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GB/T 28957.1-2023 PDF in English

GB/T 28957.1-2023 (GB/T28957.1-2023, GBT 28957.1-2023, GBT28957.1-2023)
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GB/T 28957.1-2023: PDF in English (GBT 28957.1-2023)

GB/T 28957.1-2023
ICS 43.060.20; 43.060.40
CCS T 10
Replacing GB/T 28957.1-2012
Road Vehicles - Test Dust for Filter Evaluation - Part 1:
Silicon Dioxide Test Dust
(ISO 12103-1:2016, Road Vehicles - Test Contaminants for Filter Evaluation - Part 1:
Arizona Test Dust, MOD)
Issued by: State Administration for Market Regulation;
Standardization Administration of the People’s Republic of China.
Table of Contents
Foreword ... 3
Introduction ... 5
1 Scope ... 6
2 Normative References ... 6
3 Terms and Definitions ... 6
4 Description of Test Dust ... 7
5 Particle Size Distribution ... 8
6 Chemical Composition ... 10
Appendix A (informative) Comparison of Structural No. between This Document and
ISO 12103-1:2016 ... 12
Appendix B (informative) Technical Differences between This Document and ISO
12103-1:2016, and Their Causes ... 14
Appendix C (informative) Particle Size Distribution of BF Silicon Dioxide Test Dust
... 15
Appendix D (normative) Analysis Equipment and Operating Procedures ... 16
Appendix E (informative) Processing and Preparation ... 21
Bibliography ... 26
Road Vehicles - Test Dust for Filter Evaluation - Part 1:
Silicon Dioxide Test Dust
1 Scope
This document specifies the particle size distribution limits and chemical composition of the
four grades of test dust manufactured using Arizona desert sand and the two types of test dust
from the BF silicon dioxide series.
This document is applicable to the performance measurement of filters for road vehicles, as
well as the performance measurement of filters for general-purpose internal combustion
engines, and the study of wear of bearings, sealing elements and other components.
This document does not apply to the calibration of particle counters. If there is a demand in this
regard, refer to GB/T 18854.
2 Normative References
The contents of the following documents constitute indispensable clauses of this document
through the normative references in the text. In terms of references with a specified date, only
versions with a specified date are applicable to this document. In terms of references without a
specified date, the latest version (including all the modifications) is applicable to this document.
GB/T 176-2017 Methods for Chemical Analysis of Cement (ISO 29581-1:2009, NEQ)
GB/T 19077-2016 Particle Size Analysis - Laser Diffraction Methods (ISO 13320:2009, IDT)
GB/T 21780-2008 Particle Size Analysis - Sedimentation Analysis in the Gravitational Field -
Pipette Method (DIN 66115:1983, IDT)
3 Terms and Definitions
The following terms and definitions are applicable to this document.
3.1 bulk density
Naturally fill a container of known volume, the mass of the particles is divided by the volume
of the container.
NOTE: see the test method in GB/T 31057.1-2014.
[source: GB/T 16418-2008,]
The analyzer software setup process is as follows.
a) Open the Microtrac FLEX software program.
b) Click “Measure” in the main program window and select S3500 / S3000.
c) Click “File” and select “Open Measurement Database” to select the appropriate
database for the material to be analyzed.
d) Click the “SOP” (standard operating procedure) icon on the “Measurement” toolbar.
Click “Option” to set the appropriate measurement parameters. In accordance with
the following method, set the measurement parameters.
1) The timing tag settings are as follows:
 Set the return-to-zero-time to 30 s;
 Set the running time to 30 s;
 Set the number of runs to 3 times.
2) In accordance with the demands, use the identifier tags to enter general
3) Utilize the following tags to set analysis tags.
 Particle information tag:
---Select refractive index 1.51 and save with appropriate particle name;
---Particle feature box: set the transparency to transparent; set the shape to
 Fluid information tag:
---Select fluid: water;
---Select refractive index: 1.333.
 Analysis option tag:
---Select S3000 from the “Analysis Mode” drop-down list;
---Select “Launch Criteria” from the “Filter” drop-down list.
 Utilize the sample injection tag to enter user-defined injection parameters
for each level, as shown in Table D.3.
b) Incompatibility (substances to avoid contact with): strong acid;
c) Harmful decomposition: will not occur;
d) Harmful polymerization: will not occur;
e) Situations to avoid: none.
E.2.8 Toxicological information
E.2.8.1 Potential health effects
In accordance with the duration and extent of exposure, potential health effects may vary. In
order to reduce or eliminate health hazards associated with dust, it is necessary to adopt the
exposure control or personal protection methods described in E.2.4.
E.2.8.2 Eye contact
(acute / chronic) exposure to airborne dust may cause acute or chronic irritation or inflammation
of the cornea.
E.2.8.3 Inhalation
The following are health risks associated with inhalation.
a) The main hazard is silicosis, caused by the inhalation and retention of inhalable
crystalline silica dust. There are many forms of silicosis, including chronic (or
common), aggressive or acute. Chronic (or common) silicosis (often referred to as
silicosis in general) is the most common form of silicosis and is usually caused by
years of exposure to relatively low levels of inhalable crystalline silica dust in the air.
It may be further classified as simple or complex silicosis. Simple silicosis is
characterized by pulmonary lesions (shown as radiographic opaque bodies less than
1 cm in diameter), predominantly in the upper lung region. Typically, simple silicosis
will cause no symptoms, or lead to detectable changes in lung function or dysfunction.
b) Simple silicosis may be a progressive disease and may develop into complex silicosis
or progressive massive fibrosis (PMF). Complex silicosis, or PMF, is characterized
by lung lesions (shown as radiographic opaque bodies greater than 1 cm in diameter).
Although symptoms associated with complex silicosis or PMF may not be present, if
symptoms are present, then, they may include difficulty breathing, wheezing,
coughing and phlegm. Complex silicosis, or PMF, may cause reduced lung function,
potentially leading to functional impairment.
c) Advanced complex silicosis, or PMF, may cause death. Advanced complex silicosis,
or PMF, may cause heart disease, second only to lung disease (cor pulmonale).
Aggressive silicosis will occur after exposure to high concentrations of inhalable
crystalline silica in a relatively short period of time; lesions will appear in the lungs
within 5 years of the initial exposure, and the lesions will develop rapidly. Except that
Source: Above contents are excerpted from the PDF -- translated/reviewed by: www.chinesestandard.net / Wayne Zheng et al.