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GB/T 16716.1-2018 PDF in English


GB/T 16716.1-2018 (GB/T16716.1-2018, GBT 16716.1-2018, GBT16716.1-2018)
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GB/T 16716.1-2018: PDF in English (GBT 16716.1-2018)

GB/T 16716.1-2018
NATIONAL STANDARD OF THE
PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF CHINA
ICS 55.020
A 80
Replacing GB/T 16716.1-2008, GB/T 16716.2-2010
Packaging and the environment - Part 1: General rules
(ISO 18601:2013, Packaging and the environment - General requirements for
the use of ISO standards in the field of packaging and the environment, MOD)
ISSUED ON: DECEMBER 28, 2018
IMPLEMENTED ON: DECEMBER 28, 2018
Issued by: State Administration for Market Regulation;
Standardization Administration of the PRC.
Table of Contents
Foreword ... 3 
Introduction ... 7 
1 Scope ... 8 
2 Normative references ... 8 
3 Terms and definitions ... 9 
4 Basic requirements ... 11 
5 Assessment methods ... 12 
Annex A (Informative) Recycling and disposal methods of various types of packaging
and packaging waste ... 15 
Annex B (Normative) Assessment requirements and criteria ... 18 
Annex C (Informative) Example of assessment report ... 20 
Packaging and the environment - Part 1: General rules
1 Scope
This Part of GB/T 16716 specifies the basic requirements and assessment methods for
packaging compliance with environmental friendliness.
This Part applies to the design, production, use, treatment and utilization of packaging.
2 Normative references
The following documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For
the dated references, only the editions with the dates indicated are applicable to this
document. For the undated references, the latest edition (including all the amendments)
are applicable to this document.
GB/T 4122.1 Packaging terms - Part 1: Basic
GB/T 16288 Marking of plastics products
GB/T 16716.2 Packaging and the environment - Part 2: Optimization of the
packaging system (GB/T 16716.2-2018, ISO 18602:2013, MOD)
GB/T 16716.3 Packaging and the environment - Part 3: Reuse (GB/T 16716.3-2018,
ISO 18603:2013, MOD)
GB/T 16716.4 Packaging and the environment - Part 4: Material recycling (GB/T
16716.4-2018, ISO 18604:2013, MOD)
GB 16889 Standard for Pollution Control on the Landfill Site of Municipal Solid
Waste
GB/T 18455 Package recycling marking
GB 18484 Pollution Control Standard for Hazardous Waste Incineration
GB 18485 Standard for pollution control on the municipal solid waste incineration
GB/T 18772 Technical requirement for environmental monitory on municipal solid
waste sanitary landfill
GB/T 23156 Packaging - Packaging and the environment - Terminology
GB 23350 Requirements of restricting excessive package - Foods and cosmetics
GB/T 31268 Restricting excessive packaging for commodity - General rule
GB/T 32161 General principles for eco-design product assessment
CY/T 132.2 Green printing products - Criteria for conformity assessment - Part 2:
Packaging-type printed matter
HJ 209 Technical requirement for environmental labeling products - Plastic
packaging products
Evaluation Index System of Cleaner Production in Packaging Industry (Trial)
(National Development and Reform Commission)
ISO 18605 Packaging and the environment - Energy recovery
ISO 18606 Packaging and the environment - Organic recycling
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in GB/T 4122.1 and
GB/T 23156 and the following apply.
3.1
Supplier
The operator responsible for packaging or packaged products placed on the market or
delivered for use.
Note: Supplier also refers to the owner of the product and its packaging before it is sold; or the
manufacturer or seller indicated on the label, or more precisely, the operator who voluntarily
implements this Part. When the packaging used by the supplier is provided by other
manufacturers, the supplier can trace the relevant technical information.
3.2
Packaging system
Complete set of packaging for a packaged good, encompassing one or more of the
following that are applicable (depending on the packaged goods): Primary packaging,
Secondary (combined) packaging, Tertiary (transport) packaging.
[GB/T 16716.2-2018, definition 3.6]
3.3
Organic recycling
Through microbial activity, the controlled biological treatment of the biodegradable
components of used packaging material which produce compost and, in the case of
anaerobic digestion, also methane.
Note: Landfilling is not considered as organic recycling.
[ISO 18606:2013, definition 3.9]
4 Basic requirements
4.1 Packaging shall reduce the amount of materials on the premise of fully protecting
the product, meeting safety, sanitary and environmental requirements, and meeting
consumer needs.
4.2 Packaging design and manufacturing shall give priority to non-toxic, harmless,
environmentally-friendly, and single-material packaging materials.
4.3 The production of composite packaging materials should adopt processing
technology that is easy to disassemble.
4.4 Packaging materials, which are recyclable, recoverable and reusable, easily
degradable, and produced using recycled materials, should be given priority.
4.5 The total content of lead, cadmium, mercury, and hexavalent chromium in
packaging and packaging materials shall not exceed 100 mg/kg.
4.6 The design, production, and use of packaging products shall comply with the
provisions of GB/T 32161 and GB/T 31268.
4.7 The production and manufacture of packaging shall meet the relevant requirements
of "Evaluation Index System of Cleaner Production in Packaging Industry (Trial)".
4.8 The printing of packaging products shall comply with the provisions of CY/T 132.2.
4.9 The production of plastic packaging products shall comply with the provisions of
HJ 209.
4.10 Food and cosmetic packaging shall comply with the provisions of GB 23350.
4.11 The design, manufacture and use of packaging materials, containers and auxiliary
materials shall facilitate their classification, recycling and disposal after they become
wastes. The recycling and disposal methods can be implemented with reference to
Annex A.
Annex A
(Informative)
Recycling and disposal methods of various types of packaging and packaging
waste
A.1 Recycling
A.1.1 Material recycling
When the packaging waste is easy to identify, separate and classify; and when effective
technical measures can be taken in the production process, to regenerate it into a product
that meets the standard requirements or has use value according to the determined
component content; it shall be recycled in the form of material recycling.
A.1.2 Energy recovery
When the product residue in the packaging container is not easy to remove; or when it
is not easy to identify, separate or classify itself, and contains a certain amount of
organic matter, that is, has a minimum calorific value and can obtain effective heat
through combustion; it shall be recycled in the form of energy recovery.
A.1.3 Organic recycling
When the packaging waste is general municipal solid waste not mixed with harmful
substances, and its components contain plant fibers or degradable materials; and when
it can be biodegraded in an aerobic environment to produce organic compost, or it can
produce biogas in an anaerobic environment and at the same time obtain organic
compost; it shall be recycled in a biodegradable way. The organic compost shall meet
the requirements of arable soil.
A.2 Disposal methods
A.2.1 Paper packaging containers and materials
A.2.1.1 Plant fiber products such as paper boxes and cartons shall be treated according
to the requirements of A.1. When they are seriously polluted, they shall be treated
according to A.3.2.
A.2.1.2 In the absence of special requirements, the following measures can be taken:
- Use water-soluble adhesive;
- Print properly and reduce ink consumption;
- Use oxidation method to bleach pulp products;
- Reduce or do not use metal nails, wax, lamination, etc.
A.2.1.3 Plant fiber wastes with poor quality that are not suitable for papermaking can
be made into buffer pads or molded products by beating, blistering, and curing.
A.2.2 Plastic packaging containers and materials
A.2.2.1 The recycling of plastic packaging shall be identified and sorted in accordance
with the requirements of 4.14.
A.2.2.2 Plastic packaging shall be treated in accordance with the requirements of A.1.1
and A.1.2. Biodegradable plastics shall be treated in accordance with the requirements
of A.1.3. When contaminated, it shall be treated in accordance with A.3.2.
A.2.2.3 Plastic packaging materials can be decomposed into organic chemical products
using special equipment.
A.2.3 Metal packaging containers and materials
A.2.3.1 Metal packaging containers and materials such as drums, cans, boxes, hoses,
and spray cans shall be treated in accordance with the requirements of A.1.1.
A.2.3.2 Metal packaging containers and materials shall be properly cleaned after
recycling and sorting, to remove residues such as sulfur and phosphorus.
A.2.3.3 Closed drums, cans or similar packaging containers shall be disassembled. It
shall pre-remove tin of tin-plated metal packaging containers and materials.
A.2.4 Glass packaging containers
A.2.4.1 Glass packaging containers shall be treated in accordance with the requirements
of A.1.1.
A.2.4.2 For the recycling treatment of glass packaging containers, it shall be sorted
according to color in advance, to remove auxiliary materials or residues such as metals
and their oxides.
A.2.5 Wooden packaging containers and materials
A.2.5.1 The wooden packaging shall be treated according to the requirements of A.1.
When subject to biological damage, it shall be treated according to A.3.2.
A.2.5.2 Wooden packaging can be dismantled; or use electromagnetic separation after
crushing; to remove metal accessories or metal nails, and use it as papermaking raw
Annex B
(Normative)
Assessment requirements and criteria
B.1 Assessment requirements
B.1.1 Packaging production and packaging components
B.1.1.1 Under the premise of providing products and consumers with adequate and
necessary levels of safety, hygiene and acceptable security, the mass (volume) of
packaging shall be limited to a minimum and appropriate level.
B.1.1.2 The design, production, and commercialization of packaging shall facilitate
reuse, or recovery and reuse including recycling. It shall minimize the environmental
impact of the packaging waste and residues from its handling.
B.1.1.3 In the production and manufacture of packaging, it shall minimize hazardous
or other environmentally hazardous substances in all compositions of its materials or
components; so that when discarded packaging or residues from disposal of packaging
waste are incinerated or landfilled, these substances in fly ash, soot or leachate are
minimized.
B.1.1.4 Packaging production and packaging components shall meet the requirements
of B.1.1.1~B.1.1.3 at the same time.
B.1.2 Packaging reusability
B.1.2.1 The physical properties and technical characteristics of the packaging shall
enable it to be returned or recycled several times under normal foreseeable conditions
of use.
B.1.2.2 It shall take stable and reliable technical measures, to keep used containers clean
and hygienic, and to ensure the safety and health of operators.
B.1.2.3 The packaging shall be easy to unload or empty. Its volume or quantification
shall meet the expected requirements. Through operations such as washing and
maintenance, its original function can be maintained.
B.1.2.4 When the packaging is no longer reused and becomes waste, it shall meet the
requirements of recyclability.
B.1.2.5 Reusable packaging shall meet the requirements of B.1.2.1~B.1.2.4 at the same
time.
......
 
Source: Above contents are excerpted from the PDF -- translated/reviewed by: www.chinesestandard.net / Wayne Zheng et al.