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GB/T 16508.1-2013 (GB/T16508.1-2013)

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GB/T 16508.1-2013
ICS 27.060.30
J 98
Shell Boilers -- Part 1: General Requirements
Issued by: General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and
Standardization Administration Committee.
Table of Contents
Foreword ... 3
Introduction ... 4
1 Scope ... 5
2 Normative References ... 5
3 Terms and Definitions ... 7
4 Qualification and responsibilities ... 10
5 Definition of the Boiler Range ... 12
6 General Technical Requirements ... 18
7 Steam-water Quality ... 27
8 Requirements for Energy Conservation and Environment Protection ... 27
Appendix A (Normative) Declaration of Conformity and Revision for the
Standard ... 28
Shell Boilers -- Part 1: General Requirements
1 Scope
1.1 This Part of GB/T 16508 specifies the general technical requirements for the
material, design, fabrication, inspection, safety accessories, combustion system,
installation, operation, energy-saving and environment protection of stationary shell
1.2 This Part is applicable to the stationary pressure shell boilers with water as
medium, evaporating heating surface mainly arranged on shell OR boiler furnace
arranged in shell which meet the following conditions:
a) Steam boiler of which the water volume at the design normal water level is
greater than or equal to 30L, and the rated steam pressure is greater than or
equal to 0.1MPa (gauge pressure; the same below);
b) Hot-water boiler of which the rated outflow pressure is greater than or equal to
0.1Mpa, or the rated power is greater than or equal to 0.1MW.
1.3 This Part is not applicable to the following equipment:
a) Portable boiler (e.g. marine boiler, railway locomotive traction boiler);
b) Cooling devices required for equipment and process flow cooling;
c) Boiler for military use.
2 Normative References
The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this
document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated
references, the latest edition of the normative document (including any amendments)
GB/T 1576 Water Quality for Industrial Boilers
GB/T 1921 Parameters for Industrial Steam Boilers
GB/T 3166 Parameters for Hot Water Boilers
GB/T 2900.48 Electrotechnical Terminology of Boilers
GB 8978 Integrated Wastewater Discharge Standard
GB/T 10180 Thermal Performance Test Code for Industrial Boilers
GB/T 10863 Thermal Test Method for Gas Pass Heat Recovery Boiler
GB/T 12145 Quality Criterion of Water and Steam for Generating Unit and Steam
Power Equipment
GB 12348 Standard of Noise at Boundary of Industrial Enterprises
GB 13271 Emission Standard of Air Pollutants for Boiler
GB/T 16507 Water-tube Boilers
GB/T 16508.2 Shell Boilers - Part 2: Material
GB/T 16508.3 Shell Boilers - Part 3: Design and Strength Calculation
GB/T 16508.4 Shell Boilers - Part 4: Fabrication, Inspection and Acceptance
GB/T 16508.5 Shell Boilers - Part 5: Safety Appurtenances and Instruments
GB/T 16508.6 Shell Boilers - Part 6: Combustion Systems
GB/T 16508.7 Shell Boilers - Part 7: Installation
GB/T 16508.8 Shell Boilers - Part 8: Operation
GB/T 22395 Specification for Design of Boiler Steel Structures
GB 24747 Safety Technology Conditions for Heat Transfer Fluids
JB/T 6734 Strength Calculation Method for Boiler Fillet Weld
JB/T 6735 Calculation Method for Strength of Boiler Hanger Rod
NB/T 47013
(JB/T 4730)
Nondestructive Testing of Pressure Equipment
Safety release pressure
The pressure of safety valve upon releasing, also referred to as set pressure of safety
Hydrostatic test pressure
The pressure applied when conducting hydrostatic test for boiler system or pressure
component (part) as required.
Rated temperature
The working fluid temperature at the outlet which shall be ensured for long-term
continuous operation under specified design conditions.
Calculating temperature
The metal temperature of part set under normal operating conditions (the mean
temperature along the metal section of part).
Test temperature
The metal temperature of pressure part in pressure test.
Required thickness
The thickness of pressure part determined according to theoretical calculation formula.
Where necessary, thickness required by other loads shall also be calculated.
Design thickness
The highest fire line
The highest point of water-side under the erosion of flame or high-temperature flue
gas on the evaporating heating surface of boiler.
Component space
It means that adequate space must be provided between adjacent parts of different
wall temperatures on the tube plate so as to avoid overlarge temperature difference
4 Qualification and responsibilities
4.1 Qualification
4.1.1 Organization qualification
The fabrication, inspection, testing and installation organizations of boilers shall obtain
corresponding special equipment license qualification according to the requirements
of "Regulations on Safety Supervision over Special Equipment".
4.1.2 Personnel qualification The welding personnel of the boiler pressure parts shall be assessed
according to the requirements of relevant safety technical codes such as
"Examination Rules for Welding Operators of Special Equipment" and may be
engaged in the welding work within the acceptable project scope within the period of
validity after obtaining the "Special Equipment Operator Certificate". The non-destructive inspection personnel may only undertake
non-destructive testing with type and technical level corresponding to the qualification
certificate after obtaining the special equipment operator qualification certificate
according to the requirements of relevant technical codes. The operation personnel of boiler using organization shall be provided with
corresponding qualification required by safety technical codes.
4.2 Responsibilities
main pressure part, welding quality certificate, non-destructive testing report
and hydrostatic test report, etc.);
e) Installation instructions and operating instructions of boiler;
f) Significant design change information of pressure part;
g) Water flow diagram and hydrodynamic calculation sheet of hot-water boiler
(except natural-circulation shell boiler);
h) Fabrication, supervision and inspection certificate;
i) Technical information concerned with safety and energy conservation. For the fabricated boilers within the design service life, the fabrication
organization shall not only preserve the above technical information of delivery, but
also properly preserve the following technical documents for future reference:
a) Boiler design detail;
b) Material utilization list;
c) Fabrication process diagram or fabrication process card;
d) Welding process document;
e) Heat treatment process document;
f) Inspection and test record during fabrication process and after completion;
g) Fabrication, supervision and inspection certificate;
h) Permissible project selection record, etc.
4.2.3 Installation Organization
The installation organization shall carry out installation construction according to
relevant safety technical codes and standards as well as the boiler drawings and
installation instructions provided by the boiler manufacturer, and shall be responsible
for the construction safety and quality.
5 Definition of the Boiler Range
5.1 Boiler range
The range of boiler managed according to this Standard includes the boiler body,
within the range, safety accessory and combustion system, which are defined
steel M24~M48 RteL(Rtp0.2)/1.5
RteL(Rtp0.2) - the lower yield strength (or specified non-proportional elongation strength at high temperature) of steel at
design temperature, Mpa.
6.4 Design
6.4.1 Boiler structure
The boiler structure shall be determined according to parameters adopted such as
boiler evaporation, thermal power, operating pressure, operating temperature, fuel
characteristics and combustion mode. The selection of boiler structure shall meet the
relevant requirements of GB/T 16508.3.
6.4.2 Design calculation The boiler part shall be designed and calculated according to failure mode
following appropriate design criteria and design method. Boiler design calculation
mainly includes thermal calculation, flue-gas and air resistance calculation,
hydrodynamic force calculation, part strength calculation, etc. The design and calculation methods of boiler pressure parts shall meet the
relevant requirements of GB/T 16508.3, the strength calculation method for boiler fillet
weld shall meet the requirements of JB/T 6734, the calculation method for strength of
boiler hanger rod shall meet the requirements of JB/T 6735, and design calculation of
boiler steel structures shall meet the requirements of GB/T 22395. Where the boiler structure is subject to shell-water tube composite design,
the design and calculation of water tube type part shall meet the requirements of GB/T
16507. For the pressure part of which the structural dimension cannot be
determined by calculation according to GB/T 16508.3, its safety may be verified
through test or other calculation methods.
6.4.3 Calculating temperature
The calculating temperature of pressure part may be determined with three methods,
namely medium temperature, heat transfer calculation or measured temperature. The
loaded non-pressure part is determined according to the medium temperature of
calculated position and the ambient temperature.
6.4.4 Load Calculating loads which shall be considered during pressure part design are
C = C1 + C2 + C3 ……..…………………………………………… (1)
C - the additional thickness, mm;
C1 - the corrosion allowance, mm;
C2 - the manufacturing thickness reduction, mm;
C3 - the thickness tolerance of steels, mm. The corrosion allowance is determined according to the expected service life
of boiler and the corrosion rate of medium for metal material. Generally, only the
corrosion at working medium side is considered, while that at smoke side shall be
separately specified in order contract. Abrasion condition may be treated by reference
to this article. The manufacturing thickness reduction during manufacturing process is
determined according to specific conditions, e.g. plate rolling, stamping and bending
process. The thickness tolerance of steel plate and steel tube is determined according
to corresponding steel standards. Besides the strength, the rigidity of pressure part, the limit of minimum
thickness in manufacturing process, as well as the maximum thickness restricted by
thermal stress shall also be considered.
6.4.7 Welded joint coefficient The welded joint coefficient shall be determined according to the weld type
of butt joint and proportion of non-destructive testing. For butt joints by both sides welding and full penetration butt joints
equivalent to two-side welding (e.g. argon arc welding bottoming double-side forming
welded joints):
a) 100% non-destructive testing, φ=1.00;
b) Local non-destructive testing, φ=0.85. Single welded butt joint (subplate available along the root of weld)
etc.; the non-destructive testing method for boiler pressure parts shall meet the
requirements of NB/T 47013 (JB/T 4730).
X-ray real-time imaging for the butt joint of the tube shall be in accordance with the
relevant technical requirements.
Where Ultrasonic Time-of-Flight Diffraction Technique (TOFD) is adopted, pulse echo
method (PE) shall be combined for testing, and the test conclusion shall be
comprehensively judged according to the results of TOFD and PE.
6.7 Hydrostatic test
6.7.1 Basic requirements
After fabrication completion of boiler pressure parts or components, hydrostatic test
shall be carried out after non-destructive testing and heat treatment, and hydrostatic
test pressure of the parts or components shall not be lower than that of boiler body
corresponding to them; integral hydrostatic test shall be carried out on the packaged
boiler and the boiler installed at construction site. Hydrostatic test shall be carried out
according to the requirements of GB/T 16508.4.
6.7.2 Integral hydrostatic test
During integral hydrostatic test, test pressure is calculated according to Formula (2),
and then is compared with Table 3, the higher value taken as hydrostatic test pressure
and the pressure holding time is at least 20min.
   tT /25.1 pp  ……………………………………………….. (2)
pT - the test pressure, MPa;
p - the operating pressure, MPa;
[σ] - the permissible stress of the pressure part material under the test temperature,
[σ]t - the permissible stress of the pressure part material under design temperature,
Thereinto, materials used for each pressure component (part) are different, the
minimum value of the [σ]/[σ]t of each pressure component (part) material shall be
σT - the membrane stress of pressure part under test pressure, MPa;
pT - the test pressure, MPa;
Dn - the inside diameter of the pressure part, mm;
δe - the effective thickness of the pressure part, mm;
φ - the welded joint coefficient;
)( tp0.2teL RR - the lower yield strength (or specified non-proportional elongation strength)
of the pressure part material under test temperature, MPa;
6.8 Safety accessories and instruments
The safety and reliability of boiler shall be ensured by configured safety accessories
(safety valve, pressure gauge and water level gauge), alarm device, measuring
instruments and safety protection devices etc. Economic and environmental-friendly
properties of boiler shall be ensured by configured auxiliary equipment, e.g. water
supply, ventilation, coal delivery and de-slagging (dedusting). Configuration of safety
accessories and metering instrument shall meet the requirements of GB/T 16508.5.
6.9 Combustion system
The boiler's combustion system (including combustion equipment, fuel delivery
system, air supply system, smoke exhaust system, dedusting (de-slagging) device),
and all relevant control and monitoring equipment shall meet the requirements of
GB/T 16508.6.
6.10 Installation
Site installation, installation process inspection, commissioning and acceptance etc.
for boiler shall meet the requirements of GB/T 16508.7.
6.11 Operation
Operation and regulation of boiler shall meet the relevant requirements in GB/T
16508.8. Boiler using organization shall correctly use the boiler according to the
product operation and maintenance instructions of the fabrication organization.
(Above excerpt was released on 2019-08-17, modified on 2021-06-07, translated/reviewed by: Wayne Zheng et al.)
Source: https://www.chinesestandard.net/PDF.aspx/GBT16508.1-2013