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GB/T 18386.1-2021 (GB/T18386.1-2021)

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GB/T 18386.1-2021: PDF in English (GBT 18386.1-2021)
GB/T 18386.1-2021
GB
NATIONAL STANDARD OF THE
PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF CHINA
ICS 43.020
CCS T 47
Partially replacing GB/T 18386-2017
Test methods for energy consumption and range of
electric vehicles - Part 1: Light-duty vehicles
ISSUED ON: MARCH 09, 2021
IMPLEMENTED ON: OCTOBER 01, 2021
Issued by: State Administration for Market Regulation;
Standardization Administration of the PRC.
Table of Contents
Foreword ... 4 
Introduction ... 6 
1 Scope ... 8 
2 Normative references ... 8 
3 Terms and definitions ... 8 
4 Test conditions ... 9 
4.1 Environmental requirements ... 9 
4.2 Test equipment ... 9 
4.3 Test vehicles ... 9 
4.4 Test cycle ... 10 
5 Test-related parameters and accuracy ... 10 
6 Test procedure ... 11 
6.1 General requirements ... 11 
6.2 Conditions for termination of tests ... 12 
6.3 Test code ... 12 
7 Calculation of energy consumption and range ... 19 
7.1 General ... 19 
7.2 Energy consumption ... 20 
7.3 Range ... 20 
7.4 Determination of type certification value ... 23 
8 Interpolation method for a certain vehicle ... 25 
8.1 Interpolation family ... 25 
8.2 Cycle energy demand of vehicles ... 26 
8.3 Interpolation coefficient ... 26 
8.4 Energy consumption of a certain vehicle ... 27 
8.5 Range of a certain vehicle ... 27 
8.6 Road load family and road load matrix family ... 27 
9 Production conformity ... 28 
9.1 General ... 28 
9.2 Production conformity assurance plan ... 28 
9.3 Production conformity requirements ... 29 
Appendix A (Informative) Test method for energy consumption and range when
heater is turned on in a low-temperature environment ... 31 
Appendix B (Informative) Test method for energy consumption and range when
air-conditioning refrigeration is turned on in a high-temperature environment 35 
Appendix C (Normative) Selection of driving mode ... 39 
Appendix D (Informative) REESS state-of-charge curve ... 42 
Appendix E (Normative) Determination of REESS current and voltage ... 44 
Appendix F (Informative) Location of temperature measuring point ... 46 
Test methods for energy consumption and range of
electric vehicles - Part 1: Light-duty vehicles
1 Scope
This document specifies the test methods for energy consumption and range of
pure electric vehicles.
This document is applicable to category N1 vehicles; categories M1 and M2
vehicles with the maximum design total mass not exceeding 3500 kg.
Categories M1 and L5 vehicles with a maximum design total mass of more than
3500 kg may refer to it for implementation.
2 Normative references
The contents of the following documents, through normative references in this
text, constitute indispensable provisions of this document. Among them, for
dated references, only the edition corresponding to that date applies to this
document. For undated references, the latest edition (including all amendments)
applies to this document.
GB/T 15089 Classification of power-driven vehicles and trailers
GB 18352.6-2016 Limits and measurement methods for emissions from
light-duty vehicles (CHINA 6)
GB/T 19233-2020 Measurement methods of fuel consumption for light-duty
vehicles
GB/T 19596 Terminology of electric vehicles
GB/T 38146.1-2019 China automotive test cycle - Part 1: Light-duty vehicles
3 Terms and definitions
The terms and definitions defined in GB/T 15089, GB/T 19596, GB 18352.6-
2016 and GB/T 38146.1-2019 apply to this document.
the interpolation family, it shall choose a representative vehicle in the
interpolation family. The same test vehicle should be used to represent vehicle
H and vehicle L through different road load settings.
4.3.3 The test vehicle can be run-in according to the needs of the vehicle
manufacturer or its authorized agent. And ensure that the machinery is in good
condition. At the same time, under the condition of installing REESS, a certain
range shall be run-in. The range must be greater than 300 km. At the same time,
REESS shall experience at least one process from full charge to the lowest
value of the state of charge (SOC).
4.3.4 The lubricant, specified by the vehicle manufacturer, shall be used and
indicated in the test result report.
4.3.5 Except for drive purposes, all energy storage systems shall be charged to
the maximum values (electric energy, hydraulic pressure, air pressure, etc.),
specified by the vehicle manufacturer.
4.3.6 Other test vehicle settings shall be carried out in accordance with the
requirements of C.1.2.4.2, C.1.2.4.4 and C.1.2.4.5 in GB 18352.6-2016.
4.4 Test cycle
4.4.1 The test cycle is in accordance with China light-duty vehicle test cycle
described in Appendix A of GB/T 38146.1-2019 (CLTC, including CLTC-P and
CLTC-C; where CLTC-P is suitable for category M1 vehicles; CLTC-C is suitable
for category N1 vehicles; and category M2 vehicles with a maximum design total
mass not exceeding 3500 kg). It includes 3 speed ranges: low speed (part 1),
medium speed (part 2), and high speed (part 3).
4.4.2 If the maximum vehicle speed declared for the vehicle is less than the
maximum speed of the CLTC, when the target vehicle speed is greater than the
maximum vehicle speed declared, the test cycle shall be amended in
accordance with the provisions of CA.5 in GB 18352.6-2016.
5 Test-related parameters and accuracy
The related parameters and accuracy of the test results shall meet the
requirements of Table 2. When calculating in accordance with the provisions of
Clause 7, unless otherwise specified, the process data shall not be rounded.
6.2 Conditions for termination of tests
6.2.1 When conducting the test specified in 6.3.3, when the following conditions
occur, the test shall be stopped.
a) When testing in accordance with the conventional working condition
method specified in 6.3.3.3; if the maximum vehicle speed declared for
the vehicle is not less than the maximum vehicle speed of the CLTC and
cannot meet the tolerance requirements specified in 6.1.4; the test shall
be stopped.
b) When testing in accordance with the conventional working condition
method specified in 6.3.3.3; if the maximum speed declared for the vehicle
is less than the maximum speed of CLTC; for the part exceeding the
maximum speed declared for the vehicle, the test cycle shall be amended
in accordance with the provisions of CA.5 in GB 18352.6-2016. At this time,
the driver is required to depress the accelerator pedal to the end. The
actual vehicle speed is allowed to exceed the upper tolerance limit
specified in 6.1.4. However, when the lower tolerance limit requirements
specified in 6.1.4 cannot be met, the test shall be stopped. When the
target vehicle speed does not exceed the maximum speed declared for
the vehicle, and the tolerance requirements specified in 6.1.4 cannot be
met, the test shall be stopped.
c) When testing in accordance with the shortening method specified in
6.3.3.4; in the constant-speed segment CSSE, if the vehicle fails to meet
the lower tolerance limit requirements specified in 6.1.4 for 4 consecutive
seconds; the test shall be stopped.
6.2.2 When the conditions for the end of the test are reached, the gear remains
unchanged. The vehicle is allowed to coast to the lowest stable speed or 5 km/h.
Then the brake pedal is depressed to stop.
6.3 Test code
6.3.1 Test steps
The same test procedure shall be used to determine energy consumption and
range. The test procedure includes the following 3 steps:
a) Charge REESS for the first time (see 6.3.2);
b) Carry out tests for energy consumption and range (see 6.3.3);
c) After the test, recharge the REESS; measure the electric quantity charged
from the outside (see 6.3.4).
The above charging procedures do not include any automatically or manually
started special charging procedures, such as equalization charging mode or
maintenance mode. Vehicle manufacturers shall declare that, no special
charging procedures are performed during the test. The charging strategy that
does not require additional operations for vehicles actually sold is not
considered a special charging procedure. Vehicle manufacturers shall provide
relevant supporting documents.
6.3.2.3.2 Criteria for end of charging
When the on-board or external instrument shows that REESS is fully charged,
it is judged that the charging is complete. If the on-board or external instrument
sends out an obvious signal that REESS is not fully charged, in this case, the
longest charging time is: 3×REESS energy (kWh)/supply power (kW), which is
specified by the vehicle manufacturer.
6.3.3 Test process
6.3.3.1 Selection of driving mode
For vehicles equipped with a driving mode selection function, the selection shall
be made in accordance with the provisions of Appendix C.
6.3.3.2 Test options
The test shall start within 12 h after the end of the charging specified in 6.3.2.3.
If the vehicle manufacturer recommends, and determined by the inspection
agency, the test can start within 36 h after the end of the charging specified in
6.3.2.3. For vehicles whose range does not exceed 8 test cycle ranges specified
in 4.4, the test shall be carried out in accordance with the conventional working
condition method specified in 6.3.3.3. For vehicles whose range exceeds 8 test
cycle ranges specified in 4.4, the test shall be carried out in accordance with
the shortening method specified in 6.3.3.4. During the arbitration test, the test
shall be carried out in accordance with the conventional working condition
method specified in 6.3.3.3.
6.3.3.3 Conventional working condition method
For the test process of the conventional working condition method and the
corresponding REESS state-of-charge curve, refer to D.2.1 of Appendix D.
On the chassis dynamometer, use the test cycle specified in 4.4 to continuously
test.
Unless otherwise specified, the vehicle is allowed to be immersed once every
4 test cycles. The immersion time shall not exceed 10 min. During the
b) In accordance with 6.1.1, the road loads of vehicle H and vehicle L are
tested. And according to the relevant regulations of
CC.4.2.1.2~CC.4.2.1.4 in GB 18352.6-2016, calculate the road load of all
vehicle models in the road load family and road load matrix family.
9 Production conformity
9.1 General
9.1.1 Vehicle manufacturers shall, in accordance with 9.2, establish and
implement a production conformity assurance plan.
9.1.2 It shall be determined according to 9.3 whether the production conformity
meets the requirements. If a certain model cannot meet any of the requirements
of the production conformity inspection, it is determined that, this model does
not meet the production conformity requirements specified in this document.
9.1.3 The determination of production conformity is only applicable to the room-
temperature test specified in Clause 7. The tests, under the special ambient
temperatures specified in Appendix A and Appendix B, may refer to it for
implementation, as needed.
9.1.4 For vehicles undergoing production conformity inspection, the running-in
range does not need to meet the REESS minimum running-in range
requirements specified in 4.3.3. Other production conformity test settings shall
be consistent with the type certification tests specified in Clause 7. The vehicle
preparation before the test shall be carried out, in accordance with the
recommendations of the vehicle manufacturer.
9.1.5 If a certain model has several extended models or interpolation family
models, the production conformity test shall be carried out on the basic model,
which is described in the application materials for the first type test. If the basic
model for the first type test has been discontinued, the production conformity
test shall be carried out on the extended models or the interpolation family
models.
9.2 Production conformity assurance plan
9.2.1 Vehicle manufacturers shall randomly select multiple vehicles from the
same batch of products; in accordance with 9.2.2, check the production
conformity of the products.
9.2.2 Carry out the test in accordance with the provisions of 6.3.3.3 or 6.3.3.4.
This test only carries out the first test cycle. According to formula (2), determine
the energy consumption of this cycle, ECDC,first CLTC. Based on the energy
Appendix A
(Informative)
Test method for energy consumption and range when heater is turned
on in a low-temperature environment
A.1 Overview
This appendix describes the test method for energy consumption and range
when the heater is turned on in a low-temperature environment. In accordance
with the requirements of A.2 and A.3, carry out the test; record the test vehicle
parameters and test data. In accordance with the requirements of A.4, calculate
the test results. The accuracy of the test results of energy consumption and
range shall be processed, in accordance with the requirements of Table 2.
A.2 Test conditions
A.2.1 Test room and test equipment
A.2.1.1 Low-temperature environment simulation test system
Chassis dynamometer, analysis equipment and their calibration shall meet the
requirements of Attachment CD of GB 18352.6-2016.
A.2.1.2 Additional equipment
The equipment for measuring temperature and pressure shall meet the
requirements of Attachment CD of GB 18352.6-2016.
A.2.1.3 Other
Other unspecified test equipment and test room requirements shall be
implemented in accordance with the relevant provisions of GB 18352.6-2016.
A.2.2 Environmental conditions
A.2.2.1 The average temperature of the environment shall be (-7±3)°C.
A.2.2.2 During the test, the temperature of the test room shall be monitored.
The temperature shall be measured at the outlet of the cooling fan. The ambient
temperature in the report shall be the arithmetic mean of the temperature of the
test room, measured at a fixed interval of no more than 1 min.
A.2.3 Vehicle preparation
temperature measuring points. Record the time when the average temperature
first reaches 20 °C. After that, until the end of the test, the average value of the
average temperature per 10 min shall be kept within the range of 20 °C~24 °C.
The average value of every 1 min shall be kept within the range of 17 °C~25 °C.
A.3 Test code
A.3.1 Test cycle
On the chassis dynamometer, use the test cycle specified in 4.4 for testing.
A.3.2 Pretreatment
A.3.2.1 The environmental requirements and parameters of the test shall meet
the requirements of 4.1.
A.3.2.2 According to the requirements of 6.1.1, set the chassis dynamometer.
The resistance setting of the chassis dynamometer shall be adjusted, to
simulate the running condition of the vehicle on the road at -7 °C. This
adjustment can be based on the change in road driving resistance determined
at -7 °C. The resistance, which is obtained after the slipping time of the driving
resistance determined in accordance with 6.1.1 is reduced by 10%, can also be
used as the substituted road driving resistance for the setting.
A.3.2.3 In accordance with the requirements of 6.3.2.2, discharge REESS.
A.3.2.4 During REESS discharge, the temperature of the test room shall remain
relatively stable; shall not be higher than 28 °C.
A.3.2.5 After the discharging is completed, according to the requirements of
6.3.2.3, the REESS is charged for the first time. And within 12 h after the end
of charging, in accordance with the requirements of A.3.3, the vehicle shall be
immersed.
A.3.2.6 Move the vehicle into the test room; place it on the chassis
dynamometer; connect the test equipment.
A.3.3 Vehicle immersion
A.3.3.1 Move the vehicle to the immersion room. If passing through other
temperature zones during this period, the duration shall not exceed 10 min.
A.3.3.2 With all windows closed, the vehicle shall be immersed for 12 h~15 h
in the environmental conditions specified in A.2.2. During the immersion period,
the hourly average ambient temperature shall be kept within the range of (-
7±3)°C. The instantaneous temperature shall be kept within the range of (-
7±6)°C; and, shall not be outside (-7±3)°C for 3 consecutive minutes.
Appendix B
(Informative)
Test method for energy consumption and range when air-conditioning
refrigeration is turned on in a high-temperature environment
B.1 Overview
This appendix describes the test method for energy consumption and range
when air-conditioning refrigeration is turned on in a high-temperature
environment. In accordance with the requirements of B.2 and B.3, carry out the
test; record the test vehicle parameters and test data. In accordance with the
requirements of B.4, calculate the test results. The accuracy of the test results
of energy consumption and range shall be processed, in accordance with the
requirements of Table 2.
B.2 Test conditions
B.2.1 Test room and test equipment
B.2.1.1 High-temperature environment simulation test system
Chassis dynamometer, analysis equipment and their calibration shall meet the
requirements of Attachment CD of GB 18352.6-2016.
B.2.1.2 Additional equipment
The equipment for measuring temperature and pressure shall meet the
requirements of Attachment CD of GB 18352.6-2016.
B.2.1.3 Other
Other unspecified test equipment and test room requirements shall be
implemented in accordance with the relevant provisions of GB 18352.6-2016.
B.2.2 Environmental conditions
B.2.2.1 The average temperature of the environment shall be (30±2)°C.
B.2.2.2 During the test, the temperature of the test room shall be monitored.
The temperature shall be measured at the outlet of the fan. The ambient
temperature in the report shall be the arithmetic mean of the temperature of the
test room, measured at a fixed interval of no more than 1 min.
direction of the air outlet is set to the middle position.
During the test, at a sampling frequency of not less than 1 Hz, the temperature
change of the temperature measuring point in the vehicle is continuously
recorded in real time. Calculate and monitor the average temperature of all
temperature measuring points. Record the time when the average temperature
first reaches 25 °C. After that, until the end of the test, the average value of the
average temperature per 10 min shall be kept within the range of 21 °C~25 °C.
The average value of every 1 min shall be kept within the range of 20 °C~28 °C.
B.3 Test code
B.3.1 Test cycle
On the chassis dynamometer, use the test cycle specified in 4.4 for testing.
B.3.2 Pretreatment
B.3.2.1 The environmental requirements and parameters of the test shall meet
the requirements of 4.1.
B.3.2.2 According to the requirements of 6.1.1, set the chassis dynamometer.
B.3.2.3 In accordance with the requirements of 6.3.2.2, discharge REESS.
B.3.2.4 During REESS discharge, the temperature of the test room shall remain
relatively stable; shall not be higher than 28 °C.
B.3.2.5 After the discharging is completed, according to the requirements of
6.3.2.3, the REESS is charged for the first time. And within 12 h after the end
of charging, in accordance with the requirements of B.3.3, the vehicle shall be
immersed.
B.3.2.6 Move the vehicle into the test room; place it on the chassis
dynamometer; connect the test equipment.
B.3.3 Vehicle immersion
With all windows closed, the vehicle shall be immersed in the environmental
conditions specified in B.2.2 for at least 0.5 h.
B.3.4 Determination of vehicle energy consumption and range in a high-
temperature environment
B.3.4.1 According to the requirements of B.2.2, set the ambient temperature.
B.3.4.2 According to B.3.2.2, set the chassis dynamometer.
Appendix C
(Normative)
Selection of driving mode
C.1 General requirements
C.1.1 Vehicle manufacturers shall, according to this appendix, select the driving
mode for the test. This mode shall enable the vehicle, within the speed
tolerance specified in 6.1.4, to follow the test cycle specified in 4.4.
C.1.2 The vehicle manufacturer shall provide the competent authority with proof
of the following conditions:
a) Applicable conditions of the main mode;
b) Maximum vehicle speed;
c) Maximum electricity consumption mode;
d) Cycle energy demand (according to CE.5 in GB 18352.6-2016, where the
target vehicle speed is replaced by the actual vehicle speed).
C.1.3 Dedicated driving modes, for example, non-daily driving modes such as
"mountain mode" and "maintenance mode". If only used for some special
purposes, it will not be considered.
C.2 Selection of driving mode
C.2.1 If there is a main mode, and this mode can make the vehicle follow the
test cycle during the test, select this mode.
C.2.2 If there is no main mode, or there is a main mode, but this mode cannot
make the vehicle follow the test cycle during the test, the driving mode shall be
selected in accordance with the following regulations:
a) If there is only one selectable mode that allows the vehicle to follow the
test cycle during the test, select this mode;
b) If there are multiple modes that can make the vehicle follow the test cycle
during the test, it shall be selected according to the recommendations of
the vehicle manufacturer.
C.2.3 If there is no mode that can make the vehicle follow the test cycle during
Appendix E
(Normative)
Determination of REESS current and voltage
E.1 Overview
E.1.1 This appendix specifies the test methods and equipment for REESS
current and voltage.
E.1.2 The measurement of REESS current and voltage shall be carried out
before or at the beginning of the test. It shall end immediately after the vehicle
completes the test.
E.1.3 The REESS current and voltage at each stage shall be measured. The
current for defining REESS consumption is a negative value.
E.2 REESS current
E.2.1 External REESS current measurement
E.2.1.1 REESS current shall be measured using clip-on or enclosed current
sensors in the test. The accuracy of the current measurement system shall
meet the requirements specified in Table 1.
E.2.1.2 The current sensor shall be connected to the REESS cable, to measure
the REESS current. The measured current shall be the total REESS current.
In the case of shielded cables, according to the requirements of the vehicle
manufacturer, and determined by the inspection agency, appropriate treatment
shall be carried out.
In order to make it more convenient for external measuring equipment to
measure REESS current, vehicle manufacturers shall provide suitable, safe
and convenient connection points on the vehicle. If there is no such connection
point, the vehicle manufacturer is obliged to support the inspection agency to
connect the current sensor to the cable, directly connected to REESS that can
meet the above requirements.
E.2.1.3 According to the recommendations of the vehicle manufacturer, the
sampling frequency of the current sensor shall be selected. The minimum
frequency is 20 Hz.
E.2.2 On-board REESS current data
......
 
(Above excerpt was released on 2021-04-17, modified on 2021-06-07, translated/reviewed by: Wayne Zheng et al.)
Source: https://www.chinesestandard.net/PDF.aspx/GBT18386.1-2021