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GB/T 28004.2-2021 (GB/T28004.2-2021)

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GB/T 28004.2-2021English350 Add to Cart 0-9 seconds. Auto-delivery. Disposable diapers -- Part 2: Disposable diapers for adult Valid


GB/T 28004.2-2021: PDF in English (GBT 28004.2-2021)

GB/T 28004.2-2021
GB
NATIONAL STANDARD OF THE
PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF CHINA
ICS 85.080
Y 39
Partially replacing GB/T 28004-2011
Disposable diapers - Part 2: Disposable diapers for adult
ISSUED ON: MARCH 09, 2021
IMPLEMENTED ON: APRIL 01, 2022
Issued by: General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and
Quarantine;
Standardization Administration of the People’s Republic of China.
Table of Contents
Foreword ... 3
Introduction ... 5
1 Scope ... 6
2 Normative references ... 6
3 Terms and definitions ... 7
4 Product classification ... 7
5 Technical requirements ... 8
6 Test methods ... 10
7 Inspection rules ... 13
8 Labeling, packaging, transportation, storage ... 15
Annex A (normative) Determination method for permeability ... 16
Annex B (normative) Determination of pH ... 23
Annex C (normative) Determination of foreign materials ... 25
Annex D (normative) Determination of migratable fluorescent substances ... 28
Bibliography ... 30
Disposable diapers - Part 2: Disposable diapers for adult
1 Scope
This Part of GB/T 28004 specifies the product classification, technical requirements,
test methods, inspection rules and labelling, packaging, transportation and storage of
diapers, diaper pads and changing pads (nursing pads) for adult.
This Part applies to disposable diapers, diaper pads and changing pads (nursing pads)
for adult, which are made of outer covering materials, built-in absorbent layers, leak-
proof bottom films, etc.
2 Normative references
The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this
document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references,
the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.
GB/T 462 Paper, board and pulp - Determination of moisture content of analytical
sample
GB/T 6682 Water for analytical laboratory use - Specification and test methods
GB/T 10739 Paper, board and pulps - Standard atmosphere for conditioning and
testing
GB 15979 Hygienic standard for disposable sanitary products
GB/T 21331 Fluff pulp
GB/T 22875 Super-absorbent polymer for sanitary towel and diapers
GB/T 24218.6 Textiles - Test methods for nonwovens - Part 6: Absorption
GB/T 24292 Sanitary product - Air-laid
GB/T 33280-2016 Specification and size of disposal diapers
GB/T 34448-2017 Tissue paper and disposable products - Determination of
formaldehyde
QB/T 4508 Hygienic products mount
top sheet against the light. If blue particles appear, continue spraying with 0.5 % copper
sulfate solution until the blue particles are saturated, and observe their size by
comparing with the standard foreign material picture (C.2.3) after 5 minutes. If the area
of the blue particles on the top sheet of the specimen is greater than 5.0 mm2, start
counting. The arithmetic mean of the two specimens is used as the determination result,
and the result is rounded to an integer.
6.5 pH
pH is determined according to Annex B.
6.6 Foreign materials
Foreign materials are determined according to Annex C.
6.7 Formaldehyde content
Formaldehyde content is determined by high performance liquid chromatography in
GB/T 34448-2017.
6.8 Migratable fluorescent substances
Migratable fluorescent substances is determined according to Annex D.
6.9 Absorption rate
TAKE a specimen, TEAR OFF the release paper, CUT OFF the wings appropriately
(for pants-type diapers, it needs to cut off the elastic band at the waist), and USE a
balance with an accuracy of 0.01 g to weigh its mass (mass before absorption). CLAMP
one end of the specimen with a clip, make the clip jaws vertical to the longitudinal
direction of the specimen, and the built-in absorbent layer shall not be clamped.
IMMERSE the specimen together with the clip in (23 ± 1) °C normal saline of about
10 cm deep, with the use side of the specimen facing down. Gently PRESS the specimen,
make it completely submerged for 60 s, then LIFT the clip to make the specimen
completely leave the water surface, HANG it vertically for 90 s, REMOVE the clip,
WEIGH the mass of the specimen after water absorption (mass after absorption), and
CALCULATE the absorption amount according to formula (3). Test 5 specimens in the
same way, take the average value of 5 specimens as the determination result, and the
result is rounded to one decimal place.
where:
t - the absorption rate;
m1 - the mass after absorption, in grams (g);
m0 - the mass before absorption, in grams (g).
6.10 Saturated absorption amount
TAKE a specimen, USE a balance with an accuracy of 0.1 g to weigh its mass (mass
before absorption), and CUT OFF the elastic band at the waist (for pants-type diapers).
IMMERSE the specimen in 20.0 ℃ ~ 28.0 ℃ normal saline with a liquid depth of not
less than 10 cm, with the use side of the specimen facing down. Gently PRESS the
specimen while soaking to remove air. Gently PRESS the specimen to make it
completely submerged for 30 minutes, then HOLD the specimen with both hands, so
that the specimen is completely out of the water. PUT the specimen face down on a
horizontal cross bar, with the length direction of the specimen perpendicular to the cross
bar, and the diameter of the cross bar is (20 ± 3) mm. After hanging for 5 min, WEIGH
the mass of the specimen after water absorption (mass after absorption), and
CALCULATE the absorption amount according to formula (4). Test 5 specimens in the
same way, take the average value of 5 specimens as the determination result, and the
result is rounded to an integer.
where:
M - the saturated absorption amount, in grams (g);
m1 - the mass after absorption, in grams (g);
m0 - the mass before absorption, in grams (g).
6.11 Delivery moisture
Delivery moisture is determined according to GB/T 462. The sampling method is as
follows: TAKE two packages of samples, TAKE 1 piece of specimen from each package
of samples, CUT OFF the edge elastic band of the specimen, and TAKE 2 g of test
portion from the middle of the two pieces of specimens. CUT the test portion into blocks,
MIX it evenly and divide it into two groups of specimens for parallel tests. The absolute
error between the two determined values shall not exceed 1.0 %. Take the arithmetic
mean value to represent the determination result, and the result is rounded to one
decimal place.
NOTE: When the specimen is put into the container, it shall avoid contacting the leak-proof bottom
film with the container wall to prevent adhesion after high temperature.
6.12 Hygienic indicators
Hygienic indicators are determined according to GB 15979.
6.13 Maximum applicable waist circumference of diapers
8 Labeling, packaging, transportation, storage
8.1 Product sales label and package
8.1.1 The product sales package shall indicate the following:
a) product name (including words such as diapers for adult, diaper pads for adult,
changing pads or nursing pads for adult);
b) serial number of this Standard;
c) name of main raw materials;
d) product specifications shall be marked for diapers for adult and diaper pads for
adult, and the length and width dimensions shall be marked for changing pads
(nursing pads) for adult;
e) applicable hip circumference shall be marked for diapers for adult;
f) applicable population (including words such as mild incontinence, moderate
incontinence, severe incontinence, mild to moderate incontinence or moderate to
severe incontinence) shall be marked for diapers for adult and diaper pads for
adult;
g) product conformity mark;
h) other marked content shall meet the requirements of relevant national laws,
regulations and standards.
8.1.2 The sales package of products shall be able to ensure that the product is not
contaminated, and the various identification information on the sales package shall be
clear and not easy to fade.
8.2 Product transportation and storage
8.2.1 During the transportation of products, it shall use clean tools with protective
measures; it shall prevent heavy pressure, sharp object collision and exposure to sun
and rain.
8.2.2 The finished products shall be stored in a dry and ventilated room free from direct
sunlight; it shall prevent exposure to rain and snow and influence of ground moisture;
it shall not store with polluting or toxic chemicals.
8.2.3 The shelf life of diapers for adult, diaper pads for adult and changing pads (nursing
pads) for adult generally does not exceed 3 years.
Annex A
(normative)
Determination method for permeability
A.1 General
PLACE the specimen on the arc-shaped specimen base lined with absorbent paper, then
PLACE the standard test liquid addition module on the surface absorption area of the
specimen. Under a certain pressure of the specimen, the liquid addition device adds a
certain volume of normal saline into the standard test liquid addition module, and the
automatic timing device records the time from the start of adding liquid to the time
when the specimen completely absorbs the normal saline. ADD liquid twice to each
specimen, and express the absorption speed of the specimen with the two absorption
times respectively. After the second liquid addition is completed, TAKE OUT the
standard test liquid addition module, PLACE a certain number of layers of absorbent
paper on the surface of the specimen, then PLACE the standard test pressurization
module, PRESSURIZE under a certain pressure for a specified time. The mass increase
of the absorbent paper on the top of the specimen represents the rewet of the specimen,
and the mass increase of the absorbent paper at the bottom of the specimen represents
the leakage of the specimen.
A.2 Instruments and materials
A.2.1 Diaper absorbency tester
A.2.1.1 Instrument composition
The diaper absorbency tester is composed of an arc-shaped specimen base, a specimen
holder, standard test modules, a mobile pressurizing device, a liquid storage device, an
automatic liquid addition device and an automatic timing device.
A.2.1.2 Arc-shaped specimen base
The arc-shaped specimen base is used to place absorbent paper, specimen holder,
specimen and standard test modules during the test, as shown in Figure A.1.
The liquid storage device is used to store the test solution. The liquid addition volume
deviation of the automatic liquid addition device is ± 2 mL, and the liquid addition flow
rate is (720 ± 15) mL/min.
A.2.1.6 Automatic timing device
The automatic timing device is composed of a timing unit and a timing control part, and
is used to automatically record the test time with a resolution of 0.01s.
A.2.2 Normal saline
0.9 % NaCl solution, (36 ± 1) ℃.
A.2.3 Absorbent paper
Quantitative (145 ± 5) g/m2, the water absorption is greater than 480 %, and the water
absorption amount is determined according to GB/T 24218.6.
A.2.4 Food coloring
A small amount.
A.2.5 Electronic balance
The accuracy is 0.01 g.
A.3 Specimen collection
Take 5 pieces of specimens for each sample, and the specimens are taken from at least
two sales packages. During the test, the test area of the specimen shall not be touched
by hand.
A.4 Determination of absorption speed and rewet
A.4.1 Test procedure
A.4.1.1 PLACE the diaper absorbency tester (A.2.1) in a horizontal position, POUR
enough normal saline (A.2.2) into the liquid storage tank, ADD a small amount of food
coloring (A.2.4), START the instrument, CLICK the “rinse” button to rinse twice.
CALIBRATE the liquid addition volume of the automatic liquid addition device
according to the use instructions of the instrument. The normal saline needs to be heated
to (36 ± 1) °C.
A.4.1.2 According to the type of the specimen to be tested, select the corresponding
specification of the standard test liquid addition module and the standard test
pressurization module according to the provisions of Table A.1. TAKE a piece of
specimen (for pants-shaped diapers, it needs to cut off the elastic band), REMOVE the
arc-shaped specimen base, PLACE several layers of absorbent paper (A.2.3) of known
mass in the test area of the arc-shaped specimen base, the length of the absorbent paper
Annex B
(normative)
Determination of pH
B.1 Instruments and reagents
B.1.1 Instruments
B.1.1.1 pH meter: 1 set, with an accuracy of 0.01.
B.1.1.2 Balance: 1 set, with a accuracy of 0.01 g.
B.1.1.3 Mercury thermometer: 1 piece, with a measuring range of 0 ℃ ~ 100 ℃.
B.1.1.4 Beakers: 400 mL, 2 pieces.
B.1.1.5 Volumetric flask: 1000 mL, 1 piece.
B.1.1.6 Stainless steel scissors: 1 pair.
B.1.1.7 G1 glass sand core funnel.
B.1.1.8 Stopwatch: with a resolution of 0.1s.
B.1.2 Reagents
B.1.2.1 Water: GB/T 6682, Class III.
B.1.2.2 Normal saline: 0.9 % sodium chloride solution. WEIGH 9.00 g (accurate to
0.01 g) of sodium chloride in a 1000 mL volumetric flask, DISSOLVE and ADD water
to the mark and SHAKE well.
B.1.2.3 Standard buffer solutions: pH of 4.01, 6.86, 9.18 at 25 °C.
B.2 Test procedure
TAKE 1 piece of specimen at random, REMOVE the bottom film, CUT (1.0 ± 0.1) g
from the middle part and PLACE it in a beaker (B.1.1.4). The specimen taken shall
ensure that it covers everything from the top sheet to the bottom layer. ADD 200 mL of
normal saline (B.1.2.2) and start timing, STIR with a glass rod to fully mix the specimen
with normal saline, then let it stand; STIR again at 10 min, USE a G1 glass sand core
funnel (B.1.1.7) to filter, PUT the pH meter (B.1.1.1) into the filtrate to test, READ the
pH value.
B.3 Calculation of test results
Annex C
(normative)
Determination of foreign materials
C.1 General
FIX the specimen on the surface of the workbench of the illumination device, INSPECT
the specimen under certain conditions of transmitted light, MARK the foreign materials
of different areas, and USE the standard foreign material picture to identify the area
size of the foreign materials on the diaper.
Typical foreign materials include materials with sharp edges (metal, ceramics, glass,
gravel, hard plastic pieces, etc.), insects, broken plastic pieces, films, non-woven fabric
pieces, etc. Substances that are part of diapers are not counted as foreign materials, such
as colored super absorbent resin, thick filaments of non-woven fabrics, fiber bundles in
fluff pulp, hot-melt glue spots, cotton husks remaining in cotton fibers, unseparated cut
edge of non-woven fabric on diapers, etc. However, contaminated fluff pulp, hard
rubber blocks on the top sheet and materials stained with oil are all foreign materials.
C.2 Apparatus and materials
C.2.1 Illumination device: It is suitable for the staff to inspect specimens under
transmitted light. There are LED lights with adjustable illuminance in the device, and
the illuminance range is 0 lx ~ 8000 lx. The surface of the workbench is milky white
polyethylene board or glass, and the light shall be uniform. It shall avoid direct sunlight
or any external light source during the test.
C.2.2 Stainless steel scissors.
C.2.3 Standard foreign material picture: Foreign material series with different areas and
shapes are printed on a transparent film. The left half area is the foreign materials with
the same area but different shapes arranged in the same horizontal row; the right half
area is the foreign materials with the same area but different shapes arranged in the
same longitudinal row, see Figure C.1 for details.
Annex D
(normative)
Determination of migratable fluorescent substances
D.1 Reagents and materials
Unless otherwise specified, use only analytical grade reagents.
D.1.1 Water: GB/T 6682, Class III.
D.1.2 Gauze: pure cotton material, about 5 cm × 5 cm in size.
D.1.3 Ammonia water: 0.1%.
D.1.4 Hydrochloric acid solution: 10 %.
D.1.5 Extraction solution: water with a pH of 7.5 ~ 9.0, adjusted with 0.1 % ammonia
water (D.1.3).
D.1.6 Fluorescence standard sample: the fluorescence is uniform, and the fluorescence
brightness is 0.40 % ~ 0.60 %.
NOTE: Except for fluorescent standard sample, the reagents and materials used have no fluorescent
phenomenon under ultraviolet light.
D.2 Instruments
D.2.1 Balance: sensitivity of 0.001 g.
D.2.2 Erlenmeyer flask: 250 mL.
D.2.3 G1 glass sand core funnel.
D.2.4 Glass watch glass.
D.2.5 Ultraviolet lamp: wavelengths of 254 nm and 365 nm, equipped with an eye
protection device.
D.2.6 pH meter: accuracy of 0.01.
D.2.7 Constant temperature water bath: temperature control accuracy of (40 ± 2) ℃.
D.3 Test procedure and result judgment
D.3.1 Randomly TAKE a piece of specimen from the sample, REMOVE the outer
packaging, PLACE the specimen and the fluorescent standard sample (D.1.6) at about
20 cm under the ultraviolet lamp (D.2.5), COMPARE and OBSERVE the fluorescence
phenomenon of the two sides of the specimen and the fluorescent standard sample. If
the fluorescence phenomenon of the specimen is weaker than that of the fluorescent
standard sample, it is judged that the specimen has no migratable fluorescent substances
and the test is terminated; if the fluorescence phenomenon of the specimen is stronger
than that of the fluorescent standard sample, continue to carry out the test and judge
according to D.3.2 ~ D.3.9.
D.3.2 CUT OFF the part of the specimen where the fluorescence phenomenon is
obvious, CUT it into small pieces of about 5 mm × 5 mm, accurately WEIGH 2.0 g of
the specimen, and PLACE it in an Erlenmeyer flask (D.2.2).
NOTE: If the mass of the obvious fluorescent part of one specimen is less than 2.0 g, then sampling
from multiple specimens.
D.3.3 ADD 100 mL of the extraction solution (D.1.5) to the flask. SHAKE the flask
slowly at room temperature, EXTRACT for 10 min, and then FILTER with a G1 glass
sand core funnel (D.2.3).
D.3.4 USE hydrochloric acid solution (D.1.4) to adjust the pH of the filtrate to 3.0 ~
5.0. SOAK the gauze (D.1.2) in the filtrate, and PLACE it in a constant temperature
water bath (D.2.7) at a temperature of (40 ± 2) °C for 30 min.
D.3.5 TAKE OUT the gauze with tweezers, then SQUEEZE OUT the filtrate and FOLD
it into four layers symmetrically, and PLACE it on a glass watch glass (D.2.4).
D.3.6 REPEAT steps B.3.3 ~ B.3.5 to carry out a blank test.
D.3.7 CARRY OUT two parallel determinations for each specimen.
D.3.8 PLACE the glass watch glass containing the specimen gauze (D.3.5) and the
blank test gauze (D.3.6) at about 20 cm under the ultraviolet lamp; OBSERVE the
fluorescence phenomenon of the gauzes.
D.3.9 If there is no obvious fluorescent phenomenon after comparing the specimen
gauzes of the two parallel tests with the blank test gauze, it is judged that the specimen
has no migratable fluorescent substances. If the two specimen gauzes have obvious
fluorescence phenomenon, it is judged that the specimen has migratable fluorescent
substances. If one of the two specimen gauzes has more obvious fluorescence than the
blank test gauze, the test shall be repeated. If there is no obvious fluorescent
phenomenon after comparing the retested specimen gauzes with the blank test gauze, it
is judged that the specimen has no migratable fluorescent substances; otherwise, it is
judged that the specimen has migratable fluorescent substances.
......
 
(Above excerpt was released on 2023-04-04, modified on 2023-04-04, translated/reviewed by: Wayne Zheng et al.)
Source: https://www.chinesestandard.net/PDF.aspx/GBT28004.2-2021