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GB/T 28004.1-2021 PDF in English


GB/T 28004.1-2021 (GB/T28004.1-2021, GBT 28004.1-2021, GBT28004.1-2021)
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GB/T 28004.1-2021: PDF in English (GBT 28004.1-2021)

GB/T 28004.1-2021
NATIONAL STANDARD OF THE
PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF CHINA
ICS 85.080
Y 39
Partially replacing GB/T 28004-2011
Disposable diapers - Part 1: Disposable diapers for baby
ISSUED ON: APRIL 13, 2021
IMPLEMENTED ON: MAY 01, 2022
Issued by: State Administration for Market Regulation;
Standardization Administration of the People's Republic of China.
Table of Contents
Foreword ... 3 
Introduction ... 5 
1 Scope ... 6 
2 Normative references ... 6 
3 Terms and definitions... 7 
4 Product classification ... 7 
5 Technical requirements ... 8 
6 Raw material requirements ... 9 
7 Test methods ... 9 
8 Inspection rules ... 13 
9 Marking, packaging, transportation, storage ... 15 
Annex A (Normative) Determination method of penetration performance ... 17 
Annex B (Normative) Determination of pH value ... 24 
Annex C (Normative) Determination of foreign material ... 26 
Annex D (Normative) Determination of migratory fluorescent substances ... 29 
Annex E (Normative) List of decomposable carcinogenic aromatic amine dyes ... 31 
Bibliography... 32 
Disposable diapers - Part 1: Disposable diapers for baby
1 Scope
This Part of GB/T 28004 specifies product classification, technical requirements, test
methods, inspection rules and markings, packaging, transportation and storage of baby
diapers, diaper mats, diaper pads (nursing pads).
This Part applies to disposable baby diapers, diaper mats, diaper pads (nursing pads)
made of outer covering material, built-in absorbent layer, leak-proof backing film. This
Part also applies to infant swimming diapers, low-birth-weight infant diapers and infant
diapers with special functions (such as toilet training).
2 Normative references
The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this
document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references,
the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.
GB/T 462, Paper and board - Determination of moisture content
GB/T 6682, Water for analytical laboratory use - Specification and test methods
GB/T 10739, Paper, board and pulps - STANDARD atmosphere for conditioning and
testing
GB 15979, Hygienic standard for disposable sanitary products
GB/T 17592, Textiles - Determination of the banned azo colorants
GB/T 21331, Fluff pulp
GB/T 22875, Super-absorbent polymer for sanitary towel and diapers
GB/T 23344, Textiles - Determination of 4-aminoazobenzene
GB/T 24218.6, Textiles - Test methods for nonwovens - Part 6: Absorption
GB/T 24292, Sanitary product - Air-laid
GB/T 33280-2016, Specification and size of disposal diapers
GB/T 34448-2017, Tissue paper and disposable products - Determination of
formaldehyde
GB/T 36420, Tissue paper and products - Safety assessment management system of
chemicals and materials
GB/T 37859, Paper, board and paper products - Determination of acrylamide
GB/T 37860, Paper, board and paper products - Determination of phthalates
QB/T 4508, Hygienic products mount
Safety Technical Specifications for Cosmetics (Edition 2015) (Announcement No.
268 of 2015 of China Food and Drug Administration)
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
3.1 absorption speed
the time required for a specimen to absorb a certain amount of test solution
3.2 rewet
after the specimen absorbs a certain amount of test solution, under a certain pressure,
the mass of the test solution returned to the surface layer
3.3 leakage
after the specimen absorbs a certain amount of the test solution, under a certain pressure,
the mass of the test solution that passes through the anti-leakage bottom film
3.4 top sheet SAP residual
super absorbent resin attached to the surface of the specimen
3.5 foreign material
substances other than the normal composition and form of baby diapers, diaper mats,
diaper pads (nursing pads)
4 Product classification
4.1 According to product structure, it is divided into baby diapers, diaper mats and
diaper pads (nursing pads).
4.2 Baby diapers are divided into waist type diapers and pants type diapers according
to wearing methods.
packs of samples. Take 1 specimen from each pack of samples. Cut the edge elastic
band of the specimen. Respectively take 2g of test material from the middle of the two
specimens. Cut the test material into pieces. After mixing evenly, the specimens are
divided into two groups for parallel testing. The absolute error between the two
measured values shall not exceed 1.0%. Take the arithmetic mean to represent the
measurement result. Round to one decimal place.
NOTE: When the specimen is put into the container, avoid the leak-proof bottom film contacting
the container wall to prevent adhesion after high temperature.
7.9 Heavy metal content
The content of heavy metals lead, arsenic, cadmium and mercury shall be determined
according to 1.6 in Chapter 4 of "Safety Technical Specifications for Cosmetics"
(Edition 2015). Use microwave digestion method for sample processing.
7.10 Migratory fluorescent substances
The migratory fluorescent substances are determined according to Annex D.
7.11 Acrylamide content
Acrylamide content is determined according to GB/T 37859.
7.12 Formaldehyde content
The formaldehyde content is determined by high performance liquid chromatography
in GB/T 34448-2017.
7.13 Phthalates content
The phthalate content is determined according to GB/T 37860.
7.14 Decomposable carcinogenic aromatic amine dyes
Decomposable carcinogenic aromatic amine dyes are determined according to GB/T
17592 and GB/T 23344. See Annex E for a list of decomposable carcinogenic aromatic
amine dyes. When testing, try to take samples from the parts with darker printing or
dyeing.
NOTE: First test according to GB/T 17592. When aniline and/or 1,4-phenylenediamine are detected,
then test according to GB/T 23344.
7.15 Hygiene indicators
Hygiene indicators are determined according to GB 15979.
7.16 Applicable maximum waist circumference of diapers
8.6.2 Type inspection
When the inspected product meets all the technical requirements for type inspection in
Table 3, the batch will be judged as conforming. When any one of these inspection
items fails, the batch will be judged to be nonconforming.
8.7 Quality assurance
The product can only leave the factory after passing the inspection and attaching the
quality mark.
9 Marking, packaging, transportation, storage
9.1 Product sales identification and packaging
9.1.1 The following contents shall be indicated on the product sales package:
a) Product name (including words such as baby diapers, diaper mats and diaper pads
or baby nursing pads);
b) Reference to this Part;
c) Name of main raw material;
d) Baby diapers and diaper mats shall be marked with product specifications. Baby
diaper pads shall be marked with length and width dimensions;
e) Baby diapers and diaper mats shall be marked with the applicable weight;
f) Infant swimming diapers and infant training diapers shall be marked with the
purpose of use (swimming trunks shall contain the word "swimming", training
pants shall be marked with toilet training or similar terms);
g) Product conformity mark;
h) Other marked contents shall comply with the requirements of relevant national
laws, regulations and standards.
9.1.2 The sales packaging of the product shall ensure that the product is not
contaminated. The various identification information on the sales package shall be clear
and not easy to fade.
9.2 Product transportation and storage
9.2.1 Products shall use clean tools with protective measures during transportation.
Prevent heavy pressure, sharp object collision, sun and rain.
9.2.2 The finished product shall be stored in a dry and ventilated room without direct
Annex A
(Normative)
Determination method of penetration performance
A.1 Overview
Put the specimen on the sample holder. Put into a U-shaped specimen base lined with
absorbent paper. The standard test dosing module is placed in the absorption area of the
specimen surface. When the specimen is under a certain pressure, the dosing device
injects a certain volume of normal saline into the standard test dosing module. The
automatic timing device records the time from the start of liquid addition to the
complete absorption of normal saline by the specimen. Add the liquid to each specimen
twice. The absorption speed of the specimen is represented by two absorption times,
respectively. After the second addition is completed, remove the standard test dosing
module. After placing a certain number of layers of absorbent paper on the specimen,
then put in the standard test pressurization module. Pressurize for a specified time under
a certain pressure. The rewet amount of the specimen is expressed by the mass increase
of the absorbent paper on the specimen. The amount of leakage of the specimen is
represented by the mass increase of the absorbent paper at the bottom of the specimen.
A.2 Instruments and materials
A.2.1 Diaper absorption performance tester
A.2.1.1 Instrument composition
The diaper absorption performance tester consists of a U-shaped specimen base, a
sample holder, a standard test module, a mobile pressure device, a liquid storage device,
an automatic liquid filling device, and an automatic timing device.
A.2.1.2 U-shaped specimen base
The U-shaped specimen base is used to place the absorbent paper, the sample holder
with the sample and the standard test module during the test. According to different
specifications, it is divided into three models: B1, B2 and B3. The schematic diagram
is shown in Figure A.1.
A.2.1.5 Mobile pressurizing device
The mobile pressure device can provide constant pressure of (2.0±0.2)kPa,
(4.0±0.2)kPa.
A.2.1.6 Liquid storage device and automatic liquid addition device
Liquid storage device is for storing test solutions. The deviation of the liquid volume of
the automatic liquid addition device is ±2mL. The flow rate of liquid addition is
(480±10) mL/min.
A.2.1.7 Automatic timing device
The automatic timing device consists of a timing unit, a timing control part, and so on.
It is used for automatic recording of test times. The resolution is 0.01s.
A.2.2 Water
GB/T6682, grade three.
A.2.3 Normal saline
Weigh 9.00g of sodium chloride (analytical grade) into a 1000mL volumetric flask. Add
a small amount of food coloring. After dissolving, add water (A.2.2) to the mark and
shake well.
A.2.4 Absorbent paper
Quantitative is (145±5)g/m2. Water absorption is not less than 480%. Water absorption
is determined according to GB/T 24218.6.
A.2.5 Electronic balance
The resolution is 0.01g.
A.3 Specimen extraction
Take 5 pieces of specimens for each sample. The taken specimens at least come from
two sales packages. During the test, the test area of the specimen shall not be touched
by hand.
A.4 Determination of absorption speed and rewet
A.4.1 Test steps
A.4.1.1 Place the diaper absorption performance tester (A.2.1) in a horizontal position.
Pour a sufficient amount of normal saline with food coloring into the reservoir (A.2.3).
Start the instrument. Click the rinse button to rinse twice. Calibrate the dosing volume
of the automatic dosing device as specified in the instrument manual. Physiological
Annex B
(Normative)
Determination of pH value
B.1 Instruments and reagents
B.1.1 Instruments
B.1.1.1 pH meter: the accuracy is 0.01.
B.1.1.2 Balance: the resolution is 0.01g.
B.1.1.3 Mercury thermometer: the range is 0℃~100℃, and the accuracy is 1.0℃.
B.1.1.4 Beaker: 400mL.
B.1.1.5 Volumetric flask: 1000mL.
B.1.1.6 Stainless steel scissors.
B.1.1.7 G1 glass sand core funnel.
B.1.1.8 Stopwatch: the resolution is 0.1s.
B.1.2 Reagents
Unless otherwise specified, only analytically pure reagents are used.
B.1.2.1 Water: GB/T 6682, grade three.
B.1.2.2 Normal saline: 0.9% sodium chloride solution. Weigh 9.00g of sodium chloride
into a 1000mL volumetric flask. After dissolving, add water to the mark and shake well.
B.1.2.3 Standard buffer solution: pH values are 4.01, 6.86, 9.18 at 25°C.
B.2 Experimental steps
Take 1 piece of specimen. Remove backing film. Cut (1.0±0.1) g from the middle part
and place it in the beaker (B.1.1.4). The specimen shall be taken to ensure that the
surface layer to the bottom layer is completely covered. Add 200mL of normal saline
(B.1.2.2) and start timing. Use a glass rod to stir to thoroughly mix the specimen with
the normal saline. Then let it stand. Stir again at 10min. Use G1 glass sand core funnel
(B.1.1.7) to filter. Put a pH meter (B.1.1.1) into the filtrate to test. Read the pH value.
B.3 Calculation of test results
Annex C
(Normative)
Determination of foreign material
C.1 Overview
Fix the specimen on the surface of the lighting fixture. Test specimens under certain
conditions of transmitted light. Mark the foreign materials of different areas. Identify
the size of the impurity area on the diaper by comparing the standard impurity picture.
Typical foreign material includes sharp-edged objects (metal, ceramic, glass, grit, rigid
plastic pieces, etc.), insects, and broken plastic pieces, films, non-woven pieces.
Substances that form part of diapers are not counted as foreign material, for example,
colored superabsorbent resins, coarse filaments of non-woven fabrics, fiber bundles in
fluff pulp, hot melt adhesive dots, cotton husks remaining in cotton fibers, unseparated
non-woven fabric trims on diapers. However, the polluted fluff pulp, the hard glue on
the surface layer, and the material stained with oil are all foreign materials.
C.2 Instruments
C.2.1 Lighting device: Suitable for workers to inspect specimens in transmitted light.
LED lights with adjustable illumination are inside the device. The illumination range is
0lx~8000lx. The surface of the worktable is a milky white polyethylene plate or glass.
The light shall be even. Direct sunlight or any external light source shall be avoided
during the test.
C.2.2 Stainless steel scissors.
C.2.3 Standard foreign material pictures: Foreign material series of different areas and
shapes are printed on a transparent film. The left half area is the same horizontal row
where foreign material of the same area but different shapes are arranged. The right half
is the same column where foreign material of the same area but different shapes are
arranged. See Figure C.1 for details.
  Annex D
(Normative)
Determination of migratory fluorescent substances
D.1 Reagents and materials
Unless otherwise specified, only analytically pure reagents are used.
D.1.1 Water: GB/T 6682, grade three.
D.1.2 Gauze: pure cotton material, about 5cm×5cm in size.
D.1.3 Ammonia: 0.1%.
D.1.4 Hydrochloric acid solution: 10%.
D.1.5 Extraction solution: water with a pH value of 7.5~9.0 adjusted with 0.1%
ammonia water (D.1.3).
D.1.6 Fluorescence standard sample: the fluorescence is uniform, and the fluorescence
brightness is 0.40%~0.60%.
NOTE: Except for fluorescent standard samples, the reagents and materials used have no
fluorescence phenomenon under UV light.
D.2 Instruments
D.2.1 Balance: the resolution is 0.001g.
D.2.2 Erlenmeyer flask: 250mL.
D.2.3 G1 glass sand core funnel.
D.2.4 Glass watch glass.
D.2.5 Ultraviolet lamp: the wavelength is 254nm and 365nm, with the device to protect
the eyes.
D.2.6 pH meter: the accuracy is 0.01.
D.2.7 Constant temperature water bath: the temperature control accuracy is (40±2)℃.
D.3 Test procedure and result judgment
D.3.1 Take a random specimen from the sample. Place the specimen together with the
fluorescent standard sample (D.1.6) at about 20cm under the UV lamp (D.2.5).
Compare and observe the fluorescence phenomenon on both sides of the sample and
the fluorescence standard. If the fluorescence of the specimen is weaker than that of the
fluorescence standard, then it is determined that the sample has no migrating fluorescent
substances, and the test is terminated. If the fluorescence phenomenon of the specimen
is stronger than that of the fluorescence standard sample, continue to test and judge
according to D.3.2~D.3.9.
D.3.2 Cut out the part where the fluorescence phenomenon of the specimen is obvious.
Cut into small pieces about 5mm x 5mm. Accurately weigh 2.0g of the specimen and
place it in the Erlenmeyer flask (D.2.2).
NOTE: If the mass of the fluorescent obvious part of one specimen is less than 2.0g, take samples
from multiple specimens.
D.3.3 Add 100mL of extraction solution (D.1.5) to the flask. Shake the flask slowly at
room temperature. Extract 10min. Then filter with a G1 glass sand core funnel (D.2.3).
D.3.4 Use hydrochloric acid solution (D.1.4) to adjust the pH of the filtrate to 3.0~5.0.
Immerse the gauze (D.1.2) in the filtrate. Place in a constant temperature water bath
(D.2.7) with a temperature of (40±2)°C for 30min.
D.3.5 Remove the gauze with a tweezer. Then extrude the filtrate and fold it
symmetrically into four layers and place it on a glass watch glass (D.2.4).
D.3.6 Repeat steps D.3.3~D.3.5 to carry out blank test.
D.3.7 Conduct two parallel determinations for each sample.
D.3.8 Place the glass surface dish, on which the specimen gauze (D.3.5) and the blank
test gauze (D.3.6) are placed, about 20cm under the UV lamp. Observe the fluorescence
phenomenon of gauze
D.3.9 If the specimen gauze of the two parallel tests is compared with the blank test
gauze, there is no obvious fluorescence phenomenon, then it is judged that the sample
has no migratory fluorescent substances. If the two specimen gauzes have obvious
fluorescence phenomenon, it is judged that the sample has a migratory fluorescent
substance. If one of the two specimen gauzes is more fluorescent than the blank test
gauze, the test shall be repeated. If the re-tested specimen gauze is compared with the
blank test gauze, there is no obvious fluorescence phenomenon, then it is judged that
the sample has no migratory fluorescent substances. Otherwise, the sample is judged to
have migratory fluorescent substances.
......
 
Source: Above contents are excerpted from the PDF -- translated/reviewed by: www.chinesestandard.net / Wayne Zheng et al.