GB/T 16508.32013 (GB/T16508.32013)
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Shell boilers  Part 3: Design and strength calculation
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GB/T 16508.32013: PDF in English (GBT 16508.32013) GB/T 16508.32013
NATIONAL STANDARD OF THE
PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF CHINA
ICS 27.060.30
J 98
Replacing GB/T 165081996
Shell Boilers  Part 3: Design and strength calculation
ISSUED ON: DECEMBER 31, 2013
IMPLEMENTED ON: JULY 1, 2014
Issued by: General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and
Quarantine of the PRC;
Standardization Administration of the PRC.
Table of Contents
Foreword ... 3
1 Scope ... 5
2 Normative References ... 5
3 Terms and Definitions ... 6
4 Symbols and Units ... 6
5 Basic Requirements for Design ... 7
6 Cylindrical Parts Subject to Internal Pressure ... 13
7 Cylindrical Boiler Furnace, Circular Flue, Smoke Tube and Other Part
Subject to External Pressure ... 30
8 Convex Head, Boiler Furnace Top, Hemispherical Boiler Furnace and
Convex Tube Plate ... 46
9 Flat Plates and Tube Plates with Tension Brace (Support and Reinforcement)
... 55
10 Tension Braces and Reinforcing Parts ... 66
11 Flat Cover and Cover Plate ... 76
12 Foot Ring ... 81
13 Opening and Opening Reinforcement ... 84
14 Welded Tee Junction ... 96
15 Verification Method for Determining Maximum Permissible Operating
Pressure of Part ... 101
Appendix A (Informative) Design Calculation of Pressure Part on Castiron
Boiler ... 108
Appendix B (Informative) Design Calculation of Rectangular Header ... 110
Appendix C (Informative) Design Calculation of Water Tube Plate ... 116
Shell Boilers  Part 3: Design and strength calculation
1 Scope
This Part of GB/T 16508 specifies the design and structural requirements for basic
pressure parts of shell boilers, and provides the basic design requirements for cast
iron boiler (Appendix A), rectangular header (Appendix B) and water tube plate
(Appendix C).
This Part is applicable to the design calculation for cylindrical parts subject to internal
and external pressures, heads, tube plates, tension braces and foot rings as well as
opening and reinforcement.
2 Normative References
The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this
document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references,
the latest edition of the normative document (including any amendments) applies.
GB/T 1576 Water Quality for Industrial Boilers
GB/T 2900.48 Electrotechnical Terminology of Boilers
GB/T 9252 Method for Cycling Test of Gas Cylinders
GB/T 12145 Quality Criterion of Water and Steam for Generating Unit and
Steam Power Equipment
GB 13271 Emission Standard of Air Pollutants for Boiler
GB/T 16508.12013 Shell Boilers  Part 1: General Requirements
GB/T 16508.2 Shell Boilers  Part 2: Material
GB/T 16508.4 Shell Boilers  Part 4: Fabrication, Inspection and
Acceptance
NB/T 47013
(JB/T 4730)
Nondestructive Testing of Pressure Equipment
TSG G0001 Boiler Safety Technical Supervision Administration
Regulation
TSG G0002 Supervision Administration Regulation on Energy
Conservation Technology for Boiler
3 Terms and Definitions
For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions established in GB/T
16508.1 and GB/T 2900.48 apply.
4 Symbols and Units
Meanings and units of the symbols used in chapters and sections of this Part are as
follows:
Et  the elasticity modulus of material upon temperature calculation, MPa;
p  the calculating pressure, MPa;
[p]  the maximum permissible operating pressure upon verifying calculation, MPa;
pr  the rated pressure of boiler, MPa;
p0  the operating pressure, MPa;
ts  the saturation temperature of medium corresponding to the calculating pressure
(the rated outlet temperature of hot water boiler), °C;
tc  the calculating temperature, °C;
tmave  the rated average temperature of medium, °C;
Δpa  the design additional pressure (the set pressure of relief valve), MPa;
Δph  the liquid column static pressure borne by pressure part, MPa;
Δpf  the additional pressure of dynamic resistance of medium flow, MPa;
η  the correction coefficient;
shall not exceed 2000mm; where butt connection is adopted for boiler furnace ends
and tube plate flange, the calculating length of the plain boiler furnace may be
increased to 3000mm.
5.1.4 The lowest safe water level of the steam boiler shall be 100mm higher than the
highest fire line; however, for the horizontal shell boiler with the inside diameter not
greater than 1500mm, the lowest safe water level shall be 75mm higher than the
highest fire line. The minimum and maximum safe water level of the boiler shall be
indicated in the drawing.
5.1.5 The structural type of pressure component (part) as well as the arrangement of
openings and welds shall avoid or reduce the combined stress and stress
concentration as possible. The adopted weld type shall comply with the design
document and GB/T 16508.4. The weld subject to nondestructive testing shall be
designed as the type for which the required nondestructive testing may be carried out.
5.1.6 Fullpenetration butt joint shall be adopted for main weld of the main pressure
part for the boiler (e.g. longitudinal and circumferential welds of shell, boiler furnace,
reversal chamber and header, as well as butt welds of head, tube plate, boiler furnace
top and foot ring); overlapped structure shall not be adopted for the weld of boiler
pressure part; splicing shall not be adopted for tension brace.
5.1.7 Where the inside diameter of shell is greater than 1000mm, manhole shall be
arranged on the shell or head (tube plate); where personnel cannot enter into the boiler
due to structural constraint, only inspection hole may be arranged; for the boiler with
smoke tube arranged in shell, the arrangement of manhole and inspection hole shall
give consideration to the overhaul demand of both upper and lower parts of shell; for
the shell boiler with inside diameter of shell as 800~1000mm, at least one inspection
hole shall be arranged on shell or head (tube plate); the quantity of handholes
arranged at the lower part of vertical shell boiler shall meet the requirements of
cleaning and inspection and shall not be less than 3.
5.1.8 For the boiler with furnace, the combustion shall be completed in furnace.
Water entering into the boiler shall not directly scour the boiler furnace. For the boiler
with inside diameter of furnace greater than 1400mm or heat input greater than 12MW,
at least 3 measuring points shall be arranged in boiler for temperature measurement.
5.1.9 The hydraulic test pressure shall meet the requirements of GB/T 16508.1.
5.1.10 Corrosion allowance
The corrosion allowance shall meet the following requirements:
a) For the pressure parts with nominal thickness δ>20mm and all plain
5.4 Discharge requirements
5.4.1 The excess air coefficient at smoke discharge point shall meet the following
requirements:
a) For the combustion boiler in coal combustion chamber and the layered coal
burning boiler with membrane wall, the excess air coefficient at smoke
discharge point shall not exceed 1.4;
b) For other layered coalburning boiler, the excess air coefficient at smoke
discharge point shall not exceed 1.65;
c) For the pressure combustion oilfired (gasfired) boiler, the excess air coefficient
at smoke discharge point shall not exceed 1.15;
d) For the negative pressure combustion oilfired (gasfired) boiler, the excess air
coefficient at smoke discharge point shall not exceed 1.25.
5.4.2 During system design of boiler, the drive motor of matched auxiliary machine
of boiler should be equipped with frequency converter.
5.4.3 The design smoke discharge temperature of boiler shall meet the following
requirements:
a) Not higher than 230°C for steam boiler with rated evaporation less than 1t/h;
b) Not higher than 180°C for hotwater boiler with rated thermal power less than
0.7MW;
c) Not higher than 170°C for steam boiler with rated evaporation greater than or
equal to 1t/h and hotwater boiler with rated thermal power greater than or equal
to 0.7MW.
5.4.4 The boiler shall be equipped with necessary desulfurization and dedusting
equipment and should be equipped with denitration equipment; the discharge of boiler
air pollutants shall meet the requirements of GB 13271.
5.5 Permissible stress
5.5.1 The permissible stress [σ]J of common materials in this Part is selected
according to GB/T 16508.2; sometimes structural characteristics and operating
conditions of parts shall also be considered while used for design calculation; multiply
the correction coefficient according to Formula (1):
cylindrical parts subject to internal pressure, including shell, header, internal pressure
tube, large horizontal water tube, etc.
6.2 Symbols and units
a  the arc length between two openings along the meandiameter peripheral
direction of the shell upon calculating the slant ligament efficiency, mm;
a1  the technological coefficient of bent tube;
b1  the thickness reduction ratio of actual manufacturing process of outer thickness
of bent tube;
C  the additional thickness, mm;
C1  the corrosion allowance of pressure part, mm;
C2  the manufacturing thickness reduction of pressure part, mm;
C3  the thickness tolerance of steels for pressure part, mm;
Di  the inside diameter of shell, mm;
Do  the outside diameter of header shell, mm;
d  the pitch length of opening diameter, the dimension of elliptical opening in the
direction of corresponding pitch length, mm;
de  the equivalent diameter of opening, mm;
dm  the mean diameter of two adjacent openings, mm;
do  the outside diameter of tube, mm;
K  the conversion coefficient of slant bridge;
K1  the shape coefficient of bent tube;
m  the absolute percentage of the lower thickness deviation (negative) to the
nominal thickness of tube, %;
n  the ratio of the distance (b) between two openings along the axial direction of
shell to the arc length (a) between two openings along the meandiameter
peripheral direction of the shell;
n1  the ratio of the radius R of bent tube centerline to the outside diameter of tube;
[p]w  the maximum permissible calculating pressure upon verifying calculation of
bent tube, MPa;
R  the radius of bent tube centerline or the arc header centerline, mm;
s0  the minimum pitch length between two adjacent openings for which the inter
opening effect may not be considered, mm;
s  the pitch length between two adjacent openings in longitudinal (axial) direction
or the interval between inner walls of firebox tube plate, mm;
s′  the pitch length between two adjacent openings in the horizontal (circumferential)
direction, mm;
s″  the pitch length between two adjacent openings in inclined direction, mm;
a  the angle of opening axis deviating from the radial direction of shell, °;
δ  the nominal thickness of pressure part, mm;
δ′  the thickness deviation of abutting edge, mm;
δc  the required thickness of pressure part, mm;
δmin  the minimum thickness of finished pressure part, mm;
δbc  the theoretical required thickness at the outer side of bent tube made of steel
tube, mm;
δbe  the effective wall thickness at the outer side of bent tube, mm;
δbmin  the minimum thickness at the outer side of finished bent tube, mm;
δe  the effective thickness of pressure part, mm;
φ  the attenuation coefficient of longitudinal bridge;
φ′  the attenuation coefficient of horizontal bridge;
φ″  the attenuation coefficient of slant bridge;
φd  the equivalent attenuation coefficient of slant bridge;
φd=1.00) (among which, the minimum value shall prevail). Where the bridge is located
in weld, it shall be treated according to the relevant requirements in 6.9.3.
6.6.2 For weld passing the inspection for technical requirements for fabrication, the
welded joint coefficient φw is selected according to GB/T 16508.1. Where the
circumferential weld is openingfree, the circumferential welded joint coefficient may
not be considered.
6.6.3 Where the pitch length (longitudinal, horizontal or slant) between two adjacent
openings in opening row is not less than the value calculated according to Formula
(23), the attenuation coefficient of bridge may not be calculated.
0 2 ( )m iS d D (23)
Where, dm is determined according to Formula (29).
6.6.4 Where the pitch length between two adjacent openings is less than the s0 value
calculated according to Formula (23), and the diameter of either opening is not greater
than the maximum permissible diameter of the unreinforced opening determined
according to 13.3.6, the attenuation coefficient of bridge shall be calculated according
to the requirements of 6.6.6~6.6.12.
Where one of the two adjacent openings in opening row is greater than the maximum
permissible diameter of the unreinforced opening specified in 13.3.6, reinforcement
shall be carried out based on single opening according to the requirements of
13.3.7~13.3.9 under the conditions specified in 13.7.2. Openingfree treatment shall
be carried out after reinforcement.
Where both adjacent openings shall be reinforced, their pitch length shall not be less
than 1.5 times of their mean diameter.
Where both openings shall be reinforced, reinforcement calculation shall not only meet
the requirements of 13.3.7~13.3.9, but also meet the following requirements:
a) The height of thickened tube joint shall be 2.5 times the thickness;
b) The weld leg dimension of thickened tube joint shall be equal to the thickness
of thickened tube joint;
c) Where the pitch length of two openings is less than the diameter sum of two
openings, thus resulting in overlap of their effective reinforcement scope,
reinforcement shall be carried out according to the method that the total
reinforcement area of two openings is not less than the sum of reinforcement
Formula (40):
1 3
1 12 (4 1)
C C
n n
(40)
Where, n1 is the ratio of radius of bent tube centerline to the outside diameter of tube.
6.7.3 Additional thickness of tube subject to internal pressure
6.7.3.1 Upon design calculation, the additional thickness of tube is calculated
according to Formula (38).
For straight water tube, C1 is treated according to the principle in 6.7.1; for heat
exchange tube, C1 and C2 are taken as 0 while C3 is calculated according to Formula
(41):
3 1( )100 c
mC C
(41)
For bent tube made of steel tube, C1 is treated according to the principle in 6.7.1; for
heat exchange tube, C1 is taken as 0 while C2 and C3 are respectively calculated
according to Formulas (42) and (44):
2 1
( )100 bcC C
(42)
Where, the technological coefficient α1 of bent tube is calculated according to Formula
(43):
25 od
(43)
Where the actual fabrication process reduction ratio b1 for the thickness at the outer
side of bent tube is greater than the calculated a1 value, a1 shall be taken as the actual
fabrication process reduction ratio for the thickness at the outer side of bent tube.
3 1 2( )100 bc
mC C C
(44)
6.7.3.2 Upon verifying calculation, the additional thickness C of tube is calculated
according to Formula (38).
For straight tube, C1 is treated according to the principle in 6.7.1; for heat exchange
tube, C1 and C2 are taken as 0 while C3 is calculated according to Formula (39).
6.9.1 For expansion tube orifice, the bridge attenuation coefficient φ, φ′ and φ″ shall
not be less than 0.3; the distance from the expansion tube orifice center to the weld
edge shall not be less than 0.8d, and shall not be less than 0.5d+12mm; the
longitudinal weld shall be free from any expansion tube orifice; the expansion tube
orifice, where necessary at circumferential weld, shall meet the requirements of "Boiler
Safety Technical Supervision Administration Regulation" (TSG G0001).
6.9.2 The thickness of shell of expansion tube shall not be less than 12mm. The clear
distance between expansion tube orifices shall not be less than 19mm. Expansion
connection should not be adopted for the tube with outside diameter greater than
63.5mm.
6.9.3 The welded tube orifice shall be kept away from main weld as possible, and the
clear interval between tube orifice weld edge and adjacent main weld edge less than
10mm shall be avoided. Where it is inevitable, the welded tube orifice shall meet the
following requirements:
a) The main weld within the range of 1.5 times of the tube opening diameter (the
tube opening diameter, where less than 60mm, is 0.5d+60mm) to the tube
orifice center passes the radiographic testing or ultrasonic testing, and the
opening surrounding shall be free from slag inclusion defect;
b) Residual stress of the tube or tube joint after welding is eliminated through heat
treatment or local heat treatment.
In this case, the attenuation coefficient of this position is taken as the product of bridge
attenuation coefficient and welded joint coefficient.
The clear interval of weld edges of adjacent welded tube orifices should not be less
than 6mm, where heat treatment or local heat treatment is carried out after welding,
this limit ceases to be effective.
6.9.4 See Figure 7 for the connection type of flat tube plate or convex head of shell
and flange.
6.9.5 The groove fillet welding, where adopted for shell and flat tube plate, shall meet
the following requirements:
a) The rated pressure of boiler shall not be greater than 2.5MPa;
b) The position with smoke temperature not greater than 600°C (the position free
of smoke erosion and equipped with reliable heat insulation may not limited by
the abovementioned condition);
I′, I″ and I″′  the required inertia moment, mm4;
l  the length of straight section of flanged part, mm;
L  the calculating length of boiler furnace, mm;
n1  the strength security coefficient;
n2  the stability security coefficient;
Ro  the outside radius of corrugation of corrugated furnace, mm;
R  the medium radius of corrugation of corrugated furnace, mm;
r  the inside radius of corrugation of corrugated furnace, mm;
s  the corrugation pitch length of corrugated furnace, mm;
u  the roundness percentage of horizontal plain boiler furnace;
W  the corrugation depth of corrugated furnace, mm;
X  the increment of calculating length of plain furnace;
α  the distance between neutral axis xx and circlecenterpenetrating axis x0x0,
mm;
α′  the half included angle, rad (radian);
δ  the nominal thickness of pressure part, mm;
δc  the theoretical required thickness of pressure part, mm;
δmin  the minimum thickness of finished pressure part, mm;
δs  the design thickness of pressure part, mm;
δe  the effective thickness of pressure part, mm;
φmin  the minimum attenuation coefficient.
7.3 Cylindrical boiler furnace
7.3.1 Plain boiler furnace
C=C1+C2+C3 (73)
Generally, 0.5mm is taken as the additional thickness C1 of corrosion thickness
reduction; if the thickness is larger than 20mm, 0mm may be taken as the corrosion
allowance; if the corrosion thickness reduction exceeds 0.5mm, then the actually
possible value of corrosion thickness reduction is taken. The additional thickness C3,
which considers the lower thickness tolerance (where is negative value) of material, is
determined according to relevant material standards. The additional thickness C2,
which considers the technology thickness reduction, shall be determined according to
specific technology; generally, 0.1δ may be taken as the thickness reduction of
stamping technology.
8.3.11 Where the head inside diameter Di is larger than 1000mm, the nominal
thickness of head shall not be less than 6mm; while if Di is not larger than 1000mm,
then the nominal thickness of head should not be less than 4mm. The nominal
thickness of boiler furnace top and hemispherical boiler furnace shall not be less than
8mm; and the nominal thickness of hemispherical boiler furnace shall not be larger
than 22mm.
8.3.12 Convex head of hot spinning may be calculated according to the requirements
of this chapter; however, technology opening must be made on the head top after
spinning, the minimum opening diameter is not less than 80mm.
8.3.13 The opening on head shall comply with the following requirements:
a) For the boiler furnace opening on the head, the projection distance between
two opening edges shall not be less than the diameter of the smaller opening
(Figure 24), in this case, the reduction of bridge is ignored;
b) The projection distance between the opening edge of boiler furnace and head
edge should not be less than 0.1Di+δ (Figure 24);
c) For the orifice located nearby the manhole, the distance between the orifice
edge and the starting point of manhole flange or the weld edge shall be not
less than δ (Figure 25);
d) The flange opening shall not be located on welds (Figure 25).
9 Flat Plates and Tube Plates with Tension Brace (Support
and Reinforcement)
9.1 Scope
This chapter is applicable to the design and calculation methods and structural
requirements for those flat plates and tube plates subject to pressure and provided
with brace tubes (including the flat plates insider and outside the tube bank area of
smoke tube, top plates of firebox, boiler heads with vertical circular flue, tube plates
and cambered plates of Cochran boiler etc.). For the design and calculation methods
of rectangular headers and water tube plates, refer to Appendix B and Appendix C
respectively.
9.2 Symbols and units
α  the major semiaxis of elliptical ring (inside dimension), mm;
b  the minor semiaxis of elliptical ring (inside dimension), mm;
C  the flat plate coefficient including manhole and headhole;
De  the equivalent diameter;
Di  the inside diameter of shell, mm;
d  the diameter of opening, mm;
de  the equivalent circle diameter, mm;
dh  the calculating diameter of manhole or headhole (sum of α and b), mm;
di  the inside diameter of smoke tube, mm;
E  the maximum dimension of cambered plate from the inner wall of shell to outer
wall of tube plate, mm;
K  the coefficient;
L1  the distance from the intersection point of tube row center of outermost side of
Cochran boiler and thickness median line of front tube plate to shell centerline, mm;
L2  the distance from the intersection point of tube row center of outermost side of
Cochran boiler and thickness median line of back tube plate to shell centerline, mm;
r  the inside radius of flange, mm;
s  the inner wall interval of firebox tube plate, mm;
SH  the interval of reinforcing transverse beam on firebox top plate, mm;
S1  the transverse pitch length of tube opening on firebox tube plate, mm;
S2  the vertical pitch length of tube plate in Cochran boiler, mm;
Z  the coefficient;
δ  the nominal thickness of pressure part, mm;
δH  the thickness of reinforcing transverse beam on the firebox top plate, mm;
δc  the theoretical required thickness of pressure part, mm;
δe  the effective thickness of pressure part, mm;
φ  the ligament efficiency of the vertical tube row at the outermost side of Cochran
boiler tube plate.
9.3 Flat plates with tension brace and those beyond smoke tube bank area
9.3.1 The thickness of flat plates with tension brace and those beyond smoke tube
bank area is calculated according to Formula (76):
1[ ]e
pKd (76)
9.3.2 Upon verifying calculation, the maximum permissible operating pressure is
calculated according to Formula (77):
21[ ] [ ]
Kd
(77)
9.3.3 The calculating pressure of connected parts is taken as calculating pressure;
the calculating temperature is selected according to Table 4.
9.4.4 The nominal thickness of tube plate shall not be less than 12mm where the
diameter of expansion connection tube is not larger than 51mm; while that shall not be
less than 14mm where the diameter of expansion connection tube is larger than 54mm.
The nominal thickness of tube plate shall not be less than 8mm where welding is
adopted for the connection of tube and tube plate; while that shall not be less than
10mm if the inside diameter of tube plate is larger than 1000mm.
9.4.5 The bridge shall not be less than 0.125d+12.5mm where expansion connection
is adopted for tube and tube plate. The clear distance of adjacent weld edges shall not
be less than 6mm in welding tube plate bridge unless postweld heat treatment is
carried out.
9.4.6 The distance between tube opening weld edge and flange starting point shall
not be less than 6mm. For expansion connection tube, the distance between the center
of tube opening and the starting point of flange shall not be less than 0.8d and shall
not be less than 0.5d+12mm.
9.4.7 For the tube plates contacting with flue gas which exceeds 600°C, measures
shall be taken to eliminate the interval for welded smoke gas or brace tube, and the
tube ends shall also meet the requirements of 10.5.8.
9.4.8 For firebox tube plates, where the firebox top plate is reinforced with beam
(Figure 33), the compressive strength of horizontal bridge shall also be verified
according to Formulas (80) and (81):
400
186( )i m
psS
S d R
(80)
భ
(81)
Where,
di  the inside diameter of smoke tube, mm;
s  the inner wall interval of firebox tube plate, mm;
S1  the transverse pitch length of tube opening, mm (see Figure 33).
The larger value calculated according to Formulas (76) and (80) shall be taken as the
thickness of firebox tube plate; the smaller value calculated according to Formulas (77)
and (81) is taken as the maximum permissible operating pressure.
9.5 Firebox top plate with reinforcing transverse beam
9.7.2 If the vertical tube row at the outermost side of Cochran boiler tube plate is
expansion connection tube, then the tube head of every other smoke tube shall be
welded according to the requirements of 10.5.8. It is not required if it is welded tube
opening. The other structural requirements for tube plate shall meet the relevant
requirements of 9.4.3~9.4.7.
9.7.3 The number of gusset plate shall be determined according to the calculated Z
value by Formula (87) if the cambered plate of tube plate is supported by gusset plate
(or other tension brace).
iEpDZ (87)
Where,
E  the maximum dimension of cambered plate from inner wall of shell to outer wall of
tube plate (Figure 35).
For back tube plate (combustor tube plate), the gusset plate at least shall be:
Z>25000 1 piece
Z>35000 2 pieces
Z>42000 3 pieces
For front tube plate (smoke tube plate), the gusset plate at least shall be:
Z>25000 1 piece
Z>47000 2 pieces
9.7.4 The thickness of the shell plate connected with both sides of tube plate shall at
least be 1.5mm larger than the thickness obtained by the Formula of cylindrical shell.
9.8 See Appendix B for the rectangular header
9.9 See Appendix C for the calculation for water tube plate
10 Tension Braces and Reinforcing Parts
10.1 This chapter specifies the design and calculation methods and structural
requirements for the component space between boiler parts, as well as tension braces
(draglink and brace tube, diagonal rod etc.) and reinforcing parts (gusset plate,
reinforcing transverse beam etc.).
10.2 Symbols and units
A  the supporting area of tension brace, mm;
d  the opening diameter, the dimension of elliptical opening at the direction of
corresponding pitch length, mm;
F  the nominal and actually measured sectional area of tension brace, mm2;
Fmin  the minimum required sectional area of tension brace, mm2;
hH  the calculating height of beam, mm;
KH  the coefficient;
Kw  the dimension of weld leg of pull rod, mm;
Lw  the length of weld, mm;
s  the inner wall interval of firebox tube plate, mm;
sH  the interval of reinforcing transverse beam in firebox top plate, mm;
α  the included angle of diagonal bar or gusset plate and flat tube plate, (°);
δ  the nominal thickness of tube plate, mm;
δb  the thickness of gusset plate, mm;
δH  the nominal thickness of reinforcing transverse beam on firebox top plate, mm;
δHmin  the minimum required thickness of reinforcing transverse beam, mm;
δ1  the thickness of brace tube, mm;
δw  the thickness of weld joint, mm.
10.3 Component space (see Figure 36)
10.3.1 Sufficient component space (the minimum distance between adjacent parts
with different temperature on flat plate) shall be left on flat plat to avoid the occurrence
of overlarge temperature difference stress.
10.3.2 The component space between outer wall of boiler furnace and outer wall of
smoke tube or between outer wall of boiler furnace and inner wall of shell shall not be
less than the value either 5% of shell inside diameter or 50mm which is larger, e.g.
100mm is taken where the 5% of shell inside diameter is larger than 100mm.
10.3.3 The component space between gusset plate end or draglink edge and the
outer wall of smoke tube shall not be less than 100mm.
10.3.4 The component space between inner wall of shell and outer wall of smoke
tube shall not be less than 40mm.
10.3.5 The component space between gusset plate end or draglink edge and outer
wall of boiler furnace generally shall not be less than 200mm. The component space
shall not be less than 250mm where the outside diameter of shell is larger than
1800mm and the length of boiler furnace is larger than 6000mm; while the component
space shall not be less than 150mm where the outside diameter of shell is less than
1400mm and the length of boiler furnace is less than 3000mm.
10.3.6 The component space under any other condition shall not be less than the
value either 3% of the shell inside diameter or 50mm which is larger, 100mm is taken
where 3% of the shell inside diameter is larger than 100mm.
10.3.7 The component space adjoining to the parts of corrugated boiler furnace,
corrugatedflat boiler furnace and diagonal bar may be 70% of the above specified; if
the end of corrugated boile...
...... (Above excerpt was released on 20190817, modified on 20210607, translated/reviewed by: Wayne Zheng et al.) Source: https://www.chinesestandard.net/PDF.aspx/GBT16508.32013
