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GB/T 1859.1-2015 (GB/T1859.1-2015)

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GB/T 1859.1-2015: PDF in English (GBT 1859.1-2015)
GB/T 1859.1-2015
GB
NATIONAL STANDARD OF THE
PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF CHINA
ICS 27.020
J 93
Partially replacing GB/T 1859-2000
Reciprocating internal combustion engines -
Measurement of sound power level using sound
pressure - Part 1. Engineering method
ISSUED ON. DECEMBER 10, 2015
IMPLEMENTED ON. JULY 1, 2016
Issued by. General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and
Quarantine of the PRC;
Standardization Administration of the PRC.
Table of Contents
Foreword ... 4 
Introduction ... 6 
1 Scope ... 9 
2 Normative references ... 9 
3 Terms and definitions ... 9 
4 Acoustic environment ... 12 
4.1 General ... 13 
4.2 Background noise criteria ... 13 
4.3 Acoustic suitability criteria for test environment ... 13 
5 Measuring instruments ... 14 
5.1 General ... 14 
5.2 Calibration ... 14 
5.3 Use ... 15 
6 Installation and working conditions ... 15 
6.1 General ... 15 
6.2 Installation conditions ... 15 
6.3 Working conditions ... 16 
7 Measurement ... 17 
7.1 General ... 17 
7.2 Measurement uncertainty ... 17 
7.3 Reference box ... 18 
7.4 Measurement distance ... 19 
7.5 Measurement surface and area ... 19 
7.6 Microphone position ... 19 
7.7 Suitability criteria for microphone position ... 23 
8 Calculation ... 23 
8.1 General ... 23 
8.2 Calculation of the standard deviation of average sound pressure level measured
... 23 
8.3 Calculation of sound power level ... 24 
9 Recording content ... 26 
10 Report ... 27 
Appendix A (Normative) Methods for appraisal of acoustic environment ... 29 
Appendix B (Normative) Calculation of A-weighted sound power level from band
sound power level ... 33 
Appendix C (Normative) Sound power level of reference meteorological
conditions ... 35 
References ... 37 
Foreword
GB/T 1859 “Reciprocating internal combustion engines - Measurement of
sound power level using sound pressure” is divided into 4 parts.
- Part 1. Engineering method;
- Part 2. Survey method;
- Part 3. Precision methods for hemi-anechoic rooms;
- Part 4. Survey method using a reference sound source.
This Part is Part 1 of GB/T 1859.
This Part is drafted in accordance with the rules given in GB/T 1.1-2009.
This Part replaces the engineering method in GB/T 1859-2000 “Reciprocating
internal combustion engines - Measurement of emitted airborne noise -
Engineering method and survey method”.
As compared with GB/T 1859-2000, the main technical changes of this Part are
as follows.
- DELETE relevant content of “survey method”;
- ADD the clause of “Terms and definitions”;
- MODIFY the provisions on “Acoustic environment”;
- ADD provisions on “Measuring instruments”;
- MODIFY and ADD the provisions on “Installation and working conditions”;
- MODIFY and ADD the provisions on “Measurement”;
- ADD the provisions on “Calculation”;
- ADD the clause of “Recording content”;
- MODIFY the provisions on “Report”;
- DELETE Appendix A and Appendix B in GB/T 1859-2000;
- ADD Appendix A (Normative) “Methods for appraisal of acoustic
environment”, Appendix B “Calculation of A-weighted sound power level
from band sound power level”, and Appendix C “Sound power level of
Introduction
This Part of GB/T 1859 is one of a series of standards for the measurement of
sound power level of reciprocating internal combustion engines using sound
pressure. This series of standards gives a method for measuring the sound
pressure level on the measurement surface enveloping sound source to
calculate the sound power level.
The measurement result of sound power level is basically irrelevant to the test
environment and the installation conditions of sound source. This is an
important reason for the use of sound power level to characterize the noise
radiation of various types of machines and equipment.
The sound power level has the following uses.
- Marking of machine radiation noise under specified conditions;
- Verification of noise marking values;
- Comparison of radiation noise of machines of various models and
dimensions;
- Comparison with the noise limits specified in the purchase contract or
specification;
- Development of engineering measures to reduce machine radiation noise
(Generally, the band sound power level shall also be provided);
- Prediction of noise sound pressure level at specified position.
Table 1 shows the measurement methods of sound power level of three
accuracy classes to which the envelope surface method of this series of
standards applies. The measurement results are accurate to 0.1 dB. The
methods given in this Part allow the determination of A-weighted sound power
level and band sound power level; the accuracy class is Class 2. A-weighted
sound power level can also be calculated from band sound power level, but it
is not exactly the same as the sound power level determined by measuring A-
weighted sound pressure level.
Reciprocating internal combustion engines -
Measurement of sound power level using sound
pressure - Part 1. Engineering method
1 Scope
This Part of GB/T 1859 specifies the measurement method for sound power
level of reciprocating internal combustion engines - engineering method.
This Part is applicable to reciprocating internal combustion engines (unless
otherwise specified, hereafter known as engines for short) in the scope of
application of GB/T 6072.1, and other internal combustion engines to which no
suitable standards apply.
2 Normative references
The following documents are indispensable for the application of this document.
For the dated references, only the versions with the dates indicated are
applicable to this document. For the undated references, the latest version
(including all the amendments) are applicable to this document.
GB/T 3241 Electroacoustics - Octave-band and fractional-octave-band filters
GB/T 3785.1 Electroacoustics - Sound level meters - Part 1. Specifications
GB/T 4129 Acoustics - Requirements for the performance and calibration o
reference sound sources used for determination of sound power levels
GB/T 6072.1 Reciprocating internal combustion engines - Performance -
Part 1. Declarations of power, fuel and lubricating oil consumptions and test
methods - Additional requirements for engines for general use
GB/T 6072.3 Reciprocating internal combustion engines - Performance -
Part 3. Test measurements
GB/T 15173 Electroacoustics - Sound calibrators
3 Terms and definitions
3.5 Measurement time interval; T
One or more operating period or operating cycle of the sound source being
measured used to determine the time-averaged sound pressure level, in
seconds (s).
3.6 Acoustic free field
An acoustic field where edge effect is negligible in homogeneous, isotropic
media.
Note. The actual acoustic free field is an acoustic field where the reflection of edge or other
objects within the frequency range of interest is negligible.
3.7 Reflecting plane
A flat surface for sound reflection on which the sound source being measured
is located.
3.8 Acoustic free field over a reflecting plane
The acoustic free field in the half space over an infinitely large reflecting plane,
without any other obstacles.
3.9 Frequency range of interest
The frequency range covered by the octave-band with a center frequency of 63
Hz~8000 Hz (1/3 octave-band of 50 Hz~10000 Hz).
3.10 Reference box
The smallest hypothetical rectangular hexahedron which envelops the sound
source exactly and terminates on a reflecting plane (ground).
3.11 Measurement distance; d
The vertical distance between reference box and measurement surface of
hypothetical rectangular hexahedron.
3.12 Measurement surface
An external surface of a hypothetical rectangular hexahedron for measuring the
sound pressure level with an area of S, which envelopes sound source and on
which measurement point is located. The measurement surface ends at the
reflecting plane (ground).
3.13 Background noise
4.1 General
The test environment to which this Part applies is a room or outdoor flat space
completely isolated from background noise, providing an acoustic free field over
a reflecting plane; or a room or outdoor flat space, which is completely isolated
from background noise and where reverberant acoustic field has limited effect
on the sound pressure on measurement surface and environmental correction
is available.
It shall avoid the adverse effects of environmental conditions on the microphone
(such as wind, air flow, high or low temperature, etc.). It shall abide by the
instructions of manufacturers of measuring instruments for adverse
environmental conditions. Also, it shall take measures to ensure that any
reflecting plane does not cause significant sound radiation due to vibration.
4.2 Background noise criteria
The time-averaged sound pressure level of background noise after averaging
at microphone position shall be at least 6 dB lower than the uncorrected time-
averaged sound pressure level of sound source being measured (unless
otherwise specified, hereafter known as sound pressure level for short), and
preferably at least 15 dB lower.
In frequency band measurements, not all frequency bands may satisfy the
background noise criteria, even in test rooms where the background noise is
low and well controlled.
For frequency band measurements, it shall, according to the following steps,
judge whether the background noise criteria are met.
a) USE the sound power levels of all bands in the frequency range of interest
to calculate A-weighted sound power level;
b) REJECT the frequency bands below A-weighted sound power level 15 dB
or more (A-weighted) and ∆Lp< 6 dB (SEE 8.3), RECALCULATE A-
weighted sound power level;
c) If the difference between the above two sound power levels is less than
0.5 dB, the background noise criteria are met; otherwise, the
measurement is invalid.
4.3 Acoustic suitability criteria for test environment
Appendix A specifies the method of measuring the environmental correction K2.
There shall be no reflector other than the reflecting plane (ground) in the test
If the mounting base is rigid, the engine shall be flexibly coupled with the
mounting base; but the mounting base shall have a sufficiently high mechanical
impedance, to prevent additional sound radiation due to vibration. If the
mounting base is elastic, the engine is allowed to be rigidly connected to the
mounting base; but the inherent frequency of the mounting base shall be less
than √2 /2 times the ignition frequency of engine test speed, otherwise the
radiation noise of the base caused by structural vibration shall be treated as
additional noise and its effect shall be minimized.
The engine shall be flexibly coupled with dynamometer equipment, to prevent
its coupling from affecting the sound radiation of the engine.
The distance between the lowest sound radiation surface of engine (usually the
bottom of oil pan) and the ground shall be less than or equal to 0.5 m.
6.3 Working conditions
6.3.1 Working status
Noise radiation is related to the auxiliary devices installed in the engine.
Whether air filter, exhaust silencer, and cooling fan, etc. are installed shall be
recorded and described in the report. The noise emitted by gearbox or any
driven machinery which loads the engine shall be treated as additional noise
and stated in the report.
Note. For the measurement of sound power level of exhaust noise of exhaust silencer,
SEE ISO 15619.
For certain special-purpose (such as motorcycle) engines, if equipment or non-
basic auxiliary devices (such as cooling with blower) are required to carry out
bench test, the noise of the equipment or non-basic auxiliary devices shall be
treated as additional noise. Or temporarily TURN off the equipment or non-basic
auxiliary devices, but it shall ensure that the engine works properly.
Additional noise is part of background noise. Appropriate measures shall be
taken to reduce its effect, to comply with the provisions of 4.2. For example, in
the frequency range of additional noise, USE high-density material with a low
transmission capability to shield or cover the structure surface; USE a silencer
to reduce aerodynamic noise.
6.3.2 Operating conditions
When measuring noise, the engine shall operate stably at the ISO standard
power and the corresponding rotational speed specified in GB/T 6072.1 under
the reference conditions of ISO standard. At this time, the engine oil
Atmospheric pressure and/or air temperature may affect sound power radiation.
For example, the sound power level of on-site meteorological conditions above
500 m above sea level and/or air temperature below 10 °C shall, according to
Appendix C, be corrected to the sound power level LWref, atm of reference
meteorological conditions, and explained in the report.
9 Recording content
The following content, if applicable, shall be collected and recorded to measure
as required by this Part.
a) Engine.
1) Description of the engine, including model, specifications (e.g., type,
number of strokes, number of cylinders, cylinder bore, stroke, boundary
dimensions, cooling mode; ISO standard power and corresponding
rotational speed, etc.), number, manufacturer;
2) The type of fuel used and its octane or cetane number;
3) Diesel fuel injection timing (static and dynamic) or gasoline engine
ignition timing (static and dynamic);
4) Base characteristics and the way in which the engine is connected to it
(elastic or rigid);
5) The way in which the engine is connected to dynamometer equipment
(elastic or rigid);
6) Installation conditions, including the height of the crankshaft center of
the engine and the bottom of oil pan from the reflecting plane;
7) Description of auxiliary devices, including air filter, exhaust silencer (if
any), cooling fan (if any), and acoustic enclosure (if any);
8) Engine power and corresponding rotational speed during noise
measurements.
b) Acoustic environment.
1) Description of test environment (including physical descriptions of
ground, wall, and ceiling, and sketches of the locations of sound source
being measured and other objects);
2) Description of acoustic environmental appraisal in accordance with the
Appendix A
(Normative)
Methods for appraisal of acoustic environment
A.1 General
This appendix specifies the method for measuring environmental correction K2
and can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of a given measurement surface
of the sound source being measured.
The first appraisal test (absolute comparison method, SEE A.2) is performed
using a standard sound source. This method is suitable for indoor or outdoor
use; and is a preferred method for appraisal of test environment, especially
when the frequency band data is required, and the sound source being
measured can be removed from the test site.
The second appraisal test (according to room sound absorption method, SEE
A.3) requires measuring the room sound absorption amount A. This test method
is based on the following premises. The room shape is similar to a cube, is
basically empty; and the room boundary has a sound absorption effect. Double-
surface method and standard sound source method can be used to calculate
room sound absorption amount A. If the sound source being measured cannot
be removed or has a large size, one of the methods may be preferred.
A.2 Absolute comparison method
The standard sound source whose characteristics meet the requirements of
GB/T 4129 is placed on the ground of test environment. The center of the
bottom surface coincides with the center of the bottom surface of reference box.
The measurement surface, microphone position and its number are the same
as those of the sound source being measured. According to the provisions of
Chapter 7, MEASURE the sound power level of standard sound source, without
environmental correction (ASSUME K2=0).
Environmental correction K2 shall be calculated according to the formula (A.1).
Where.
LW* - Test environment sound power level of standard sound source, without
......
 
(Above excerpt was released on 2018-06-24, modified on 2022-02-20, translated/reviewed by: Wayne Zheng et al.)
Source: https://www.chinesestandard.net/PDF.aspx/GBT1859.1-2015