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GB/T 18442.3-2011 PDF in English

GB/T 18442.3-2011 (GB/T18442.3-2011, GBT 18442.3-2011, GBT18442.3-2011)
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GB/T 18442.3-2011: PDF in English (GBT 18442.3-2011)

GB/T 18442.3-2011
ICS 23.020.40
J 76
Partially replacing GB 18442-2001
Static Vacuum Insulated Cryogenic Pressure Vessel -
Part 3. Design
Jointly issued by. General Administration of Quality Supervision,
Inspection and Quarantine (AQSIQ);
Standardization Administration (SAC) of the People's
Republic of China.
Table of Contents
Foreword ... 3
1 Scope ... 5
2 Normative References ... 5
3 Terms and Definitions ... 5
4 General Requirements ... 6
5 Structure Design Requirements ... 15
Appendix A (Informative) Physical Parameters of Common Cryogenic
Liquid ... 22
"Static Vacuum Insulated Cryogenic Pressure Vessel" (GB/T 18442) comprises 6 parts.
- Part 1. General Requirements;
- Part 2. Material;
- Part 3. Design;
- Part 4. Fabrication;
- Part 5. Inspection and Test;
- Part 6. Safety Device Requirements
This Part is the third part of GB/T 18442.
This Part refers to "Cryogenic Vessels - Static Vacuum-insulated Vessels - Part 1.
Design, Fabrication, Inspection and Tests" (ISO 21009-1.2008).
This Part replaces "product specification and main performance parameter" (Section
5.2), "Design requirements" (Section 6.3) and partial contents in "Cryo-insulation
Pressure Vessels" (GB 18442-2001).
Compared with GB 18442-2001, main changes in this Part are as follows.
- Load requirements, permissible stress requirements, the design requirements of
special structure, the physical parameters of common cryogenic liquid (informative)
were added;
- The welded structure (indicative) was canceled;
- Requirements of some important design parameters were defined;
- Performance index data was adjusted.
Appendix A of this part is informative.
This part was proposed by and is under the jurisdiction of the National Technical
Committee on Boilers and Pressure Vessels of Standardization Administration of China
(SAC/TC 262).
Static Vacuum Insulated Cryogenic Pressure Vessel -
Part 3. Design
1 Scope
1.1 This Part specifies the basic requirements of the design of static vacuum
insulated cryogenic pressure vessel (hereinafter referred to as "cryogenic vessel").
1.2 The application scope in this part is the same as that in Part 1 of this standard.
2 Normative References
The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this
document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references,
the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendment) applies.
GB 150 Steel Pressure Vessels
GB 713 Steel Plates for Boiler and Pressure Vessels
GB/T 3274 Hot-rolled Plates and Strips of Carbon Structural Steels and High Strength
Low Alloy Structural Steels
GB/T 18442.1 Static Vacuum Insulated Cryogenic Pressure Vessel - Part 1. General
GB/T 18442.2 Static Vacuum Insulated Cryogenic Pressure Vessel - Part 2. Material
GB 24511 Stainless Steel Plate, Sheet and Strip for Pressure Equipment
JB 4732-1995 Steel Pressure Vessels - Design by Analysis (Confirmed in 2005)
3 Terms and Definitions
For the purpose of this part, terms and definition established in GB 150, GB/T 18442.1
and GB/T 18442.2 as well as the following ones apply.
3.1 Calculation pressure
It is the pressure used to determine the thickness of the inner vessel pressure unit
under the corresponding design temperature, including static pressure of liquid column
and vacuum pressure of insulated layer, MPa.
3.2 Interspaced vacuum degree
It is the absolute pressure of the gas in the interspace of cryogenic vessel, Pa.
3.3 Sealing-off vacuum degree
It is the vacuum degree in the interspace of sealing under normal temperature, Pa.
3.4 Leakage of vacuum interspace
It is the gas volume leaked into the vacuum interspace in a unit time, Pa·m3/s.
3.5 Outgassing rate of vacuum interspace
The air quantity relieved in the unit time of materials and vessel wall surface in the
vacuum interspace, Pa·m3/s.
3.6 Out-gassing and leakage of vacuum interspace
It is the sum of the leakage of vacuum interspace and the out-gassing rate of vacuum
interspace in a unit time, Pa·m3/s.
4 General Requirements
4.1 General requirements
4.1.1 In the design, the tank shell shall meet the requirements of bearing all kinds of
mechanical load and thermal stress load under the conditions of normal operation,
manufacture, test and transportation and hoisting.
4.1.2 Exemption conditions of fatigue analysis
Fatigue analysis may be exempted where all the conditions in Articles
are met. Otherwise, the fatigue analysis design shall be conducted for the inner vessel
according to JB 4732. Application of operation experience
The designed vessels are possessed of the similar shapes and loading conditions with
L - the minimum distance between the adjacent two points, mm;
R - the radius perpendicular to the surface from the middle plane quantity of the shell to the revolving axle, mm;
Δ - the thickness of the component at the considered point, mm;
α - the radius of the cold (or hot) plane at the considered points, mm.
The temperature difference along the thickness direction. refers to two random points vertical to surface direction.
d) As for the components (including welded joints) composed of the materials with
different thermal expansion coefficients, the temperature fluctuation cycle times
where ( 1 - 2 )ΔT>0.00034, 1 and 2 are the average thermal expansion
coefficients of two materials and ΔT is the temperature fluctuation range in work. All the conditions specified in Article of JB 4732-1995.
4.2 Load
4.2.1 In the design of inner vessel, the following load and the possible strictest
combination shall be considered. Design pressure (p, MPa, gauge pressure). The static pressure of liquid column produced by medium where the stock
solution quantity reaches the specified filling rate. The static pressure of liquid column
shall be calculated according to the condition of medium at the boiling point under
standard atmosphere pressure. If the value is less than 5%P, it may be neglected. The counter force at the inner vessel support under the operation condition.
This counter force shall be determined jointly by the maximum medium weight, inner
vessel and the seismic load. Temperature difference load
a) The temperature load born by inner vessel at the supporting point in the process
of inner vessel from the cooling of ambient temperature to the operating
b) The reacting force of pipeline caused by different heat expansion between the
inner vessel, pipeline and outer shell and the following operation conditions shall Inner vessel bears the outer pressure load applied by the interspace, and the
relief pressure of the shell explosion-proof equipment shall be taken for the value which
shall not be less than 0.1MPa. Impact load caused by the rapid pressure fluctuation in operation. The acting force caused by the liquid impact where the liquid enters the inner
4.2.2 In the design of outer shell, the following load and the possible strictest
combination shall be considered. Outer pressure load which value shall not be less than 0.1MPa; Inner pressure load, which value is taken from the relief pressure of
explosion-proof equipment of outer shell and shall not be less than 0.1MPa. In normal operation state, the acting force inner vessel imposes to the outer
shell by interspace support. In pressure test state, the acting force the inner vessel imposes to the outer
shell by interspace support. The acting force imposed to the outer shell, interspace support and
connecting pipeline under the operation condition of temperature difference load in
Article The acting force the weight of the accessory equipment such as the pipelines,
escalator and platforms to the outer shell. The maximum vessel weight the outer support bears and reacting force the
outer support and supporting lug generates to the outer shell. The acting force outer connection pipeline generates on the outer shell. The seismic, wind (both needs not be considered simultaneously) and snow
load it bears in the process of operation. The load generated at the connecting parts such as the connection parts
such as the outer shell, support and lifting lug under the load operation condition the
empty tank bears in Article
4.3 Permissible stress
4.5 Calculated pressure
The calculated pressure of inner vessel is at least the sum of the following
a) Design pressure;
b) 0.1 MPa;
c) The static pressure of liquid column. the value may be negligible if it is less than
5% of the design pressure.
4.6 Design temperature
4.6.1 The minimum metal temperature that the inner vessel, the component
contacting with the liquid (including test liquid) and the loaded member connected with
the inner vessel may reach is taken as the design temperature. Normal temperature is
normally taken as the upper limit of the design temperature.
4.6.2 Normal temperature is generally taken for the he design temperature of outer
shell and outer components.
4.6.3 In the check of the stability of various components, design temperature as well
as the maximum temperature possibly caused by the process of integral heating
evacuation in the fabrication process shall be considered.
4.7 Corrosion allowance and negative deviation of steels
4.7.1 Where the inner vessel is of the stainless steel material, the uniform corrosion
shall not be taken into account generally. However, for those eroded or worn
components, the corrosion allowance shall be determined according to the expected
service life of tank and the corrosion rate of medium on metallic materials;
4.7.2 Where the corrosion suffered by components of the vessel is of different
degrees, different corrosion allowances may be adopted.
4.7.3 Corrosion is generally not considered for the outer shell and internal surface of
carbon steel or low alloy steels. The outer surface exposed to the atmospheric
environment shall be considered to adapt to the applied environment.
4.7.4 Where the thickness tolerance of carbon steel, low alloy steel plate or stainless
steel plate is not larger than the requirements of GB/T 3274, GB 713 or GB 24511
respectively and does not exceed 6% of the nominal thickness, it may be neglected. Degreasing treatment shall be conducted on such components as the
pipeline and valve contactable with oxygen. The thermal stress of the inner vessel and outer shell caused by temperature
variation in the process of fabrication and work process and compensation devices
may be arranged where necessary. Pneumatic test is generally adopted for the pressure test of inner vessel.
Minimum value of test pressure shall be selected according to the requirements of
Article; if test pressure greater than the requirements of Article is
adopted, the upper limit of test pressure shall meet the requirements of stress check
in Article Before inner vessel and outer assemble outer shell complete suit, the
pressure test pressure of the inner vessel shall be determined at least according to the
following calculation formula.
a) Hydraulic pressure test
pT=1.25(p+0.1) (1)
b) Pneumatic test
pT=1.10(p+0.1) (2)
pT - the test pressure, in. MPa; where the vertical vessel is put in the horizontal
position for hydraulic pressure test, test pressure shall be recorded into the static
pressure of liquid column in vertical position;
p - the design pressure (MPa). After the assembling of the inner vessel and outer shell and vacuum
interspace is formed, the pressure test pressure of the inner vessel shall be the
pressure value in the pressure test of Article minus 0.1 MPa. If test pressure greater than the requirements in Article is adopted,
the cylinder stress shall be checked before the pressure test of inner vessel.

)δ(Dp 
σT shall satisfy the following conditions.
5.1.3 Lifting lug design
To meet the requirements of transportation and installation, lifting lug especially
for hoisting shall especially for the vessel which shall meet the following requirements.
a) It shall be hoisted where the outer shell bears the outer pressure of 0.1MPa;
b) Under the operation condition of empty tank, it is equipped with adequate
strength and rigidity.
5.1.4 Insulation design Where the calculation of the heat leakage of inside bracing cannot be
conducted according to the empirical formula, analytical calculation or simulation test
of insulation should be conducted. Where the heat conductivity coefficient of inner-
supporting material is unknown, it shall be determined by the adoption of test method. Liquid seal (gas-seal liquid) structure shall generally be arranged at the liquid
phase pipeline from the inner vessel. Heat leakage quantity of insulated layer material is equal to the heat transfer
rate of insulation structure surface appearance q (W/m2) multiplied by the surface area
of the insulated layer.
5.2 Specialized structure design
5.2.1 Design of anti-excessive filling
Overflow opening and fullness measure valve arranged to prevent the filling rate from
exceeding the specified filling rate are permissive typical anti-excessive filling device
and other anti-excessive filling devices which are proved reliable by test and practice
may also be allowed for adoption.
5.2.2 Exhaustion Design
Exhaustion opening shall exhaust the liquid in the vessel and the foreign materials of
solid particle possibly existing in the cryogenic liquid shall be exhausted.
5.2.3 Vacuumizaion and vacuum detector
Vacuumization and vacuum detector shall meet the following requirements.
a) The air leakage rate of vacuum valves and vacuum joints shall be less than 5*10-
7 (Pa·m3/s);
solder shall not be lower than 525℃ and shall not be less than the strength of
the copper pipe.
b) All the pipelines shall be free from fracture where it bears 4 times work pressure
of inner vessel.
5.3.4 Overpressure relief devices shall be arranged for the pipelines with both ends
closed and possible retained liquid, the set pressure should not exceed 1.5 times the
pressure of pipeline system design and satisfy the requirements of pipeline system
pressure grade.
5.3.5 The function of various joints and accessories shall be marked clearly.
5.3.6 The pipeline system valve should be marked with medium flow direction and
the stop valve shall be marked with the start-up and shut-down direction.
5.3.7 Relief and discharge pipeline The pressure relief pipeline shall be connected directly with the gaseous
phase space of vessels and the diameter of pipelines shall meet the requirements of
safe relief and discharge. The outlet of gas discharge of vessel for the storage of explosive medium
shall be centralized, the discharge opening shall be arranged with the duct and the
outlet shall be arranged with flame arrester. The inlet connecting pipelines of the safety relief device shall be as short and
straight as possible, the inner sectional area shall not be less than the inner sectional
area of the safety relief device inlet.
5.3.8 Sprinkling filling pipelines (or devices) The sprinkling filling pipelines (devices) shall make the inner vessel uniformly
cooled in liquid filling. The sectional area sum of the filling pipeline holes shall not be less than the
sectional area of sprinkler pipes.
5.3.9 Filling and discharge pipelines at the bottom
The corresponding joints and stop valves shall be arranged for the filling and discharge
pipelines at the bottom to meet the requirements of filling and discharge capacity. The
corresponding joints shall be equipped with dust cap.
Source: Above contents are excerpted from the PDF -- translated/reviewed by: www.chinesestandard.net / Wayne Zheng et al.