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GB/T 15227-2007 PDF in English


GB/T 15227-2007 (GB/T15227-2007, GBT 15227-2007, GBT15227-2007)
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GB/T 15227-2007: PDF in English (GBT 15227-2007)

GB/T 15227-2007
GB
NATIONAL STANDARD OF THE
PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF CHINA
ICS 91.060.10
P 32
Replacing GB/T 15226-1994, GB/T 15227-1994, GB/T 15228-1994
Test method of air permeability, watertightness,
wind load resistance performance for curtain walls
ISSUED ON. SEPTEMBER 11, 2007
IMPLEMENTED ON. FEBRUARY 01, 2008
Issued by. General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and
Quarantine of the People's Republic of China;
Standardization Administration of the People's Republic of
China.
Table of Contents
Foreword ... 3
1 Scope ... 6
2 Normative references ... 6
3 Terms and definitions ... 6
4 Test ... 9
5 Test report ... 30
Annex A (informative) Maximum allowable relative frontal deflection f0 of main
components of the curtain wall specimen under the wind load standard value
... 32
Annex B (informative) Examples of layout of displacement meters for typical
curtain walls ... 33
Annex C (informative) Test report on air permeability, watertightness and wind
load resistance performance of curtain walls ... 37
Foreword
This Standard replaces GB/T 15226-1994 “Test method of air permeability
performance for building curtain walls”, GB/T 15227-1994 “Test method of
deformation under wind load for building curtain walls” and GB/T 15228-1994
“Test method of water penetration performance for building curtain walls”.
- The main revisions of this Standard to GB/T 15226-1994 “Test method of
air permeability performance for building curtain walls” are as follows.
1. The “air leakage” performance in the standard name is changed to “air
permeability” performance;
2. ADD the content of testing the volume of air flow under negative pressure
difference;
3. MAKE specific requirements for the measurement accuracy of the main
components and the main instruments of the test apparatus;
4. REDUCE the number of pressurization levels during the test;
5. ADD the test method for the overall air permeability performance of
curtain walls;
6. ADD the measurement method for the volume of extraneous leakage
and propose the limits of the volume of extraneous leakage.
7. ADD the calculation method for the volume of air flow through a unit area.
- The main revisions of this Standard to GB/T 15227-1994 “Test method of
deformation under wind load for building curtain walls” are as follows.
1. The “rainwater leakage” performance in the standard name is changed
to “watertightness” performance;
2. MAKE specific requirements for the measurement accuracy of the main
components and the main instruments of the test apparatus;
3. ADD the requirements for the pressure raising speed;
4. USE 1/4 test pressure AS the amplitude of fluctuating pressurization;
5. SPECIFY the scope of use of fluctuating pressurization;
6. PROPOSE the specifications for the engineering testing method for
watertightness performance.
Test method of air permeability, watertightness, wind
load resistance performance for curtain walls
1 Scope
This Standard specifies the terms and definitions, test and test reports for the
test method of air permeability, watertightness and wind load resistance
performance of curtain walls.
This Standard applies to the test of air permeability, watertightness and wind
load resistance performance of curtain walls. The test object is limited to the
curtain wall specimen itself and does not involve the joints between the curtain
wall and other structures.
2 Normative references
The following documents contain the provisions which, through reference in this
Standard, become the provisions of this Standard. For dated references, their
subsequent amendments (excluding corrigendum) or revisions do not apply to
this Standard. However, the parties who enter into agreement based on this
Standard are encouraged to investigate whether the latest versions of these
documents are applicable. For undated reference documents, the latest
versions apply to this Standard.
GB/T 21086 Curtain wall for building
GB 50178 Standard of climatic regionalization for architecture
3 Terms and definitions
For the purpose of this Standard, the following terms and definitions apply.
3.1
air permeability performance
Ability of the openable part and the overall curtain wall to prevent the air from
permeating, when the openable part of the curtain wall is in the closed state.
3.1.1
Area of the plane or curved surface enclosed by the joint between the perimeter
and the tank of the curtain wall specimen. It is based on the measured value of
the indoor surface.
3.1.8
volume of air flow through a unit area
Under the standard condition, the volume of air flow through a unit area of the
curtain wall specimen per unit time.
3.2
watertightness performance
Ability to prevent the leakage of rainwater under the action of wind and rain,
when the openable part of the curtain wall is in the closed state.
3.2.1
serious water leakage
Phenomenon that rainwater continuously or repeatedly permeates into the
indoor side of the specimen from the outdoor side of the curtain wall specimen,
and splashes or flows out of the specimen interface.
3.2.2
pressure difference under serious water leakage
Pressure difference when the curtain wall specimen has serious water leakage.
3.2.3
volume of water spray
Volume of water sprayed onto a unit area of the curtain wall specimen surface.
3.3
wind load resistance performance
When the openable part of the curtain wall is in the closed state and under the
action of wind load, ability of the curtain wall that the deformation does not
exceed the allowable value and there is not functional disorder such as
structural damage (e.g.. cracks, panel damage, local yielding, bonding failure,
etc.) and loosening of hardware, difficulty in opening,
g - specimen;
h - installation crossbar.
Figure 1 -- Schematic diagram of the test apparatus for air permeability
performance
4.1.2.2 The dimension of the opening of the pressure tank shall be sufficient to
meet the requirements for the installation of the specimen. The tank shall be
able to withstand the pressure difference that may occur during the test.
4.1.2.3 The installation crossbar that supports the curtain wall shall have
sufficient rigidity and shall be fixed on a supporting structure with sufficient
rigidity.
4.1.2.4 The air supply equipment shall be able to apply positive and negative
two-way pressure differences and shall be able to reach the maximum pressure
difference required for the test. The pressure control device shall be able to
regulate a stable pressure difference.
4.1.2.5 The two measuring points of the differential pressure gauge shall be
arranged close to each other on both sides of the specimen, and the accuracy
of the differential pressure gauge shall reach 2 % of the ostensive value.
4.1.2.6 The measurement error of the air flow meter shall not exceed 5 % of
the ostensive value.
4.1.3 Requirements for specimens
4.1.3.1 The specifications, model numbers, materials, etc. of the specimen shall
be the same as those of the diagram provided by the manufacturer. The
installation of specimens shall meet the design requirements. It shall not add
any special attachments or take other measures. The specimens shall be dry.
4.1.3.2 The width of the specimen shall include at least one vertical member
subjected to the design load. The height of the specimen shall include at least
one story height. There shall be two or more than two connections to the load-
bearing structure in the vertical direction. The force conditions of assembly and
installation of the specimen shall be consistent with the actual conditions.
4.1.3.3 A unitary curtain wall shall consist of at least one typical cross joint that
corresponds to the actual engineering and has a complete-unit quadrilateral
that forms the same joint as the actual engineering.
4.1.3.4 The specimen shall include typical vertical joints, horizontal joints and
openable parts. Make the ratio of the openable part of the specimen to the total
area of the specimen close to that of the actual engineering.
leakage of the tank shall not be higher than 20 % of the volume of air flow of
the specimen, otherwise it shall be retested after treatment.
4.1.4.3.2 Volume of air flow qz
REMOVE the sealing measures on the specimen after the test. The test
procedure is the same as 4.1.4.3.1.
4.1.4.3.3 Volume of air flow of fixed part qg
SEAL the opening joint of the openable part of the specimen before the test.
The test procedure is the same as 4.1.4.3.1.
NOTE. It is allowed to adjust the test procedure of 4.1.4.3.2 and 4.1.4.3.3.
4.1.5 Processing of tested values
4.1.5.1 Calculation
a) Respectively CALCULATE the average value 𝑞௙തതത of the values of two
volume of extraneous leakage tests, the average value 𝑞௭തതത of the values
of two volume of air flow tests, and the average value 𝑞௚തതത of the values of
two volume of air flow of the fixed part tests during pressure raising and
falling process of the positive pressure test and under the pressure
difference of 100 Pa. Then the volume of air flow of the overall curtain wall
specimen (including the openable part) qt and the volume of air flow of the
openable part qk under the pressure difference of 100 Pa are calculated
according to equation (1).
where.
qt - the volume of air flow of the overall curtain wall specimen (including
the openable part), m3/h;
𝑞௭തതത - the average value of the values of two volume of air flow tests,
m3/h;
𝑞௙തതത - the average value of the values of two volume of extraneous
leakage tests, rn3/h;
qk - the volume of air flow of the openable part of the specimen, m3/h;
𝑞௚തതത - the average value of the values of two volume of air flow of the
fixed part tests, m3/h.
4.2.2.4 The air supply equipment shall be able to apply a positive and negative
two-way pressure difference and to reach the maximum pressure difference
required for the test. The pressure control device shall be able to regulate a
stable pressure difference and to provide a stable fluctuating wind load in a
period of 3 s to 5 s; the wave peaks and troughs of the fluctuating wind load
shall meet the test requirements.
4.2.2.5 The two measuring points of the differential pressure gauge shall be
arranged close to each other on both sides of the specimen. The accuracy shall
be 2 % of the ostensive value. The response speed of the air supply system
shall meet the requirements of the fluctuating air pressure measurement. The
output signal of the differential pressure gauge shall be recorded by a chart
recorder or a device that can display pressure changes.
4.2.2.6 The water spray equipment shall be able to spray evenly onto the
outdoor surface of the specimen with a volume of water spray of not less than
4 L/(m2 • min). The nozzles shall be arranged evenly and the distance between
each nozzle and the specimen should be equal; the volume of water spray shall
be adjustable, and there shall be measures to ensure the uniformity of the
volume of water spray.
4.2.3 Requirements for specimens
4.2.3.1 The specifications, model numbers, materials, etc. of the specimen shall
be the same as those of the diagram provided by the manufacturer. The
installation of specimens shall meet the design requirements. It shall not add
any special attachments or take other measures. The specimens shall be dry.
4.2.3.2 The width of the specimen shall include at least one vertical member
subjected to the design load. The height of the specimen shall include at least
one story height. There shall be two or more than two connections to the load-
bearing structure in the vertical direction. The force conditions of assembly and
installation of the specimen shall be consistent with the actual conditions.
4.2.3.3 A unitary curtain wall shall consist of at least one typical cross joint that
corresponds to the actual engineering and has a complete-unit quadrilateral
that forms the same joint as the actual engineering.
4.2.3.4 The specimen shall include typical vertical joints, horizontal joints and
openable parts. Make the ratio of the openable part of the specimen to the total
area of the specimen close to that of the actual engineering.
4.2.4 Test methods
4.2.4.1 Preparation before test
the installation crossbar by means of connectors. Under the effect of the curtain
wall's own weight, the in-plane deformation of the crossbar shall not exceed 5
mm; the out-of-plane deformation of the installation crossbar under the
maximum test wind load shall be less than 1/1000 of its span.
4.3.2.5 Point-supported curtain walls and all-glass curtain walls should have
independent installing frames. Under the effect of the maximum test pressure
difference, the deformation of the installing frame shall not affect the
performance of the curtain wall. Under the action of the curtain wall's own
weight, the in-plane deformation at the hanging position shall not exceed 5 mm.
For point-supported curtain walls using the tension cable-bar system, under the
action of the maximum pre-tension force, the maximum deformation of the
force-loaded part of the installing frame in the pre-tension direction shall be less
than 3 mm.
4.3.2.6 The air supply equipment shall be able to apply positive and negative
two-way pressures and shall be able to reach the maximum pressure difference
required for the test. The pressure control device shall be able to regulate a
stable pressure difference and shall be able to reach the pressure difference at
the specified time.
4.3.2.7 The two measuring points of the differential pressure gauge shall be
arranged close to each other on both sides of the specimen. The accuracy shall
reach 1 % of the ostensive value. The output signal of the differential pressure
gauge shall be recorded by a chart recorder or a device that can display
pressure changes.
4.3.2.8 The accuracy of the displacement meter shall reach 0.25 % of full scale.
The installing bracket of the displacement meter shall have sufficient tightening
during the test, and shall ensure that the displacement measurement is not
affected by the deformation or movement of the specimen and its supporting
facilities.
4.3.2.9 The outside of the specimen shall have safety net or other safety
measures.
4.3.3 Requirements for specimens
4.3.3.1 The specifications, model numbers, materials, etc. of the specimen shall
be the same as those of the diagram provided by the manufacturer. The
installation of specimens shall meet the design requirements. It shall not add
any special attachments or take other measures.
4.3.3.2 The specimen shall be of sufficient dimension and configuration to
represent the performance of typical parts.
calculate the pressure ±P1 at which the frontal deflection corresponds to f0/2.5.
The value of P1 is the pressure difference with a small absolute value in positive
and negative pressure test.
4.3.4.4.2 Deformation test during engineering testing
In engineering testing, the test pressure raises and falls level by level. The
pressure difference of each level of rise and fall shall not exceed 10 % of the
standard value of the wind load, and the pressure effect time of each level shall
not be less than 10 s. When the pressure rises and falls to 40 % of the standard
value of the wind load on the curtain wall, the test is stopped, and record the
frontal displacement at each measuring point under each level of pressure
difference.
4.3.4.5 Repeated pressurization test
The test pressure difference P2 (P2 = 1.5P1) is taken as the average value, and
1/4 of the average value is taken as the amplitude, to carry out the fluctuation
test, and carry out the positive and negative pressure test successively. The
fluctuating pressure period is 5 s ~ 7 s, the number of fluctuations is not less
than 10 times. RECORD repeated test pressure value ±P2, and RECORD the
condition and position of functional disorder or damage.
4.3.4.6 Safety test
4.3.4.6.1 Conditions for safety test
When functional disorder or damage does not occur in the repeated
pressurization test, a safety test shall be carried out. During the safety test, after
the positive and negative pressure difference is applied, the openable part of
the specimen shall be closed and opened not less than 5 times and finally
closed. The pressure raising and falling speed is 300 Pa/s to 500 Pa/s, and the
pressure duration is not less than 3 s.
4.3.4.6.2 Safety test during grade testing
The test pressure is raised to P3 (P3 = 2.5P1), then fallen to zero, then fallen to
-P3, and then raised to zero. The pressure raising and falling speed is 300 Pa/s
to 500 Pa/s. RECORD the frontal displacement, condition and position of
functional disorder or damage.
4.3.4.6.3 Safety test during engineering testing
P3 corresponds to the wind load standard value required by the design. The
test pressure difference is raised to P3, then fallen to zero, then fallen to -P3,
and then raised to zero. RECORD the frontal displacement, condition and
position of functional disorder or damage. When there are special requirements,
used as the grade value of the wind load resistance performance of the curtain
wall; when the specimen is functionally disordered or damaged during the test,
it shall indicate the condition and position of the functional disorder and damage,
and it shall take the pressure value of the previous level of the pressure
difference at the time of functional disorder or damage AS the grade value.
In engineering testing, when the corresponding relative frontal deflection under
the wind load standard value is less than or equal to the allowable deflection f0,
and when the specimen is not functionally disordered or damaged, it shall be
determined as meeting the engineering requirements; when the corresponding
relative frontal deflection under the wind load standard value is greater than the
allowable deflection f0 or the specimen is functionally disordered or damaged
during the test, it shall indicate the condition and position of the functional
disorder or damage, and it shall be determined as not meeting the engineering
requirements.
5 Test report
The test report format is shown in Annex C. The test report shall include at least
the following contents.
a) Name, series, model, major dimension and drawing of the specimen
(including facade, section and major nodes of specimen, cross-section of
profile and sealing strip, position of drainage structure and drainage holes,
supporting system of specimen, dimension of main force member,
opening method for the openable part, type, quantity and position of
hardware).
b) Type, thickness, maximum dimension and installing method of the panel.
c) Material and grade of the sealing material.
d) Name, material and configuration of the attachment.
e) Ratio of the openable part of the specimen to the total area of the
specimen.
f) Design value of cable pretension for point-supported glass curtain walls.
g) Pressurization method for watertightness test, condition and position of
leakage. In grade testing, the grade shall be indicated. In engineering
testing, the test conclusion shall be indicated.
h) Main equipment for test.
i) Temperature and pressure of test room.
......
 
Source: Above contents are excerpted from the PDF -- translated/reviewed by: www.chinesestandard.net / Wayne Zheng et al.