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GB/T 19754-2015 (GB/T19754-2015)

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GB/T 19754-2015: PDF in English (GBT 19754-2015)
GB/T 19754-2015
GB
NATIONAL STANDARD OF THE
PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF CHINA
ICS 43.020
T 04
Replacing GB/T 19754-2005
Test methods for energy consumption
of heavy-duty hybrid electric vehicles
ISSUED ON. MAY 15, 2015
IMPLEMENTED ON. OCTOBER 1, 2015
Issued by. General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and
Quarantine of the PRC;
Standardization Administration of the PRC.
Table of Contents
Foreword ... 4 
1 Scope ... 5 
2 Normative references ... 5 
3 Terms and definitions ... 6 
4 Calculation method of net energy change (NEC) ... 7 
4.1 Calculation theory of NEC ... 7 
4.2 NEC calculation ... 7 
4.3 Determination of NEC relative variation ... 9 
5 Test cycle ... 11 
5.1 Requirements for test cycle ... 11 
5.2 Duration of test cycle ... 11 
6 Test preparation ... 12 
6.1 Test conditions ... 12 
6.2 Pre-collection of vehicle data ... 12 
6.3 Vehicle conditions ... 12 
6.4 Preset of energy storing device ... 14 
6.5 Technical conditions of chassis dynamometer ... 15 
6.6 Test instruments ... 17 
7 Test procedures ... 18 
7.1 Start and restart of vehicle propulsion system ... 18 
7.2 Pre-run ... 18 
7.3 Test procedures for non-externally chargeable hybrid electric vehicles ... 18 
7.4 Test procedures for externally chargeable hybrid electric vehicles ... 19 
8 Data records and results ... 23 
8.1 Environmental data ... 23 
8.2 Fuel density ... 23 
8.3 SOC, power battery voltage, super capacitor voltage, and NEC ... 23 
8.4 Driving distance ... 23 
8.5 Fuel consumption ... 23 
8.6 Net energy change (NEC) of energy storing device ... 23 
8.7 Energy consumption ... 23 
8.8 Test validity ... 27 
9 Final test report ... 27 
Appendix A (Normative) Example OF determination procedure of NEC relative
variation AND SOC correction procedure ... 28 
Appendix B (Normative) Data of typical urban bus cycle in China ... 31 
Appendix C (Informative) Driving cycle data recommended by fuel economy
test of the US hybrid heavy-duty vehicle ... 40 
Appendix D (Informative) Descriptions of driving cycles recommended by fuel
economy test of the US heavy-duty hybrid electric vehicle ... 106 
Appendix E (Informative) Form of parameters of test sample vehicle ... 110 
Bibliography ... 114 
Foreword
This Standard is drafted in accordance with the rules given in GB/T 1.1-2009.
This Standard replaces GB/T 19754-2005 “Test methods for energy
consumption of heavy-duty hybrid electric vehicles”. As compared with GB/T
19754-2005, in addition to editorial changes, the main technical changes are
as follows.
- ADD measurement and evaluation methods for energy consumption of non-
externally chargeable hybrid electric vehicles;
- Major changes in the method of converting electricity consumption and fuel
consumption;
- Major changes in the calculation method of NEC, and ADD the calculation
method for NEC of super capacitor;
- The test cycle has changed. ADD the C-WTVC driving cycle in GB/T 27840-
2011 as the test cycle for hybrid commercial vehicles and the urban bus
cycle (expressway) in QC/T 759-2006;
- Significant changes in the test procedures and result evaluation.
This Standard was proposed by Ministry of Industry and Information Technology
of the PRC.
This Standard shall be under the jurisdiction of National Technical Committee
of Auto Standardization (SAC/TC 114).
Drafting organizations of this Standard. Dongfeng Motor Corporation, China
Automotive Technology and Research Center Co., Ltd., Technical Center of
China FAW Group Co., Ltd., Hunan CRRC Times Electric Vehicle Co., Ltd..
Main drafters of this Standard. Li Zheng, Yang Xiaolun, Xin Jixin, Duan
Shengbo, Xu Pingxing, Deng Yuanfa, She Jianqiang, Peng Hongtao, Zhang
Chunlong, Qin Kongjian, He Yuntang, Zhang Yingnan, Yang Fang, Guo Shuying.
The previous versions of the standard replaced by this Standard were released
as follows.
- GB/T 19754-2005.
Test methods for energy consumption
of heavy-duty hybrid electric vehicles
1 Scope
This Standard specifies the methods for energy consumption test of heavy-duty
hybrid electric vehicles on chassis dynamometers or roads.
This Standard applies to hybrid electric vehicles with a maximum total mass of
more than 3500 kg.
2 Normative references
The following documents are indispensable for the application of this document.
For the dated references, only the versions with the dates indicated are
applicable to this document. For the undated references, the latest version
(including all the amendments) are applicable to this document.
GB/T 12534 Motor vehicles - General rules of road test method
GB 18352.3-2005 Limits and measurement methods for emissions from
light-duty vehicles (III, IV)
GB/T 18386 Electric vehicles - Energy consumption and range - Test
procedures
GB/T 19596 Terminology of electric vehicles
GB/T 19753 Test Methods for Energy Consumption of Light-duty Hybrid
Electric Vehicles
GB/T 27840-2011 Fuel consumption test methods for heavy-duty commercial
vehicles
QC/T 741 Ultra-capacitor for Electric Vehicles
QC/T 759-2006 City Driving Cycle for Vehicle Testing
QC/T 837 Types of hybrid electric vehicles
3 Terms and definitions
The terms and definitions defined in GB/T 19596, QC/T 741, QC/T 837, GB/T
19753, and GB/T 27840 and the following are applicable to this document.
3.1 Super capacitor state of charge; SOC
The difference BETWEEN the squared value of the capacitor voltage based on
actual measurement AND the squared value of allowed lower limit voltage of
capacitor specified by the manufacturer (Uact2-Umin2), which is expressed as a
percentage of the difference BETWEEN the squared value of the maximum
nominal voltage of capacitor AND the squared value of allowed lower limit
voltage of capacitor specified by the manufacturer (Umax2-Umin2).
3.2 Net energy change; NEC
The net change in energy of energy storing device.
Note. The unit is kilowatt-hour (kW · h).
3.3 Propulsion energy
The energy obtained from the fuel consumed by the vehicle and/or energy
storing device for driving the vehicle. If the energy is only supplied to the vehicle
accessories (such as 12 V/24 V auxiliary batteries in conventional vehicles), it
shall not be treated as propulsion energy.
3.4 Propulsion system
The system which can provide the propulsion force to the vehicle based on the
driver’s operating instructions after the vehicle is started.
3.5 Regenerative braking
The system which converts or partially converts the kinetic energy and potential
energy of a vehicle during its running to the energy stored in the energy storing
device when the vehicle slows down or goes downhill.
3.6 Total fuel energy
The total fuel energy calculated based on the low calorific value of the fuel.
Note. The unit is kilowatt-hour (kW · h).
Uend - The voltage of super capacitor bus at the end of the test cycle, in volts
(V);
Ustart - The voltage of super capacitor bus at the start of the test cycle, in volts
(V).
4.3 Determination of NEC relative variation
4.3.1 Total cycle propulsion energy
4.3.1.1 Calculation method of total cycle propulsion energy
This Standard uses the total cycle propulsion energy instead of the total fuel
propulsion energy to determine the relative variation of NEC; because for the
same test cycle, the total cycle propulsion energy does not change substantially.
However, the latter may vary with the energy stored in the energy storing device;
and fuel propulsion energy and the electric-energy propulsion energy form a
complementary relationship, and the fuel propulsion energy changes in a
plurality of tests.
The total cycle propulsion energy can be calculated by one of the following two
methods. Method 1 is to calculate the total cycle propulsion energy through the
data collected by the chassis dynamometer. Method 2 is to calculate the total
fuel propulsion energy by the amount of fuel consumed in the test, and then to
calculate the total cycle propulsion energy according to the NEC during the test.
4.3.1.2 Determination of total cycle propulsion energy by chassis
dynamometer test method
When the vehicle is tested on the chassis dynamometer, the chassis
dynamometer can measure the actual propulsion force of the vehicle on the
wheel edge during the test in real time, and the actual vehicle speed. The total
cycle propulsion energy (unit. kW · h) can be calculated by formula (5).
Where.
k3 - Unit conversion factor, (3.62×106)-1, in kilowatt-hours per joule (kW · h/J);
F - The vehicle propulsion force on wheel edge measured in real time, the force
is positive. When the vehicle propulsion force is negative, 0 is taken, in newtons
(N);
V - Vehicle speed measured in real time, in kilometers per hour (km/h);
Total cycle propulsion energy
Before the test, the vehicle shall be subjected to mileage running-in in
accordance with the regulations of the vehicle manufacturer, or run for 3000 km.
6.3.2 Vehicle state
Before the test, the vehicle state shall be checked.
- The performance of the test vehicle shall comply with the regulations of the
vehicle manufacturer. The vehicle shall be able to drive normally;
- The engine, motor, and vehicle controls shall be adjusted in accordance
with the regulations of the vehicle manufacturer;
- If the vehicle’s cooling fan is temperature-controlled, it shall be kept in a
normal working condition. The air conditioning system of passenger
compartment shall be closed.
6.3.3 Load of test vehicle
Except for special regulations, the load of M2 and M3 urban buses, according to
the selected test cycle, is 65% or full load of the loading mass. Other vehicles
are fully loaded. The occupant mass and loading requirements shall be in
accordance with GB/T 12534.
6.3.4 Tire pressure
For chassis dynamometer test, before the start of the test, the tire pressure
shall be set to the pressure value when the vehicle establishes the road drag
coefficient on the chassis dynamometer; and shall not exceed the
manufacturer’s specified value range.
6.3.5 Shift
The driver shall, by using the appropriate operation of accelerator pedal or/and
the accurate selection of shifting speed, achieve the corresponding relationship
between the vehicle speed and the time specified by driving cycle. It shall be
avoided that the vehicle speed changes more slowly than the theoretical speed,
or there is excessive disturbance by accelerator pedal, so as not to cause the
invalidity of the test.
The acceleration process shall be smooth according to the manufacturer’s
recommendations. For manual transmissions, the driver shall, in the shortest
amount of time, complete the shifting process. If the vehicle cannot accelerate
at the specified speed, the vehicle shall run at the maximum accelerator pedal
until the speed reaches the theoretical speed requirement.
6.3.6 Speed and tolerance
6.5 Technical conditions of chassis dynamometer
6.5.1 General requirements of chassis dynamometer
If testing on a chassis dynamometer, heavy-duty hybrid electric vehicles shall
be tested using a laboratory equipped with the following facilities. The chassis
dynamometer shall be able to simulate transient inertial load, air resistance,
and rolling resistance during normal operation of heavy-duty vehicles. At this
time, road grade is not considered in the driving cycle. Transient inertial load
shall be simulated using appropriately sized flywheels or electrically controlled
power absorption devices. Air resistance and rolling resistance can be achieved
by applying a certain absorbed power by the corresponding computer control
system. Air resistance and rolling resistance shall be obtained by simulating a
road taxi curve on a chassis dynamometer. The road taxi procedure is detailed
in the relevant part of Annex CC of GB 18352.3-2005. Unless the rotational
inertia of propulsion system of hybrid vehicle can be accurately calculated, the
road taxi curve is not allowed to be obtained by numerical calculation. The
actual mass for vehicle road taxi shall be consistent with the mass of the vehicle
on the chassis dynamometer to be tested. The vehicle shall be mounted on the
chassis dynamometer, so that it can be driven according to the test cycle. The
driver shall be provided with an assistant driver display screen which shows the
theoretical vehicle speed and the actual vehicle speed, to ensure that the driver
can operate the vehicle according to the theoretical cycle.
6.5.2 Capacity of chassis dynamometer
The capacity of chassis dynamometer shall be able to ensure the accurate
reproduction of the inertial force, rolling resistance, and air resistance during
actual driving of vehicle. It is necessary to consider the damping inside the
chassis dynamometer, to avoid the side effect of mechanical action of chassis
dynamometer on the energy consumption of vehicle.
6.5.3 Calibration of chassis dynamometer
The chassis dynamometer laboratory shall provide calibration procedures
recommended by the chassis dynamometer manufacturer.
6.5.4 Inertial load
The inertial load of the vehicle starting from a complete stop state needs to be
correctly simulated (e.g., the theoretical calculating value of the energy for
accelerating vehicle plus rolling resistance and air resistance shall be
consistent with the results of the actual road taxi test).
6.5.5 Road resistance
shall be shielded, and other components of the vehicle shall be in the same
state (e.g., air conditioning off, etc.).
6.6 Test instruments
6.6.1 Test instruments
The test equipment required and recommended for use is as follows.
- Test instrument for measuring vehicle speed and distance (such as non-
contact vehicle speedometer). The measurement accuracy of the vehicle
speed shall be ±0.2 km/h; and the measurement accuracy of time shall be
±0.1 s. The measuring devices for fuel consumption, energy consumption,
vehicle speed, and time shall be started synchronously.
- An assistant driver display screen for real-time display of test cycle
theoretical vehicle speed and actual vehicle speed to guide the driver to
adjust the driving speed. Moreover, the actual driving speed and the
theoretical speed shall be able to be recorded. The recording frequency
shall not be lower than 1Hz.
- The fuel consumption meter for measuring fuel consumption; the accuracy
shall not exceed ±0.5% of the measured value. Or the balance for
measuring fuel consumption using the weighing method; the accuracy shall
not exceed ±0.5% of the measured value.
- Instrument for measuring current. The accuracy shall not exceed ±0.5% of
the maximum measured value, or ±0.2% FS. The operating frequency shall
not be lower than 20 Hz.
- Instrument for measuring voltage. The accuracy shall not exceed ±0.5% of
the maximum measured value, or ±0.2% FS. The operating frequency shall
not be lower than 20 Hz.
- Other instruments which can meet the requirements of function for the
electric energy consumption test, approved by technical supervision
department, can be used for testing; but the accuracy shall not exceed ±0.5%
of the measured value.
6.6.2 Test accuracy of the instrument for taxi test measured parameters
The test accuracy of the instrument for taxi test measured parameters is
specified as follows.
- Time. The accuracy is ±0.1 s;
- Vehicle speed. The accuracy is ±0.2 km/h;
The vehicle is preheated and pre-treated on the road or chassis dynamometer
using a complete test cycle. At the end of the cycle, the ignition lock is turned
off for 15 min, and vehicle preset is performed.
7.3.3 Operation of energy consumption test
The vehicle is tested on the road or chassis dynamometer according to the
driving cycle. Each time the test is completed, the ignition lock needs to be
turned off for 15 min to preset the thermal state of the vehicle. Continuous
testing does not require pre-cycle operation. If non-test driving activity is carried
out before three test operations are completed, the pre-cycle operation shall be
resumed before the next test, and then the formal test is started.
7.3.4 Number of test cycles and its treatment
At least three tests are required. The tester, according to the provisions of 8.8,
judges whether the test results are valid and the number of tests is sufficient,
and then decides to end the test.
7.4 Test procedures for externally chargeable hybrid electric vehicles
7.4.1 Preset of vehicle state of charge
For externally chargeable hybrid electric vehicles, before the first test, the
vehicle is required to be charged to the upper limit of state of charge required
by the vehicle manufacturer.
7.4.2 Test procedures for externally chargeable hybrid electric vehicle
including pure electric operating mode
7.4.2.1 General
Externally chargeable hybrid electric vehicle including a pure electric operating
mode refers to a vehicle which can complete the “typical urban bus cycle in
China” in a pure electric operating mode. If a vehicle’s hybrid design or control
strategy is set to use a pure motor when below a certain speed and use a hybrid
operation when above a certain speed, it is not an externally chargeable hybrid
electric vehicle including a pure electric operating mode specified in this
Standard. This type of vehicle is implemented in accordance with the test
procedures described in 7.4.3.
The pure electric operating mode may be arranged on the instrument desk with
the manual switch as a button; and the accelerator pedal is depressed and the
powertrain does not output power, as the end of the pure electric operating
mode. Or it may rely on the automatic transition of the vehicle controller, with
In other cases as described in Table 2, the division of working stage and the
number of tests are determined according to Table 2.
If the change in the NEC variation in the test results is irregular, and no
consecutive three test results in the six tests have the absolute value of NEC
variation no more than 5%, the six tests are regarded as Stage 2 (energy
adjustment of energy storing device). The test is over.
If necessary, the testing authority may appropriately increase the number of
tests according to the circumstances, but when the irregular change in NEC
variation described in the previous paragraph occurs, at least six tests are
required.
In principle, it is best to complete the three-stage test in succession at one time.
If it is impossible, the non-test vehicle driving shall be carried out. After the start
of Stage 2 test, at least three tests shall be conducted before a temporary
interruption of the test is allowed. Charging or energy adjustment of the
vehicle’s energy storing device is not allowed until the start of the next test.
When the test is started again, the pre-cycle operation is performed in
accordance with the requirements of 7.3.2, and then the formal test operation
is started.
7.4.3 Test procedures for externally chargeable hybrid electric vehicle not
including pure electric operating mode
7.4.3.1 Vehicle movement
If the road test is carried out and the parking position where vehicle charging is
completed is not at the same place as the test site, the vehicle is required to
move to the test site at a constant speed of not more than 30 km/h. The
maximum distance from the vehicle preset location to the test location shall not
exceed 3 km. Then POWER off, TURN off the ignition lock for 15 min; and
CARRY out vehicle preset.
If the test is carried out on a chassis dynamometer, the test can be started
directly from the cold state.
7.4.3.2 Pre-cycle operation of energy consumption test
The vehicle is preheated and pre-treated on a road or chassis dynamometer
using a complete test cycle. At the end of the cycle, the ignition lock is turned
off for 15 min; and vehicle preset is performed.
7.4.3.3 Operation of energy consumption test
L/100 km); electric energy consumption, how many kilowatt-hours of electricity
consumed per 100 km of driving (unit. kW · h/100 km); energy consumption
(also called the corrected value of fuel consumption), for non-externally
chargeable hybrid electric vehicles, according to the method specified in 8.7.2,
the equivalent fuel consumption per 100 km of driving can be calculated (unit.
L/100 km).
8.7.2 Non-externally chargeable hybrid electric vehicles
8.7.2.1 Judgment condition for test validity
This Standard uses NEC divided by the total cycle propulsion energy as the
judgment condition, to determine whether the energy change of energy storing
system in the whole test cycle is effective, and whether the SOC correction of
fuel economy is required. The judgment principles are as follows.
a) If the calculated absolute value of relative variation of NEC is less than or
equal to 1%, as shown in formula (9), it is not necessary to perform SOC
correction on the fuel economy result of the test.
b) If the calculated absolute value of relative variation of NEC is greater than
1% but not more than 5%, as shown in formula (10), the energy
consumption can be calculated according to the subsequent 8.7.2.2 SOC
correction procedure and 8.7.2.3 correction accuracy.
c) If the calculated relative variation of NEC is less than -5%, the vehicle test
continues to discharge, as shown in formula (11), or if the test results show
an irregular change in NEC variation, then the test result is obtained
according to the method in 8.7.3.1.3.
d) If the calculated relative variation of NEC exceeds +5%, as shown in
formula (12), the test result is considered invalid, and the vehicle control
strategy is considered unreasonable and needs to be adjusted.
drive2
Total cycle propulsion
energy
drive2
Total cycle propulsion
energy
drive2
Total cycle propulsion
energy
drive2
Total cycle propulsion
energy
Epure electric - Electric energy consumption of the stage of pure electric driving
range, in kilowatt-hours per 100 kilometers (kW · h/100 km);
NECdriving range - Electric energy consumption during the test of pure electric
driving range calculated by reference to 4.2, in kilowatt-hours (kW · h);
Sdriving range - The driving range measured in the pure electric driving range test
stage, in kilometers (km).
8.7.3.1.2.2 For the road test with vehicle movement, the electric energy
consumption (unit. kW · h/100 km) in the stage of pure electric driving range
can be calculated according to formula (13). According to formula (14) and
formula (15), the equivalent pure electric driving range (unit. km) can be
calculated.
Where.
Sequivalent driving range - The total pure electric driving range including the movement
stage and the driving range test stage, in kilometers (km);
Smovement stage - Equivalent pure electric driving range in the movement stage, in
kilometers (km);
NECmovement stage - Electric energy consumption in the movement stage
calculated by reference to the formula in 4.2, in kilowatt-hours (kW · h).
8.7.3.1.3 Stage of energy adjustment of energy storing device (Stage 2)
For the stage of energy adjustment of energy storing device, the test results of
fuel consumption (unit. L/100 km) and electric energy consumption (unit.
kW · h/100 km) are directly listed. If the driving range in the stage of energy
adjustment of energy storing device can be measured by a test, the driving
range (unit. km) needs to be listed.
8.7.3.1.4 Stage of electric energy balanced operation (Stage 3)
For the stage of electric energy balanced operation, according to the method of
8.7.2, the test results of fuel consumption (unit. L/100 km), electric energy
consumption (unit. kW · h/100 km), and equivalent fuel consumption (unit.
L/100 km) are obtained.
equivalent
driving range
movement
stage driving range
driving range
driving range
movement
stage
movement
stage
Appendix E
(Informative)
Form of parameters of test sample vehicle
E.1 Overview
E.2 Overall structural characteristics of vehicle
E.3 Mass and dimensions (in kg and m) (if applicable, SEE the schematic
diagram)
E.3.2 Maximum technically permissible total mass declared by the
E.4 Power system
E.4.3 Information of engine characteristics
E.4.3.1 Working principle (Spark ignition□/Compression ignition□, Four-
capacity (A · h); for super capacitor. nominal voltage (V) and capacitance (F)]
E.4.4.4.5 Charger. On-board□/External□/No□
E.4.4.5 Motor (Electric□/Power generation□) (independent description of each
motor)
E.4.4.5.4.2 Synchronous□/Asynchronous□/Other□
E.4.4.6 Vehicle control unit
E.4.4.7 Motor controller
E.5 Drive system
E.5.2 Transmission
Type (Manual□/Automatic□/AMT□/CVT□)
......
 
(Above excerpt was released on 2018-10-26, modified on 2021-06-07, translated/reviewed by: Wayne Zheng et al.)
Source: https://www.chinesestandard.net/PDF.aspx/GBT19754-2015