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GB/T 13217.4-2020 PDF in English


GB/T 13217.4-2020 (GB/T13217.4-2020, GBT 13217.4-2020, GBT13217.4-2020)
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GB/T 13217.4-2020: PDF in English (GBT 13217.4-2020)

GB/T 13217.4-2020
GB
NATIONAL STANDARD OF THE
PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF CHINA
ICS 87.080
Y 44
Replacing GB/T 13217.4-2008
Test method for viscosity of ink
ISSUED ON: NOVEMBER 19, 2020
IMPLEMENTED ON: JUNE 01, 2021
Issued by: State Administration for Market Regulation;
Standardization Administration of PRC.
Table of Contents
Foreword ... 3 
1 Scope ... 4 
2 Normative references ... 4 
3 Viscometer method by No.4 cup ... 4 
4 Viscometer method by Zahn cup ... 6 
5 Rotational viscometer method ... 7 
6 Falling stick viscometer method ... 9 
7 Parallel plate viscometer method ... 13 
Test method for viscosity of ink
1 Scope
This standard specifies the testing methods for ink viscosity, including the
coated No.4 cup viscometer method, the Zahn cup viscometer method, the
coaxial cylindrical rotary viscometer method, the cone-plate viscometer method,
the falling stick viscometer method, the parallel plate viscometer method.
This standard applies to inks whose viscosity ranges from 0.001 Pa·s to 200
Pa·s.
2 Normative references
The following documents are essential to the application of this document. For
the dated documents, only the versions with the dates indicated are applicable
to this document; for the undated documents, only the latest version (including
all the amendments) are applicable to this standard.
GB/T 1723 Determination of viscosity of coatings
GB/T 3186 Paints varnishes and raw materials for paints and varnishes -
Sampling
GB/T 9751.1 Paints and varnishes - Determination of viscosity using rotary
viscometers - Part1: Cone-and-plate viscometer operated at a high rate of
shear
GB/T 10247 Methods of viscosity measurement
GB/T 14624.3 Test method for fluidity of offset ink
GB/T 22770 Graphic technology - Determination of rheological properties of
paste inks and vehicles by the falling rod viscometer
ASTM D4212 Standard test method for viscosity by dip-type viscosity cups
3 Viscometer method by coated No.4 cup
3.1 Principle
For a certain amount of ink specimen, at a certain temperature, the time it takes
4 Viscometer method by Zahn cup
4.1 Principle
For a certain amount of ink specimen, at a certain temperature, the time it takes
to flow out of a hole with a specified diameter is the viscosity of the ink specimen,
expressed in s/Zahn cup number.
4.2 Scope of application
It is suitable for testing liquid inks.
4.3 Tools and materials
4.3.1 Zahn cup viscometer: It is in accordance with ASTM D4212; the
measurement range shall be less than 80 s.
4.3.2 Thermometer: The temperature range is 0 °C ~ 50 °C; the graduation
value is 0.1 °C.
4.3.3 Scrubbing solvent: Different system liquid inks use the same series of
special solvents.
4.4 Testing conditions
The testing shall be carried out under constant ambient temperature (23 ± 2) °C.
4.5 Testing steps
4.5.1 Select a representative specimen to be tested according to the provisions
of GB/T 3186; wipe the inner wall of the viscosity cup and the leaking nozzle
clean; hold the viscosity cup horizontally; use finger to block the leaking nozzle;
pour the specimen which was stir evenly and adjusted to the temperature of (25
± 0.2) °C into the viscosity cup, until it is flush with the edge of the viscosity cup;
use glass rod to scrape off the air bubbles; reset the stopwatch to zero.
4.5.2 Release the finger and turn on the stopwatch at the same time. When the
specimen flow is interrupted and the first drop appears, stop timekeeping. At
this time, the time indicated by the stopwatch is the viscosity of the ink specimen.
4.6 Test results
The test shall be carried out twice in parallel; the difference between the
measured value and the average of the two measurements shall be less than
5%, the average of the two test results is the viscosity of the ink specimen.
During the test, select the appropriate Zahn cup number, to facilitate the
shortened to 10 minutes), record the data when the reading on the instrument
is stable. Test again and record the data.
5.1.6 Test results
Check the two test results; the difference between the measured value and the
average of the two measurements shall be less than 5%, then the average of
the two test results is the viscosity of the ink specimen.
During the test, select the appropriate rotor or speed to accurately test the
viscosity of the ink specimen.
5.2 Cone-plate viscometer method
5.2.1 Principle
Cone-plate viscometer is a kind of rotary viscometer. The tested specimen is
between the two plates; the cone-plate is driven to rotate due to the
intermolecular friction. The greater the friction, the greater the viscosity of the
specimen. The unit is expressed in cP (1 cP = 10-3 Pa·s).
5.2.2 Scope of application
It is suitable for testing pasty inks.
5.2.3 Tools and materials
5.2.3.1 Cone-plate viscometer: It is in accordance with GB/T 9751.1; the
measuring range is 0.001 Pa·s ~ 200 Pa·s.
5.2.3.2 Thermometer: The temperature range is 0 °C ~ 50 °C; the graduation
value is 0.1 °C.
5.2.3.3 Scrubbing solvent: Liquid inks of different systems use the same special
solvents.
5.2.4 Testing conditions
The testing shall be carried out under constant ambient temperature (23 ± 2) °C.
5.2.5 Testing procedure
5.2.5.1 Check whether the instrument is clean before measurement; turn on the
power switch; perform preheating and calibration.
5.2.5.2 Set the instrument at constant temperature (25 ± 0.2) °C; set the
preheating and test time; select a suitable rotor.
5.2.5.3 Select a representative specimen to be tested according to the
6.5.1 Select a representative specimen to be tested according to the provisions
of GB/T 3186; use an ink mixer to mix about 5 g of the specimen thoroughly;
adjust it to the test temperature of (25 ± 0.2) °C; the specimen shall be uniform
and without any rough particles. The selection of the load weight shall refer to
the viscosity of the specimen; the maximum load weight shall generally be such
that the fall time is within the range of 4 s ~ 10 s. The amount of the specimen
shall be enough to fill the gap between the falling stick and the pores of the ring;
meanwhile it shall be smeared on the lower part of the stick. Before starting the
test, rotate the falling stick to distribute the specimen evenly. Use the maximum
load to carry out a test. At this time, the falling stick and the periphery of pores
are all wetted by the specimen.
6.5.2 Insert the falling stick into the hole of the ring to the support piece and
make it stand still. Select a series of load weights for testing, the longest falling
time is not more than 60 s; after each operation, use an ink mixer to scrap off
the specimen on the falling stick; recoat it on the lower part of the stick. No other
liquid shall be added during the test. The temperature of the specimen shall be
checked before and after the test.
6.5.3 In accordance with the operation steps of 6.5.2, repeat the test three times;
then record the data.
6.5.4 After the test is completed, the instrument shall be cleaned immediately
by the use of a lint-free cloth and a suitable solvent.
6.6 Calculation method
6.6.1 Shear stress
Shear stress is the force acting on a unit area and parallel to the acting surface;
the unit is Pa.
For the falling stick viscometer, the shear stress is proportional to the total
amount of the stick and the applied load, which is calculated according to
formula (1):
Where:
σ - Shear stress, in Pascal (Pa);
W - The total weight of the stick and the applied load, in Newton (N);
A - Apparent shearing area, in square meters (m2);
L - The falling distance of the falling stick (the distance between the start
point and the end point of the timekeeping), in meters (m).
6.7 Test results
Calculate the ink specimen's viscosity according to formula (5); the relative
deviation of the three test results shall be less than 20%, then the average of
the three test results is the ink specimen's viscosity.
7 Parallel plate viscometer method
7.1 Principle
The parallel plate viscometer can test the flow of ink specimens between two
parallel plates under low shear force. During the spreading process of the ink
specimen, the shear stress σ between the plate and the ink specimen is related
to the weight P of the upper plate of the parallel viscometer and the spreading
radius r of the ink column at a given time t; whilst the shear rate γ of the
corresponding ink specimen is related to the spreading radius r of the ink
specimen at a given time t and the time change rate dr/dt (SL) corresponding
to r. σ and γ can be used to calculate the viscosity ηa of the ink specimen.
7.2 Scope of application
It is suitable for testing pasty inks.
7.3 Tools and materials
7.3.1 Parallel plate viscometer: It is in accordance with GB/T 14624.3; the
measuring range is 0.001 Pa·s ~ 200 Pa·s.
7.3.2 Thermometer: The temperature range is 0 °C ~ 50 °C; the graduation
value is 0.1 °C.
7.3.3 Scrubbing solvent: Different system liquid inks use the same series of
special solvents.
7.4 Testing conditions
The testing shall be carried out under constant temperature (23 ± 2) °C.
7.5 Testing procedure
7.5.1 Before testing, check whether the instrument is clean; level it so that the
instrument is in the leveling state.
7.5.2 Remove the upper pressing parallel plate; raise the falling columns on
......
 
Source: Above contents are excerpted from the PDF -- translated/reviewed by: www.chinesestandard.net / Wayne Zheng et al.