steel fusion welded joints. Appendix
B gives pictures for the typical visual deficiencies.
For welded joints in service, it shall focus on important welded joints, pay
attention to cracking (arc starting place, alternating load, stress concentration),
corrosion, rust, paint peeling positions. Especially craters, pores, and poor
molding positions which exist in the manufacturing process shall be examined.
9.2.5 Visual examination of parts
9.2.5.1 Bolt
Observe the bolts for bending deformation, damage, wear, and rust. USE a 10
times magnifier to observe whether the bolt, especially bolt head and thread
root, has cracks.
9.3.2 Remote visual examination can be performed using mirrors, telescopes,
endoscopes, optical fibers, cameras, video systems, automatic systems, robots,
and other suitable visual aids.
9.3.3 Remote visual examination shall have at least the resolution comparable
to direct visual examination. If necessary, it shall verify whether the remote
visual examination system can meet the requirements for examination work.
9.4 Translucent visual examination
9.4.1 Translucent visual examination requires a directional light source of
sufficient intensity to uniformly pass through the position and area under test,
to meet the requirements for examination of deficiencies in transparent and
semitransparent materials.
9.4.2 The ambient ray must be recognized in advance. The reflected light or
surface glare from the surface under test shall be smaller than the applied
transillumination light passing through the position and area under test.
9.5 Examination records
The visual examination records shall include at least the contents specified in
8.3 and Clause 11.
10 Result evaluation
10.1 General principles
10.1.1 All examination results shall be evaluated in accordance with the
relevant regulations, executive standards, and (or) contract requirements of
amusement equipment.
10.1.2 The examination process specification of this Part specifies minimum
examination requirements; but does not limit the more demanding examinations
which may be performed during production and use.
10.1.3 When the abnormality is found by visual examination, and the nature
and influence of the abnormality cannot be judged, other testing methods such
as thickness measurement, hardness measurement, metallography, magnetic
particle, or penetration may be used to detect and evaluate the abnormal
position.
10.2 Welded joint
10.2.1 All overlaps and slags, etc. of welded joints shall be removed.
......
 
(Above excerpt was released on 2019-01-13, modified on 2021-06-07, translated/reviewed by: Wayne Zheng et al.)
Source: https://www.chinesestandard.net/PDF.aspx/GBT34370.2-2017