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GB/T 16508.8-2013 PDF in English

GB/T 16508.8-2013 (GB/T16508.8-2013, GBT 16508.8-2013, GBT16508.8-2013)
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GB/T 16508.8-2013: PDF in English (GBT 16508.8-2013)

GB/T 16508.8-2013
ICS 27.060.30
J 98
Shell Boilers -- Part 8: Operation
Issued by: General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and
Quarantine of the PRC;
Standardization Administration of the PRC.
Table of Contents
Foreword ... 3
1 Scope ... 4
2 Normative References ... 4
3 Terms and Definitions ... 4
4 Basic Requirements of Operation Management ... 5
5 Preparation before Operation ... 6
6 Initiating ... 9
7 Operation and Adjustment ... 11
8 Boiler Shutdown ... 16
9 Maintenance and Service ... 17
10 Fault Handling ... 19
Shell Boilers -- Part 8: Operation
1 Scope
This Part of GB/T 16508 specifies the basic requirements of shell boiler operation
management as well as preoperational requirements such as preparation, initiating,
operation and adjustment, boiler shutdown, fault handling and the like.
This Part is applicable to the shell boilers defined within the scope of GB/T 16508.1.
2 Normative References
The following documents for the application of this document are essential. Any dated
reference, just dated edition applies to this document. For undated references, the
latest edition (including any amendments) applies to this document.
GB/T 1576 Water Quality for Industrial Boilers
GB/T 2900.48 Electrotechnical Terminology of Boilers
GB/T 12145 Quality Criterion of Water and Steam for Generating Unit and
Steam Power Equipment
GB 13271 Emission Standard of Air Pollutants for Boiler
TSG G0001 Boiler Safety Technical Supervision Administration Regulation
TSG G0002 Supervision Administration Regulation on Energy
Conservation Technology for Boiler
TSG ZF001 Safety Valve - Safety Technical Supervision Administration
3 Terms and Definitions
For the purpose of this document, the terms and definitions defined in GB/T 2900.48
and the following ones apply.
potential hazards are found.
4.5 Before the boiler is officially put into operation, the safety valve shall be adjusted
and verified according to the requirements of Safety Valve - Safety Technical
Supervision Administration Regulation (TSG ZF001).
4.6 During the operation of boiler, it shall be ensured that the steam pressure, water
level and temperature are normal, the automatic control and interlock protection device
are intact and shall not be operated in non-protected state.
4.7 The boiler water (medium) quality shall be in accordance with the requirements
of GB/T 1576 or GB/T 12145.
4.8 During the operation of boiler, the emission limits of air pollutants shall be in
accordance with the requirements of GB 13271 and the environmental protection
requirements of the region of use.
5 Preparation before Operation
5.1 External inspection of boiler
5.1.1 The boiler body, auxiliary equipment as well as the supports and the hangers
shall be intact.
5.1.2 The governing valve and damper of air flue and flue shall be intact, with flexible
switching and correct indication for opening/closing.
5.1.3 The external boiler setting and thermal insulation shall be intact.
5.1.4 Devices such as boiler door, ash door, observation door opening, explosion
door as well as hand hole, man hole, inspection door opening and the like shall be
intact and tightly closed.
5.2 Inspection of boiler safety accessories
5.2.1 The safety accessories shall be complete, intact and in the place required for
5.2.2 The pressure gage shall be complete and intact, with its pointers indicating
correctly. The trap shall be normal and free from deformation; the three-way cock of
the pressure gage shall be opened and closed easily.
5.2.3 The water level indicator and its accessories shall be complete and intact to
operation and the clearance between grate plates shall be suitable; the coal feeder
shall operate normally.
5.6.3 As for oil-fired or gas-fired boiler, the combustor, fuel supply pipeline, filter
screen, oil pump, oil heater and the like shall be inspected. Each cock, valve, connector,
etc. shall be free from blocking or leakage. The oil pressure gage, oil temperature
gauge and gas-pressure meter shall be intact, with their pointers indicating correctly.
5.7 Inspection of water supply system and water treatment equipment
5.7.1 The water pump shall be in normal operating condition as well as be subjected
to and pass the test run; the water supply pipeline, valves, water tank and their
auxiliaries shall be in normal operating condition.
5.7.2 As for ion exchange equipment, deoxidation equipment and dosing equipment,
they shall be intact, free from leakage, corrosion or blocking, and in operating condition.
5.8 Inspection of ventilation equipment
Force draft fan and induced draft fan shall be inspected to make sure whether there
are internal foreign matters. The fans shall be in normal condition as well as subjected
to and pass the test run; the oil level of lubricant shall be normal. The smoke and wind
damper shall rotate flexibly, with their opening/closing and opening degree meeting
relevant requirements.
5.9 Inspection of slag removal equipment as well as dust removal and
desulfurization equipment
5.9.1 The slag removal equipment shall be complete and intact; the lubrication and
cooling systems shall be normal and free from abnormal phenomenon during test run.
5.9.2 The external of dust removal and desulfurization equipment shall be clean and
free from such phenomenon as air leakage, water leakage, blocking or the like.
5.10 Inspection of fuel supply and conveying equipment
The fuel storage shall be sufficient; the conveying system shall be free from abnormal
phenomenon during test run.
5.11 Inspection of soot blower
The soot blower shall be intact and free from leakage, and it shall act flexibly. The
ancillary facilities shall be in normal operation.
6.3.1 Pressure boosting In order to prevent the boiler from generating excessive thermal stress, a
certain time interval shall be arranged for the boiler to rise to the operating pressure
from cold reserve state after ignition, and it shall be in accordance with the operation
instructions of boiler or the operation specifications formulated by the using
organization. The water level shall be controlled during pressure boosting, and in case the
water level is too high, the method of draining water from the lower part of boiler shall
be adopted, otherwise, the boiler shall be replenished with water. As for non-steaming economizer, the outlet water temperature of economizer
shall be lower than the saturation temperature under the same pressure by no more
than 30°C for those provided with bypass flue, and for those without bypass flue,
recirculating line may be adopted to maintain the outlet water temperature of
6.3.2 On-line Before bringing a boiler onto the line, the steam pressure at boiler outlet shall
be slightly lower than that of the steam main to avoid the rapid evaporation of boiler
water due to a sudden drop in steam pressure during the on-line process. When bringing a boiler onto the line, the on-line valve shall be opened after
its bypass valve. The valves shall be opened slowly, and the bypass valve of on-line
valve shall be closed after the opening of on-line valve.
6.4 Temperature rise of hot-water boiler
During temperature rise, special attention shall be paid to monitor the changes in outlet
water temperature and pressure. Each junction shall be inspected for leakage where
the outlet water temperature is close to normal supply water temperature.
6.5 Inspection of water pump
Before initiating the boiler, the water pump shall be subjected to test run and the
bearing box shall be inspected to see whether the lubricant inside is sufficient and
whether the bearing cooling water system is normal.
6.6 The initiating of fan
The initiating method and procedure of fan shall be in accordance with the operation
instructions of the boiler or the operation specifications formulated by using
7.1.3 Safety valve Manual operation emission test shall be carried out periodically for safety
valves. As for safety valves, in case steam leakage occurs, it shall be settled promptly,
and boiler replacement shall be carried out if necessary. As for spring safety valve, it
shall not be processed by using the mode of compressing the spring; as for lever safety
valve, it shall not be processed by using the method of out shifting the heavy hammer. In case the safety valve doesn't activate and exhaust when reaching the set
pressure, the test shall be performed after the emission has been activated by raising
the lever manually. In case the actions still cannot meet the requirement, boiler
overhaul shall be carried out.
7.2 Auxiliary machine
7.2.1 Water pump
The water pump shall be kept stably and free from abnormal noise during operation.
Where abnormalities appear, switch to standby water pump and overhaul timely.
7.2.2 Fan
During normal operation of the fan, attentions shall be made to observe the current
change of the motor and observe frequently the bearing lubrication, oil level, bearing
temperature, etc. Shutdown inspection or repair shall be carried out immediately under
the following conditions:
a) Where the motor smokes;
b) Where strong vibration and big impact sound appear;
c) Where the current value increases abruptly.
7.2.3 Dust removal equipment During operation the dust remover shall be kept tight; the dust discharge
system shall be in normal working state and discharge the ash unimpededly. As for water dust scrubber, the water level in the scrubber water tank shall be
normal, and water outflowing and water supply interruption are forbidden; airlock
device shall be flexible with tight water seal; the sluice of the scrubber shall be fully
opened and the nozzle shall be unimpeded; the scrubber shall be dredged timely
water supply quality shall be controlled. The water remain within the water tank shall
be exhausted in case the deaerator is out of service, all the components shall be
inspected and cleaned and the sealing water tube shall be unimpeded to prevent the
overpressure operation of deaerator.
7.3 Steam pressure adjustment
Adjust the steam pressure through such methods as combustion adjustment to ensure
that the boiler evaporation capacity meets the requirement of the load of steam supply.
The steam pressure shall remain stable and overpressure operation is forbidden.
7.4 Water level adjustment
7.4.1 During operation, the water level indicator shall be intact, and the indication
shall be correct, clearly visible with sufficient illumination.
7.4.2 The boiler water supply shall maintain the boiler water level within the normal
range of boiler barrel water level indicator. The boiler water supply shall be adjusted
according to the indication of boiler barrel water level indicator. The deviation of water
level indicator shall be in accordance with the requirements of the boiler operation
instructions. As for water level indicator, it shall be settled promptly in case abnormality
7.4.3 In case the boiler load changes largely, attentions shall be paid to spurious
change of water level so as to avoid mis-operation.
7.4.4 In case the automatic water supply regulator is put into operation, the change
in boiler barrel water level shall be monitored and the water supply flow and steam flow
shall be compared and inspected for whether they are consistent.
7.5 Outlet water temperature adjustment of hot-water boiler
7.5.1 The using organization of boiler shall formulate the relation curve between the
outlet water temperature of boiler and the outdoor air temperature according to local
conditions; during operation, combustion adjustment shall be carried out timely
according to the specified corresponding relation between outlet water temperature of
boiler and the outdoor air temperature.
7.5.2 The outlet water temperature of hot-water boiler shall be lower than the
corresponding saturated temperature (i.e. vaporization temperature of boiler water) by
no more than 30°C.
7.6 Combustion adjustment
in boiler operation parameters and the operation of automatic control system shall be
monitored to avoid the negative effects caused by malfunction. In case the fault appeared in the automatic control system cannot be repaired
timely, the boiler shall not be stopped, and the disconnected automatic control is
confirmed not to impact the safe operation of the boiler, the disconnection may not be
carried out until obtaining the confirmation from the using organization’s technical
director of boiler equipment.
7.7.2 Operation of interlock protection system In case invalidation appears in the interlock protection system, the boiler shall
be shut down immediately and may not be restarted until being repaired or replaced. During operation, the protective device and interlock device shall not be
stopped and disabled.
7.8 Operation of soot blower
7.8.1 The soot blower shall be operated according to the requirement of boiler
operation instruction and the operation specification formulated by the using
7.8.2 In case of such conditions as the operating load of the boiler changes largely
or the fuel has changed, the monitoring of soot blowing condition shall be strengthened
and the frequency and strength of soot blowing shall be adjusted.
7.8.3 When implementing soot blowing, the changes in the operating parameters and
condition of every part of the boiler shall be monitored closely, and on-site inspection
shall be carried out. In case abnormity appears, the fault shall be analyzed and
8 Boiler Shutdown
8.1 Normal shutdown
8.1.1 The normal boiler shutdown shall be in accordance with the requirements of
safety technology specification; the operation method and procedure shall be carried
out in accordance with the boiler operation instruction and the operation specifications
formulated by the using organization.
8.1.2 The normal shutdown operation of steam boiler: stop in turn the fuel supply, air
supply and air inducing; reduce the pressure, maintain the water level and close the
boiler operation instructions.
9.1 Operation maintenance
During operation, the boiler shall be carried out with partial and preventive overhaul
without shutdown. Generally, the overhaul shall be carried out once after the boiler has
been put into operation for 3 months.
9.2 Regular maintenance
The using organization shall arrange the boiler shutdown in a planned way; carry out
an overall and restorative overhaul for the equipment or a maintenance work of
replacing the parts. Generally, the overhaul shall be carried out once after the boiler
has been put into use for 1 year.
9.3 Boiler maintenance
9.3.1 The boiler shall be carried out with maintenance after shutdown so as to
prevent the boiler from such infringement as corrosion and to extend its service life.
After shutdown, cold-proof measures shall be taken for the boiler; and after the
shutdown in winter, the temperature of the boiler room shall be monitored, and the
room temperature shall be maintained at above 10°C at all times. The accumulated
water within the conduit of thermal meter shall be emptied; and the water remain within
the wet desulfurizing scrubber shall also be emptied.
9.3.2 Boiler dry maintenance shall be adopted for boilers subjected to long shutdown
period. Empty the water after shutdown, remove the scale and soot, then shut down
the valves of steam tube, water tube and the blow-off line. Open the man-hole of the
boiler barrel, put sufficient desiccant into the boiler barrel and seal the man-hole and
hand hole. Replace the ineffective desiccant in time. If the boiler room has a damp
environment, the desiccant may also be put into the furnace to protect against the
9.3.3 As for boilers subjected to short shutdown period, boiler wet maintenance shall
be adopted. Empty the water after shutdown and remove the scale and soot. Inject the
prepared alkaline preservative liquid into the boiler and shutdown all of the steam,
water and blowdown valves as well as the hand-hole, man-hole, etc. Open the water
supply valve, fill the boiler (including superheater and economizer) with softened water,
and then close the air valve and water supply valve; reopen the special water pump
and let the water within the boiler flow circularly and keep the alkali solution
concentration at every part of the inner wall of boiler uniform. During maintenance, the
alkalinity of boiler water shall be maintained, of which the pH value is 10~12.
b) If the water supply pressure is abnormal, and the water level of the boiler barrel
drops, the boiler evaporation capacity shall be reduced to maintain the water
level and, at the same time, to handle this fault. If the water level still cannot be
maintained, emergency shutdown shall be carried out immediately.
10.4 The handling methods for priming fault of steam boiler are as follows:
a) Properly decrease the boiler evaporation capacity and remain stable;
b) Fully open the continuous blowdown valve; and if necessary, open the fault
drain valve or other blowdown valves and pay attention to keep the water level
of boiler barrel above the lowest safe water level;
c) As for boiler adopting internal chemical dosing treatment, the dosing shall be
d) Open the steam trap of superheater, steam pipeline and the like to carry out
e) Determine the salt content of steam and improve the quality of boiler water;
f) It is not allowed to increase the boiler load until the quality of boiler water is
g) After the fault has been cleared, the water level indicator of boiler barrel shall
be flushed.
10.5 The handling methods for tube burst fault of steam boiler are as follows:
a) Handling modes for tube burst of furnace tube:
1) In case the furnace tube is slightly raptured, if the water level still can be
remained, and the fault will not expand rapidly, short duration load-reducing
operation may be carried out; shut down the boiler till the standby boiler fires
2) In case the furnace tube bursts, and it cannot maintain the water level and
steam pressure, emergency shutdown shall be carried out; especially when
the water level disappears from the water level indicator and the furnace
temperature is high, water supply must not be carried out so as to prevent
greater fault from happening. However, the operation of induced draft fan
shall be continued, and it may not be stopped until the high-temperature flue
gas and steam are fully exhausted;
a) As for the hydraulic impact fault caused by partial vaporization, the operation of
boiler shall be stopped;
b) As for boilers provided with bypass flue, in case hydraulic impact fault happens
in the economizer, the bypass flue shall be opened and the flue collector shall
be closed. With the gas temperature in the economizer being reduced, the
hydraulic shock phenomenon will therewith be eased. In this case, the return
valve of economizer shall be opened wider, the backwater flow shall be
increased, and the flue gas shall be introduced through the economizer after
hydraulic impact phenomenon being eliminated;
c) As for hot-water boilers without bypass flue, they shall be handled respectively
according to the connection type of the economizer and boiler:
1) The economizer is in parallel connection with the boiler: Weaken the
combustion first, and open wider the inlet valve of economizer after the
hydraulic impact phenomenon being eased; increase the return water
volume flowing through the economizer and resume the normal combustion
after the hydraulic impact is eliminated completely. Pay attention to the
inlet/outlet water temperature of the economizer;
2) The economizer is connected with the boiler by using bypass tube: Weaken
the combustion first, and observe the inlet/outlet water temperature of the
economizer; open the safety valve on the top of the economizer, release the
water and exhaust the air if the temperature rise of the water in the
economizer is not much; resume normal operation after the hydraulic impact
is eliminated completely;
3) The economizer is in series connection with the boiler: handle it according
to the above-mentioned method.
d) In case hydraulic impact fault happens in the multifunctional boiler (steam and
hot water) due to the steam whisks into hot water outlet tube, weaken the
combustion immediately, stop the circulating water pump and fill with water
slowly to increase the water level at the top of the hot water outlet tube. The
pressure of boiler barrel shall be monitored at any time during the above-
mentioned operations so as to maintain it within the normal range.
10.8 Handling modes for furnace flameout fault of oil-fired or gas-fired boiler are as
a) Close the main filling valve, the filling and return valves of the nozzle, and the
gas supply valve;
Source: Above contents are excerpted from the PDF -- translated/reviewed by: www.chinesestandard.net / Wayne Zheng et al.