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GB/T 20721-2022 PDF in English


GB/T 20721-2022 (GB/T20721-2022, GBT 20721-2022, GBT20721-2022)
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GB/T 20721-2022: PDF in English (GBT 20721-2022)

GB/T 20721-2022
NATIONAL STANDARD OF THE
PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF CHINA
ICS 25.040.30
CCS J 28
Replacing GB/T 20721-2006
Automatic guided vehicles - General specifications
ISSUED ON: APRIL 15, 2022
IMPLEMENTED ON: NOVEMBER 01, 2022
Issued by: State Administration for Market Regulation;
Standardization Administration of the People's Republic of China.
Table of Contents
Foreword ... 4 
1 Scope ... 6 
2 Normative references ... 6 
3 Terms and definitions... 7 
4 Product classification ... 8 
4.1 Classification based on navigation mode ... 8 
4.2 Classification based on drive mode ... 9 
4.3 Classification based on drive structure ... 9 
4.4 Classification based on loading mode ... 9 
5 System composition ... 9 
6 Technical requirements ... 10 
6.1 Appearance and structural requirements ... 10 
6.2 Interface requirements ... 11 
6.3 Functional requirements ... 12 
6.4 Performance requirements ... 22 
6.5 Power adaptability requirements ... 22 
6.6 Electromagnetic compatibility requirements ... 22 
6.7 Environmental adaptability requirements ... 22 
6.8 Security requirements ... 24 
6.9 Reliability requirements ... 25 
7 Test methods ... 25 
7.1 Test conditions ... 25 
7.2 Appearance and structure tests ... 26 
7.3 Interface test ... 26 
7.4 Functional tests ... 27 
7.5 Performance tests ... 33 
7.6 Power adaptability test ... 34 
7.7 Electromagnetic compatibility test ... 34 
7.8 Environmental adaptability tests ... 34 
7.9 Safety tests ... 37 
8 Inspection rules ... 37 
8.1 Inspection classification ... 37 
8.2 Type inspection ... 37 
8.3 Exit-factory inspection ... 38 
9 Marking, packaging, transportation and storage ... 39 
9.1 Marking ... 39 
9.2 Packaging ... 40 
9.3 Transportation ... 40 
9.4 Storage ... 40 
Annex A (Normative) Loading system ... 42 
Annex B (Normative) Application safety ... 44 
Annex C (Normative) Ground conditions and hazardous areas ... 45 
Bibliography... 46 
Automatic guided vehicles - General specifications
1 Scope
This Standard specifies product classification, technical requirements, test methods,
inspection rules and marking, packaging, transportation, storage for automatic guided
vehicles.
This Standard is applicable to the design, manufacture and inspection of automated
guided vehicles in the fields of warehousing, production lines, transportation, and
manufacturing.
2 Normative references
The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this
document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references,
the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.
GB/T 191, Packaging and storage marks
GB/T 2423.55, Environmental testing for electric and electronic products - Part 2:
Test method - Test Eh: Hammer tests
GB/T 4208, Degrees of protection provided by enclosure (IP code)
GB/T 5226.1-2019, Electrical safety of machinery - Electrical equipment of
machines - Part 1: General requirements
GB/T 10827.1-2014, Industrial trucks - Safety requirements and verification - Part
1: Self-propelled industrial trucks, other than driverless trucks, variable-reach
trucks and burden-carrier trucks
GB/T 15706, Safety of machinery - General principles for design - Risk assessment
and risk reduction
GB/T 16855.1, Safety of machinery - Safety-related parts of control systems - Part
1: General principles for design
GB/T 17626.2, Electromagnetic compatibility - Testing and measurement techniques
- Electrostatic discharge immunity test
GB/T 17626.3, Electromagnetic compatibility - Testing and measurement techniques
- Radiated, radio-frequency, electromagnetic field immunity test
of connectors of good and reliable.
d) There is no loosening of all fastening parts. Mark the key fastening parts. The
moving parts are well lubricated and running. The vibration reduction is reliable.
The hydraulic connection is reliable.
e) The structural safety protection device is connected reliably, functioning normally.
f) It has sufficient strength. Static load can withstand 1.25 times rated load.
g) There are no dangerous sharp edges or corners.
h) The positions of switches, buttons, handles and other devices are reasonable and
easy to operate.
6.1.3 Protection capability requirements
6.1.3.1 Enclosure protection level
It shall meet the requirements of GB/T 4208. The protection level of the indoor electric
control part shall not be lower than IP3X. The protection level of the outdoor electric
control part shall not be lower than IP54.
6.1.3.2 Housing damage resistance
The non-metallic shell shall meet the requirements of IK03 in GB/T 20138.
6.1.3.3 Components
The protection level of electrical components shall meet the requirements of GB/T 4208.
6.2 Interface requirements
6.2.1 Power interface
The output interface of the battery pack shall be connected by plugging. Soldering or
wire bonding is not permitted. The interface protection level shall not be lower than
IP2X.
6.2.2 External communication interface
Communication interfaces such as wireless serial port, optical, Ethernet, cellular mobile
shall be used.
6.2.3 Other interfaces
There shall be several debugging interfaces, wireless or wired manual operating device
interfaces.
6.3 Functional requirements
6.3.1 Mechanical body
6.3.1.1 The automatic guided vehicle body shall ensure that the distortion and
deformation during normal operation are small enough. Avoid malfunctions.
6.3.1.2 Body coverings shall be shaped to avoid possible hazards. The cover shall have
a strong structure to prevent functional failure due to collision with other items.
6.3.2 Control system
6.3.2.1 Control device
The control device shall have anti-vibration function. Avoid the resulting vibrations that
could cause damage to the device or malfunction.
The operation panel shall adopt an easy-to-observe and easy-to-operate structure. Avoid
operator mis-operation.
6.3.2.2 Running mode
The running mode can have automatic mode, manual mode, offline automatic mode to
execute motion commands. Mode switching is in accordance with the requirements of
GB/T 5226.1-2019. It shall be prevented that the operator accidentally touches and
causes the mode switch. The safety-related part shall at least meet the requirements of
PLb in GB/T 16855.1. The running modes mainly include the following modes.
a) Automatic mode: In the automatic operation mode, the automatic guided vehicle
shall be able to receive the management and command distribution of the system.
Follow the planned path to execute the task.
b) Manual mode: In manual control mode, the automatic guided vehicle shall be able
to move on the ground that meets the requirements. Manual control shall use the
operation panel or special manual control device provided by the manufacturer
(including wired or wireless). Wireless manual controls shall be industrial grade
products. There is no risk to the operator in this way. Risk analysis shall be carried
out in accordance with GB/T 15706.
NOTE: This mode is suitable for the maintenance, debugging and emergency state of automatic
guided vehicles.
c) Offline automatic mode: In the offline automatic mode, the automatic guided
vehicle uses a single machine as the running unit and is not managed by the
dispatching system. Within the specified scope, complete the corresponding tasks
according to the planned path. When the automatic guided vehicle does not accept
the management of the dispatching system, if conditions permit, it shall accept
b) Manual charging;
c) Battery exchange.
6.3.3.3 Function
The power system shall have the following functions:
a) With automatic charging function.
b) When the battery power is lower than the preset threshold, the automatic guided
vehicle stops. Prompt to charge and alarm. Operation can only be restored by
manual operation.
c) To avoid the danger of personnel due to accidental contact with the battery and
the charging connection of the charging system, the automatic charging system
(excluding the busbar preventing personnel access) is designed to be activated
only when the automatic guided vehicle is connected to the charging system.
d) In the open alternating magnetic field power supply mode, the manufacturer
provides the user with the relevant safety data of the magnetic field generated by
the power supply. Ensure no hazards to people in the environment.
e) Manufacturers shall choose appropriate batteries and charging equipment
according to user needs. Specifically, the following requirements shall be met:
- The automatic charging method is adopted to ensure a certain charging time in
the operating environment, and it can work continuously for 24h.
- Using manual charging method, the battery can be fully charged each time to
meet the requirements of at least one working shift.
6.3.4 Positioning and navigation system
6.3.4.1 Navigation mode
It includes but not limited to the following navigation methods.
a) Electromagnetic navigation: Pre-embed metal wires on the driving path of
automatic guided vehicles. Load currents with a certain frequency to the metal
wires. Through the electromagnetic induction coil on the automatic guided
vehicle, the strength of the magnetic field on the metal wire is sensed for
identification and tracking.
b) Magnetic navigation: Lay or pre-embed tape and magnetic nails on the driving
path of the automatic guided vehicle. The magnetic field strength of the ground
magnetic medium is sensed through the magnetic navigation sensor on the
automatic guided vehicle for identification and tracking.
c) Optical navigation: During the movement of the automatic guided vehicle, via its
own optical sensor, with methods of physical optical measurement, obtain the
degree of relative motion (speed and distance) between the navigation device and
the reference surface. Then determine the relative position and attitude
information, such as navigation through ribbons and lines.
d) Radio navigation: Using radio technology, the receiving end obtains its own
relative position and attitude information by measuring parameters such as the
angle and distance between itself and several transmitting ends, such as satellite
navigation, terrestrial radio navigation, and ultra-wideband navigation.
e) Laser navigation: Use a 2D or 3D laser scanning sensor to measure the beam
reflected by surrounding objects. Calculate the angle and distance between itself
and surrounding objects to obtain its relative position. Laser navigation includes
reflector and non-reflector methods.
f) Inertial navigation: Use inertial elements to measure the acceleration of the
automated guided vehicle itself. The speed and position are obtained through
integration and operation.
g) Visual navigation: Use two-dimensional or three-dimensional vision sensors to
obtain information such as images or videos of surrounding scenes. The
corresponding features are extracted by filtering, transformation and other
methods, so as to obtain their relative position.
h) Hybrid navigation: Mixed use of two or more navigation methods from a) to g)
above.
6.3.4.2 Positioning and navigation
Different functional modules in the positioning and navigation of automatic guided
vehicles shall meet the following requirements.
a) Initial positioning: According to different navigation methods, the automatic
guided vehicle can obtain the initial position information automatically/manually
at the current position point, OR automatically/manually obtain the initial
position information after running for a certain distance at low speed.
b) Autonomous positioning: Automatic guided vehicles can perform initial
positioning. It shall be able to locate in real time during operation, and timely
report the current position, direction and other information to the dispatching
system.
c) Path planning: The automatic guided vehicle shall be able to perform trajectory
planning and motion control according to the positioning information.
d) Recovery of positioning loss: In the case of loss of positioning, the automatic
a) When the power supply of the brake is cut off, the automatic guided vehicle starts
to brake.
b) Considering factors such as load, speed, friction, gradient and wear, when
obstacles appear within the detection range, the automatic guided vehicle stops.
c) On the maximum gradient specified by the manufacturer, the automatic guided
vehicle can be maintained at the maximum allowable load state without moving
when powered on or off.
d) When speed control or steering control is lost, the automatic guided vehicle starts
braking.
e) The brakes of automatic guided vehicles shall meet the requirements of GB/T
18849.
f) When the automatic guided vehicle brakes during operation, it shall be able to
maintain a moving posture without losing control.
6.3.6 Loading system
The loading system shall comply with the relevant provisions of Annex A.
6.3.7 Security system
6.3.7.1 Obstacle detection
Obstacle detection devices are divided into contact and non-contact. The application
safety of obstacle detection for automatic guided vehicles shall comply with the relevant
provisions of Annex B.
The obstacle detection device of the automatic guided vehicle shall meet the following
requirements.
a) Automatic guided vehicles shall be equipped with obstacle detection devices in
the main running direction. These obstacle detection devices shall meet the
following requirements:
- When the automatic guided vehicle is in operation, the detection range of the
obstacle detection device shall at least cover the entire width of the vehicle body
itself and its load.
- If using a non-contact obstacle detection device, ensure that the automated
guided vehicle stops before contacting a person or other obstacle.
- Non-contact obstacle detection device can have deceleration area and
emergency stop area. However, when people or other obstacles enter the
deceleration area, the control system is used to control the deceleration or stop.
When people or other obstacles enter the emergency stop area, use emergency
stop.
- For the non-contact obstacle detection device, according to the actual situation
of the field application, laser, infrared, ultrasonic or other detection sensors can
be selected. When the speed is greater than 0.3m/s or the load exceeds 200kg, the
safety-related part of the control system shall at least meet the requirements of
PLc in GB/T 16855.1.
- The non-contact obstacle detection device has a sufficient detection range for
objects of all materials in the application environment.
- Contact obstacle detection prevents injury or malfunction when AGV collides
with people or other obstacles. When the automatic guided vehicle collides with
people or other obstacles, the maximum trigger force of the collision bar shall not
exceed 22N. When a collision occurs, if the automatic resumption of operation is
allowed. The operation shall be resumed after the obstacle has left for at least 2s.
- Non-contact obstacle detection sensors monitor the driving path. At the same
time, the area is detected before the automatic guided vehicle starts, so that people
and objects entering the driving path can be detected before moving.
- The effective sensing distance of the emergency stop area of the non-contact
obstacle detection sensor is greater than the distance required for the emergency
stop of the automatic guided vehicle.
b) Safety-related parts of other obstacle detection devices (such as side protection
for turning) shall at least meet the requirements of PLc in GB/T 16855.1.
c) When the running mode is automatic or offline automatic, the obstacle detection
device shall not be turned off in any way under any circumstances.
d) When the automated guided vehicle cannot meet the requirements of a) (such as
an automated guided vehicle equipped with a fork arm, an automated guided
vehicle close to the loading and storage station), and there are trapped people who
cannot escape, the maximum speed in this direction shall be limited to 0.3m/s.
Provide parking measures within 600mm of the corresponding side. The safety-
related parts of this device shall at least meet the requirements of PLc in GB/T
16855.1.
e) If the obstacle detection device cannot guarantee the safety of people and objects
under the foreseeable working conditions (such as the stroke of the side bumper
of the automatic guided vehicle is too short), add other methods (such as by
designating a danger zone) to ensure the safety of people and objects security.
f) In the case of manual operation, the restraint obstacle detection device shall not
be lower than the PL level requirement of the obstacle detection device.
- Speed control is lost.
- Other control system failures require qualified operator intervention.
g) Battery alarm: When the battery is low, the automatic guided vehicle shall have a
sound and light warning (including in the non-automatic running state).
6.3.7.4 Stall protection
When the running speed of the automatic guided vehicle exceeds the controllable range,
it is a stall state. An automatic guided vehicle in a stalled state shall automatically stop
running. end out an alarm message. Wait for manual intervention.
6.3.7.5 Communication interruption protection
When the automatic guided vehicle and the communication network system are
interrupted for more than a certain period of time, the automatic guided vehicle shall
automatically stop running. Send an alert message. If the communication is interrupted
and restored within a certain period of time, the automatic guided vehicle shall resume
operation by itself.
NOTE: The duration of communication interruption is set by the manufacturer.
6.3.7.6 Navigation loss protection
Navigation loss protection includes navigation error overrun protection and landmark
loss protection.
The navigation error over-limit protection refers to the protection mechanism of the
automatic guided vehicle when the position and attitude of the vehicle body exceeds
the maximum position deviation value of the actual planning and monitoring under the
automatic operation state. The maximum position deviation value is set by the
manufacturer according to the application environment.
Landmark loss protection refers to the protection mechanism in which the automatic
guided vehicle does not detect the landmark information in the road segment it passes
through in the navigation method with landmark attributes. The deviation value is set
by the manufacturer according to the application environment.
When the automatic guided vehicle has navigation loss protection during operation, the
automatic guided vehicle shall stop running immediately. Send out an alarm message.
Wait for manual intervention.
6.3.7.7 Protection circuit and system safety analysis
The protection circuit and system safety analysis shall comply with:
a) In the system design of automatic guided vehicles, it is necessary to analyze the
potential danger caused by the failure of control components or program failure.
Appropriately add protective circuits to verify all potential hazards associated
with the design.
b) The reverse electromotive force and reverse current of the automatic guided
vehicle during emergency stop will not affect itself.
c) For battery management systems, protection circuitry keeps the battery within its
normal operating voltage threshold for charging. If the normal limit is exceeded,
the protection circuit will limit or shut down the charging or discharging to
prevent accidental occurrence.
6.3.8 Communication system
The communication system can choose fixed-point optical communication, industrial-
grade Wi-Fi or cellular mobile communication network.
6.3.9 Human-computer interaction system
6.3.9.1 LCD touch screen interaction
At least meet the following requirements:
a) Display scheduling system task state.
b) Display the running state of the automatic guided vehicle.
c) Display automatic guided vehicle safety state, sensor state.
d) Display fault information.
e) Simple control of the device.
6.3.9.2 Indicator light interaction
The color and state of the indicator light shall be selected according to the requirements
of GB/T 5226.1-2019.
6.3.10 Management system of automated guided vehicle
6.3.10.1 Remote upgrade
Automatic guided vehicles shall have remote firmware upgrade programs, including
embedded-level programs.
6.3.10.2 Abnormal alarm
When the automatic guided vehicle is in an abnormal state, it shall automatically report
the alarm information to the dispatching system. Display warning messages on the unit's
......
 
Source: Above contents are excerpted from the PDF -- translated/reviewed by: www.chinesestandard.net / Wayne Zheng et al.