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GB/T 27840-2011 PDF in English


GB/T 27840-2011 (GB/T27840-2011, GBT 27840-2011, GBT27840-2011)
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GB/T 27840-2011: PDF in English (GBT 27840-2011)

GB/T 27840-2011
GB
NATIONAL STANDARD OF THE
PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF CHINA
ICS 43.020
T 40
Fuel consumption test methods
for heavy-duty commercial vehicles
ISSUED ON. DECEMBER 30, 2011
IMPLEMENTED ON. JANUARY 01, 2012
Issued by. General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and
Quarantine of the People's Republic of China;
Standardization Administration of the People's Republic of
China.
Table of Contents
Foreword ... 4
1 Scope ... 5
2 Normative references ... 5
3 Terms and definitions ... 5
4 General requirements ... 6
5 Chassis dynamometer test ... 7
5.1 Vehicle preparation ... 7
5.2 Determination of running resistance ... 7
5.3 Chassis dynamometer method ... 7
5.4 Test procedure ... 9
5.5 Test deviation ... 10
6 Simulation calculation method ... 13
6.1 Algorithm ... 13
6.2 Input parameter ... 13
6.3 Determination of running resistance ... 15
6.4 Calculation of tyre rolling radius ... 17
6.5 Calculation of engine speed and torque ... 17
6.6 Gear-shift strategy ... 18
6.7 Calculation of fuel consumptions under urban, highway and
expressway cycles ... 19
6.8 Calculation of comprehensive fuel consumption... 19
6.9 Output ... 19
Annex A (normative) Test report (chassis dynamometer method) [Maximum
size. A4 (210 mm × 297 mm)] ... 20
Annex B (normative) Test report (simulation calculation method) [Maximum size.
A4 (210mm × 297 mm)] ... 23
Annex C (normative) Determination of running resistance and simulation on a
chassis dynamometer ... 27
Annex D (normative) Test record form ... 34
Annex E (normative) Technical characteristics of chassis dynamometer ... 37
Annex F (normative) C-WTVC cycle ... 39
Annex G (informative) Diagram of simulation calculation method ... 48
Annex H (normative) Input and output format ... 50
Fuel consumption test methods
for heavy-duty commercial vehicles
1 Scope
This Standard specifies the test methods for fuel consumption of heavy-duty
commercial vehicles.
This Standard applies to the commercial vehicles fueled by gasoline or diesel
with a maximum design mass exceeding 3 500 kg.
2 Normative references
The following documents are essential for the application of this document. For
dated references, only the dated edition applies. For undated references, the
latest edition (including all the amendments) applies.
GB/T 1413 Series 1 freight containers - Classification, dimensions and
ratings
GB/T 1884 Crude Petroleum and Liquid Petroleum Products - Laboratory
Determination of Density - Hydrometer Method
GB/T 3730.1 Motor vehicles and trailers - Types - Terms and definitions
GB/T 12534-1990 Motor vehicles - General rules of road test method
GB/T 15089 Classification of power-driven vehicles and trailers
GB/T 18297-2001 Performance test code for road vehicle engines
GB 18352.3-2005 Limits and measurement methods for emissions from
light-duty vehicles (China III, IV)
3 Terms and definitions
For the purpose of this document, the terms and definitions defined in GB/T
3730.1 and GB/T 15089 and the followings apply.
3.1
5 Chassis dynamometer test
5.1 Vehicle preparation
5.1.1 Test run
Test vehicles shall be subjected to a test run of a minimum 2500 and a
maximum 10000 km.
5.1.2 Tyre
Test types shall be original tyres for the vehicle type specified by the
manufacturer. In case that several tyres of different specifications are available
for the vehicle type, the tyre having the maximum rolling resistance shall be
selected for test. Prior to the test, the tyres shall be inflated to the pressure
recommended by the vehicle manufacturer according to the tyres’ maximum
test load and maximum test speed.
The tyres shall have a tread depth within 90 % and 50 % of the initial tread
depth, alternatively new tyres that have been run-in with the test vehicle may
be used.
5.2 Determination of running resistance
The running resistance of vehicle at constant speed shall be determined
according to Annex C. The vehicle parameters for test and test data shall be
recorded according to Annex D.
5.3 Chassis dynamometer method
5.3.1 Chassis dynamometer and relevant test apparatus
5.3.1.1 Chassis dynamometer shall be capable of accurately simulating the
vehicle’s road running resistance, accelerations and decelerations, and the
equivalent inertia under the conditions of the maximum design mass of test
vehicle. The technical characteristics of chassis dynamometer shall comply
with the requirements of Annex E.
NOTE. For semi-trailer towing vehicles, the maximum design mass in this Standard refers to
the maximum mass of combination vehicle.
5.3.1.2 Measuring system shall be designed as to measure the fuel
consumptions under urban, highway and expressway cycles of C-WTVC Cycle
respectively. See Annex F for the data of C-WTVC Cycle.
5.3.1.3 The relevant metering devices shall meet the following accuracy
5.4 Test procedure
5.4.1 The vehicle shall be arranged according to C.2.2.1 and connected with
the testing equipment such as fuel flowmeter and emission sampling system to
confirm that the fuel pipes exhibit no leakage and evacuated adequately.
5.4.2 Adjust chassis dynamometer according to C.2.2 or C.3.2.
5.4.3 During the test, the vehicle shall be so loaded as to ensure the vehicle is
absent from any slipping. For towing vehicles, vertical load shall be applied on
saddle position. If the testing organization can demonstrate that no slipping
phenomenon that may have significant influence on measuring results would
occur, load may not be applied with the agreement of the vehicle manufacturer.
5.4.4 Set the chassis dynamometer as road resistance simulation mode, and
well connect with data collection system and driver assistant system.
5.4.5 During the test, simultaneously operate the relevant equipment for road
simulation such as cooling fan, speedometer and time recorder. Prior to the
formal test, it’s appropriate to run one or two complete C-WTVC cycles or use
other methods to enable the test vehicle and chassis dynamometer fully
warmed up.
5.4.6 During the test, select the appropriate gears depending on the vehicle
characteristics. The gear-shift strategy shall be determined by both vehicle
manufacturer and testing organization. When the vehicle fails to reach the
speed specified by C-WTVC cycle at a higher gear and the speed deviation
exceeds the specified value in 5.5.1, it shall be possible to shift to a lower gear
to continue the test, and then re-shift to the higher gear after the vehicle
accesses the constant speed that a higher gear applies. Gear shift shall be
rapid and stable during the test.
5.4.7 When the vehicle decelerates, it shall be necessary to fully release the
accelerator pedal and keep the clutch engaged, and then disengage clutch,
down shift or park until the test vehicle speed is reduced to the minimum stable
speed of such gear. Where necessary, vehicle brake and auxiliary brake device
may be used.
5.4.8 The test vehicle shall run on three complete C-WTVC cycle and record
test result at the end of each C-WTVC cycle respectively. If the weighting
coefficient of characteristic mileage distribution of any one part is 0, it shall be
possible to skip over this part and proceed to the subsequent part.
5.4.9 The vehicle and relevant equipment shall keep on running or use other
method to maintain warm-up condition between two adjacent C-WTVC cycles.
a) Vehicle type;
b) Complete vehicle kerb mass;
c) Maximum design mass;
d) Maximum design payload;
e) Maximum design traction mass (for semi-trailer towing vehicle only);
f) Rate seating capacity (including driver);
g) type of driving;
h) Number of axles (number of axles of combination vehicle, for semi-trailer
towing vehicle).
6.2.2 The engine parameters to be input include.
a) Engine universal characteristics shall be determined according to the
requirements of 8.5 in GB/T 18297-2001. During the test, a minimum of
81 data points shall be selected as uniformly as possible from 10% of the
maximum torque to the maximum torque and within the normal engine
speed range to measure the fuel consumption; wherein, the rated speed,
idling speed and 200 r/min above idling speed shall be rotation speeds
that must be taken; not-to-exceed 10 % of the maximum torque and the
maximum torque at each rotation speed shall be the points that must be
taken.
b) Engine drag torque shall be determined as set out in 8.7 and the test
preparation shall be carried out according to the requirements of 8.5 in
GB/T 18297-2001. During the test, a minimum of 9 data points shall be
selected as uniformly as possible between the idling speed and the
maximum speed of the engine to measure the engine drag torque,
wherein the idling speed and the maximum speed shall be the points that
must be taken. When measuring the engine drag torque, for the engines
without being equipped with a speed governor, the maximum speed shall
be 1.05 times the rotation speed at the maximum power or the rotation
speed when the rotation speed at the maximum power is exceeded and
the torque is reduced by 3 %, whichever is less. For the engines equipped
with speed governor, the maximum speed is the maximum speed with
load.
NOTE. Engine drag torque means the drag torque imposed by the engine to the vehicle
under the condition of vehicle dragging engine crankshaft rotation during the vehicle
running process.
c) Engine external characteristics shall be determined as set out in 8.3 of
GB/T 18297-2001 by selecting a minimum of 9 data points as uniformly
as possible within the normal engine speed range. The rated speed is the
point that must be taken.
d) Engine idling speed and fuel consumption at idling speed;
e) Engine rated speed;
f) Engine maximum speed.
6.2.3 The transmission parameters to be input include transmission type (AT,
MT, AMT), number of gears of main (auxiliary) transmission and gear ratio, and
final ratio, etc.
6.2.4 In addition to the above parameter, tyre specification shall also be input.
In the case of using energy variation during coast-down method, the relevant
test data shall also be submitted in the format set out in H.1.2.
6.3 Determination of running resistance
6.3.1 Energy variation during coast-down method
The coast-down test shall be carried out according to Annex C to determine the
running resistance. The format of time means sequence corresponding to the
several coast-down speeds is as shown in H.1.2, which shall serve as the read-
in file of simulation program.
6.3.2 Calculation of running resistance
6.3.2.1 Calculation of rolling resistance
The rolling resistance Ff equals to the product between rolling resistance
coefficient and test vehicle mass, calculated according to Equitation (7).
where
Ff - the rolling resistance of the test vehicle, in Newtons (N);
M - the maximum design mass, in kilograms (kg);
g - the gravitational acceleration, 9.8 m/s2;
f - the rolling resistance coefficient, as determined in Table 2.
Table 2 -- Rolling resistance coefficient
Category Rolling resistance coefficient
Maximum design mass < 14 000 kg Diagonal tyre Radial tyre
Maximum design mass  14 000 kg Diagonal tyre Radial tyre
NOTE. V - the speed of test vehicle, in kilometers per hour (km/h).
6.3.2.2 Calculation of air resistance
The air resistance shall be calculated by Equitation (8).
where
Fw - the air resistance of the test vehicle, in Newtons (N);
CD - the coefficient of air resistance; if the vehicle manufacturer provides
specific value and attach the relevant test report to demonstrate the
rationality of the value, such value shall be adopted, otherwise fixed values
0.8, 0.8, 0.8, 0.65 and 0.65 shall be allocated for semi-trailer towing vehicles,
dump trucks, goods vehicles (excluding dump truck), city bus and bus
(excluding city bus) respectively;
A - the frontal area, in square meters (m2), simply calculated by the vehicle
height minus ground clearance (300 mm is taken), multiplied by vehicle width;
V - the test vehicle speed, in kilometers per hour (km/h).
6.3.2.3 Total running resistance
The total resistance during vehicle running process shall be calculated by
Equitation (9).
where
R - the total running resistance, in Newtons (N);
Ff - the rolling resistance, in Newtons (N);
Fi - the gradient resistance, taken to be 0;
Fw - the air resistance, in Newtons (N);
M - the maximum design mass, in kilograms (kg);
V - the vehicle speed, in kilometers per hour (km/h);
t - the time, in seconds (s);
im - the transmission ratio.
6.4 Calculation of tyre rolling radius
The rolling radius shall be calculated by Equitation (10).
where
r - the rolling radius of the tyre, in meters (m);
d - the designed overall diameter of the tyre, in meters (m);
F - the coefficient, as shown in Table 3.
Table 3 -- F-value selection
Tyre Category F
5º rim 3.03
15º rim (series 45, 50, 55, 60 and 65) 3.03
Other tyres 3.05
Wide-base tyre for multi-purpose goods vehicle (radial tyre) 3.00
Wide-base tyre for multi-purpose goods vehicle (diagonal tyre) 2.94
6.5 Calculation of engine speed and torque
6.5.1 The engine speed shall be calculated by Equitation (11).
where
Ne(t) - the engine speed, in revolutions per minute (r/min);
im - the transmission ratio.
if - the final ratio.
r - the tyre rolling radius, in meters (m);
Annex A
(normative)
Test report (chassis dynamometer method)
[Maximum size. A4 (210 mm × 297 mm)]
A.1 Complete vehicle parameters
A.1.1 Vehicle model...
NOTE. The vehicle model is basic type;1)
The basic type of the vehicle model is ...
A.1.2 Vehicle name...
A.1.3 Trademark and manufacturer...
A.1.4 Chassis model and manufacturer2)...
A.1.5 Manufacturing date...
A.1.6 Vehicle type...
A.1.7 Vehicle Identification Number (VIN)...
A.1.8 Odometer reading...
A.1.9 Maximum design speed (km)...
A.1.10 Vehicle kerb mass and axle load (kg)...
A.1.11 Maximum mass and axle load (kg)...
A.1.12 Maximum mass of combination vehicle (kg)...
A.1.13 Overall dimensions. length × width × height (mm × mm × mm)3)...
A.1.14 Frontal area (m2)2),3)...
A.1.15 Coefficient of air resistance2),3)...
1) Delete as appropriate.
2) Leave it empty if data is not available.
3) For the test of semi-trailer towing vehicle, fill out the appropriate combination vehicle parameters.
Annex B
(normative)
Test report (simulation calculation method)
[Maximum size. A4 (210mm × 297 mm)]
B.1 Manufacturer information
B.1.1 Manufacturer name...
B.1.2 Mailing address...
B.1.3 Registration address...
B.1.4 Production address...
B.1.5 Manufacturer’s legal person and contact information...
B.1.6 Contact person and information...
B.2 Vehicle parameters
B.2.1 Complete vehicle and performance parameter
B.2.1.1 Vehicle model...
NOTE. The vehicle model is basic type;1)
The basic type of the vehicle model is ...
B.2.1.2 Vehicle brand...
B.2.1.3 Vehicle name...
B.2.1.4 Complete vehicle kerb mass (kg)...
B.2.1.5 Maximum design payload (kg)4)...
B.2.1.6 Maximum design traction mass (kg)4)...
B.2.1.7 Maximum design mass (kg)...
B.2.1.8 Maximum design bearing capacity of the saddle of semi-trailer towing
vehicle (kg)...
4) Leave it empty if not applicable.
B.2.4.4 Tyre specifications...
B.3 Simulation calculation parameters
B.3.1 Complete vehicle and performance parameters
B.3.1.1 The category of the present vehicle...
B.3.1.2 Vehicle model...
B.3.1.3 Vehicle name...
B.3.1.4 Maximum design traction mass (kg) 4)...
B.3.1.5 Calculated mass (kg)...
B.3.1.6 Complete vehicle kerb mass (kg)...
B.3.1.7 Specified number of passengers (including driver)...
B.3.1.8 Overall dimensions. [length × width × height (mm × mm × mm)]...
B.3.2 Engine parameters
B.3.2.1 Idle speed...
B.3.2.2 Rated speed...
B.3.2.3 Maximum speed...
B.3.3 Chassis parameters
B.3.3.1 Final ratio...
B.3.3.2 Rolling radius...
B.3.3.3 Number of gears of main and auxiliary transmissions...
B.3.3.4 Transmission ratio of each gear...
B.3.4 Coefficient of rolling resistance
B.3.5 Coefficient of air resistance
B.4 Simulation results
B.4.1 Urban fuel consumption (L/100 km)...
B.4.2 Highway fuel consumption (L/100 km)...
Annex C
(normative)
Determination of running resistance
and simulation on a chassis dynamometer
C.1 Test preparation
C.1.1 Test road
C.1.1.1 The coast-down test shall be carried out on clean, dry, level and straight
bituminous concrete or concrete pavement.
C.1.1.2 The test road shall be sufficiently long to meet the test requirements,
and its longitudinal gradient shall be within ±0.1 %.
C.1.2 Environmental conditions
C.1.2.1 Test shall be carried out under the weather conditions of no rain or fog.
C.1.2.2 The relative humidity shall be less than 95 %.
C.1.2.3 The atmospheric temperature shall be between 0 °C and 40 °C.
C.1.2.4 The average wind velocity measured at 1.6 m above the road surface
shall be no more than 3 m/s with peak speed not more than 5 m/s.
C.1.3 Test payload
C.1.3.1 Unless otherwise specified, the test vehicle shall be maintained in its
maximum design mass.
C.1.3.2 Load shall be applied to the vehicle according to paragraph 3.1 of GB/T
12534-1990.
C.1.4 Test vehicle
C.1.4.1 When testing on good vehicles, the body with the maximum front area
shall be used.
C.1.4.2 When testing on semi-trailer towing vehicles, the semi-trailer shall be
loaded with the Type 1AA container as specified in Clause 4 of GB/T 1413-2008.
C.1.4.3 The vehicle windows and air vents of the cab shall be closed.
C.1.5 Accuracy of test equipment
A - the frontal area, in m2, simply calculated by the vehicle height minus
ground clearance (300 m is taken), multiplied by vehicle width; or the data
submitted by the vehicle manufacturer;
RT - the total driving resistance, in Newtons (N), = RR + Rw;
KR - the temperature correction factor of rolling resistance, taken to be equal
to. 6 × 10-3/°C, or the manufacturer's correction factor that is approved by
the testing organization;
t - the road test ambient temperature, in Celsius (°C);
t0 - the reference ambient temperature, 20°C;
d - the air density at the test conditions, in kilograms per cubic meter (kg/m3);
where
d - the air density at the test conditions, in kilograms per cubic meter (kg/m3);
p - the atmospheric pressure during the test, in kilopascal (kPa);
p0 - the atmospheric pressure at the reference conditions, 100 kPa;
T - the absolute temperature during the test, in Kelvin (K);
T0 - the temperature at the reference conditions, 293.15 K (20 °C);
d0 - the air density at the reference conditions (20 °C, 100 kPa), 1.189 kg/m3.
C.2.2 Setting of chassis dynamometer
C.2.2.1 Install the vehicle on the chassis dynamometer and take appropriate
measures to secure the vehicle, so as to ensure test safety.
C.2.2.2 Adjust the tyre pressure (cold) of the driving wheels as required by the
vehicle manufacturer. The tyres shall be inflated to the pressure recommended
by the vehicle manufacturer according to the tyres’ maximum test load and
maximum test speed.
C.2.2.3 Set the equivalent inertia (I) of the chassis dynamometer as described
in E.4.
C.2.2.4 Bring the vehicle and chassis dynamometer to operating temperature
in a suitable manner.
Annex D
(normative)
Test record form
Table D.1 -- Parameters of the vehicle for coast-down test or chassis
dynamometer test
Test Vehicle Information Content
Vehicle model
Vehicle name
Trademark and manufacturer
Chassis model and manufacturer a
Manufacturing date
Vehicle type
Vehicle Identification Number (VIN)
Odometer reading (km)
Maximum design speed (km)
Kerb mass (kg)
Maximum design mass (kg)
Maximum mass of combination vehicle (kg) b
Overall dimensions. Length  Width  Height (mm  mm  mm) b
Frontal area (m2) a,b
Coefficient of air resistance a,b
Model, type and manufacturer of gearbox
Number of gears and individual gear ratio
Final ratio
Model, number and manufacturer of tyres
Tyre pressure (front/rear) (kPa) Front... Rear...
Drive type
Number of axles of semi-trailer a
Model, number and manufacturer of tyres for semi-trailer b
Tyre pressure of semi-trailer
Type and grade of fuel
Engine
Model and manufacturer
Type
Method of aspiration
Engine capacity (L)
Net power/speed [kW/(r/min)]
Maximum torque/speed [N • m/(r/min)]
Idle speed (r/min)
a Leave it empty if data is not available.
Annex E
(normative)
Technical characteristics of chassis dynamometer
E.1 General
This Annex specifies the technical characteristics and requirements of AC
chassis dynamometer, with single-axle and single roller, intended for the fuel
consumption test of heavy-duty commercial vehicles, while chassis
dynamometers of other types may refer to this annex.
E.2 Characteristics of chassis dynamometer
E.2.1 The chassis dynamometer shall be satisfied with the following structural
and functional requirements.
a) Equipped with two rollers which can couple with tyres respectively;
b) Realize absorption of driving power and inertia simulation through
electrical inertia;
c) Equipped with the function of measuring time, speed and distance covered;
d) Equipped with the additional braking function;
e) The road simulation fan can be synchronous with vehicle speed.
E.2.2 The chassis dynamometer shall have an accuracy meeting the following
requirements.
a) The static calibration deviation of torque (driving force) shall not exceed
±0.1 %;
b) The basic inertia deviation shall not exceed ±0.5 %;
c) The acceleration and deceleration shall have deviation of not exceeding
±1 %;
d) When the vehicle speed is greater than 10 km/h, the speed measured
deviation shall not exceed ±0.5 km/h;
e) When the vehicle speed is greater than 30 km/h, the consistent simulation
of total running resistance shall have a deviation not exceeding ±3 %;
f) The difference between the wind speed of simulation fan and vehicle speed
Annex H
(normative)
Input and output format
H.1 Input file
H.1.1 The input files shall be text files; in the case of the input data with decimal
places, two or more decimals are recommended; for the convenience of
reading, a list of explanation information shall be added in the right-side of data.
H.1.2 The input files of simulation program include transmission system file,
engine drag torque file, engine universal characteristics file, engine speed file,
maximum engine torque file and coast-down resistance file.
a) From the 2nd line in the transmission system file, successively list final
ratio, starting gear, number of gears of main transmission, transmission
ratio of each gear, number of gears of auxiliary transmission, and
transmission type; wherein, MT and AMT are represented by “0”, while AT
is represented by “1”.
Example.
5.286 Final ratio
2 Starting Gear
6 Main Transmission (Number of Gears)
6.314 1st
3.913 2nd
2.262 3rd
1.393 4th
1 5th
0.788 6th
0 Auxiliary Transmission (Number of Gears)
0 MT, AMT = 0, AT = 1
b) From the 3rd line in the engine drag torque file, successively list the engine
speed and drag torque relative to each measuring point in two columns;
wherein, the speed is expressed in r/min and the torque in N • m.
......
 
Source: Above contents are excerpted from the PDF -- translated/reviewed by: www.chinesestandard.net / Wayne Zheng et al.